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THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST 


edition, 


published in 


three volumes, 


1768—1771. 


SECOND 


>y 


>» 


ten „ 


1777— 1784. 


THIRD 


>f 


■>■■ 


eighteen „ 


1788— 1797. 


FOURTH 


» 


tt 


twenty „ 


1801 — 1810. 


FIFTH 


>» 


i> 


twenty „ 


1815—1817. 


SIXTH 


>» 


)» 


twenty „ 


1823 — 1824. 


SEVENTH 


») 


» 


twenty-one „ 


1830 — 1842. 


EIGHTH 


tj 


s» 


twenty-two „ 


1853— 1860. 


NINTH 


» 


>» 


twenty-five ,, 


1875— 1889. 


TENTH 


)» 


ninth edition and eleven 








supplementary volumes, 


1902 — 1903. 


ELEVENTH 


)> 


published in 


twenty-nine volumes, 


1910 — 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 

by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXV 

SHUVALOV to SUBLIMINAL SELF 



New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 
342 Madison Avenue 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A. B. 6. 
A, C. McG. 

A. D. 
A. De. 

A. E. H. 
A. E. S. 
A. F. E. 
A. F. P. 

A. Go.* 

A. Ha. 

A. H. S. 
A. JT. G. 

A. Ma. 

A. Mel. 
A. M. C. 
A. M. F.* 



Rev. Alexander Balloch Grosart, LL.D., D.D. 

See the biographical article: Grosart, Alexander Balloch. 



f Stirling, William Alexander, 
I Earl of (in part). 



Arthur Cushman McGieeertM.A., Ph.D., D.D f { Socrates (Church Historian) 

Professor ofChurch History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of J , ■ . .\ . 



History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia 
of Eusebius. 



Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Dobson, H. Austin. 



Sozomen (in part). 

C Steele, Sir Richard (in part) ; 
1 Sterne, Laurence (in part). 



Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S. f 

Professor of Zoology in King's College, London. Zoological Secretary of the J gnoiiffes 

Linnean Society of London. Author of memoirs on systematic zoology, com- | p ° ' 

parative anatomy, embryology, &c. I 

A. E. Houghton. f 

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the -s Spain: History (in part). 
Bourbons in Spain. I 

Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc, i .R.S. . . J Sipunculoidea; 

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University, "i Smith William Robertson. 
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. I ' 

Allen F. Everett. f Signal: Marine Signalling 

Commander, R.N. Formerly Superintendent of the Signal School, H.M.S. "Victory," T a n j, ar i) 
Portsmouth. I ^ " 



Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. 

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the Uni- 
versity of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 
1 893-1 90 1. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas 
Cranmer; &c. 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. 



Somerset, Edward 
Duke of. 



Socinus. 



Seymour, 



Adolf Harnack, D.Ph. 

See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf. 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.D., LL.D. 
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H. 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. 

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, 
Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore 
Educational Service. 

Alexander Macalister, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's 
College. Formerly Professor of Zoology in the University of Dublin. Author of 
Text-Book of Human Anatomy; &c. 

Arthur Mellor. 

Of Messrs J. & T. Brocklehurst & Sons, Silk Manufacturers, Macclesfield. 

Agnes Mary Clerke. 

See the biographical article: Clerke, Agnes M. 



(Socrates (Church Historian) 
(in part); 
Sozomen (in part). 



{si; 



Sippara. 



Smyth, John. 



Stigmatization. 



f Silk: Spinning of "Silk 
\ Waste." 

( Smyth, Charles Piazzi; 
\ Stone, Edward James. 



Arthur Mostyn Field, F.R.S. , F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.Met.S. f 

Vice-Admiral, R.N. Admiralty Representative on Port of London Authority, i Sounding. 
Hydrographer of the Royal Navy, 1904-1909. i 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

V 



VI 

A. M.-Fa. 

A.N. 
A. P. H. 

A. S.* 

A. So. 

A. S. E. 
A. S. P.-P. 

A. W. H.* 

A. W. P. 

B. B. A. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



B. 


K.* 


B. 


W. G. 


C. 


A. G. B 


C. 


B.* 


C. 


D. W. 


c. 


F. A. 


c. 


H.* 


c. 


H. Ha. 


c. 


L. K. 


c. 


P.* 


c 


Pa. 


c 


Pf. 



0. R. B. 



Alfred Morel-Fatio. 

Professor of Romance Languages at the College de France, Paris. Member of the . 
Institute of France; Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Secretary of the ficole 
des Chartes, 1885-1906; &c. Author of L'Espagne au XVI' et au XVII' siecles. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 

Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P. 

Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 
1 878-1 879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa' 
till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at 
Pretoria, 1895-1896. M P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910. 

Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., Ph.D., D.Sc. 

Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester, 1 888-1 907. President of *he 
International Association of Seismology. Author of Theory of Optics and papers in 
the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society. 

Albrecht Socin, Ph.D. (1844-1899). 

Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tubingen. 
Author of Arabische Grammatik; &c. 



Spain: Language (in part), 
and Literature (in part). 

Siskin; Skimmer; Skua; 
Snake-bird; Snipe; Sparrow; 
Spoonbill; Stilt; Stork. 



South Africa: History 

(in part). 



Spectroscopy. 

Sinai: The Biblical Mount 

Sinai. 



Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc, F.R.A.S. j 

Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Fellow of Trinity College, 1 Star. 

Cambridge. '- 

Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. |" 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Giffcrd J _ . 

Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 191 1. Fellow of the British Academy. 1 Spinoza. 

Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The philosophical Radicals; &c. I 



Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College. Oxford. 



Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 



Alfred Wallis Paul, CLE. 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1 870-1 895. Political Officer, Sikkim Expedition. . 
British Commissioner under Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1890. Deputy Com- 
missioner of Darjeeling. 

Braman Blanchard Adams. 

Associate Editor of the Railway Age Gazette, New York. 

Benjamin Kidd, D.C.L. 

Author of Social Evolution; Principles of Western Civilization; &c. 

Benedict William Ginsburg, M.A., LL.D. 

St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. 
Formerly Editor of the Navy, and Secretary of the Royal Statistical Society. 
Authcr of Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters; &c. 

Sir Cyprian Arthur George Bridge, G.C.B. 

Admiral R.N. Commander-in-Chief, China Station, 1901-1904. Director of. 
Naval Intelligence, 1889 1894. Author of The Art of Naval Warfare; Sea-Power 
and other Studies; &c. 



Sidmouth, Viscount. 



Sikkim. 



f Signal: Army Signalling (in 
■\ part), and Railway Signal- 
<- ling (in part). 

j Sociology. 
Steamship Lines. 



Charles Bemont, Litt.D. (Oxon.). 

See the biographical article: Bemont, Charles. 

Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright. 

See the biographical article: Wright, Hon. Carroll Davidson. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor. 

Sir Charles Holroyd, Litt. D. 

See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir Charles. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York. Member of 
the American Historical Association. 

Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist. Soc, F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor 
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 

Carl Pulfrich, Ph.D. 

On the staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena. Formerly Privatdozent at the 
University of Bonn. Member of the Astronomical Societies of Brussels and Paris. 

Cesare Paoli. 

See the biographical article: Paoli, Cesare. 

Christian Pfister, D. is L. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
£tudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duche merovingien d' Alsace et la legende 
de Sainte-Odile. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 



J Signal: Marine Signalling 
1 (in part). 

i Sorel, Albert. 

Strikes and Lock-outs: 

United States. 

Spanish Succession, War of 

(in part). 



I Strang, William. 

Sixtus, IV.; 
Stiiicho, Flavius. 

J Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, 
1 Duke of. 



Stereoscope. 
Siena (in part). 
Sigebert, King. 



Simon of St Quentin; 
Sindbad the Sailor, Voyages of. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



vn 



c. s. s. 



c. w. w. 



D. F. T. 



D. G. H. 



Charles Scott Sherrington, M.A., D.Sc, M.D., F.R.S., LL.D. 

Professor of Physiology in the University of Liverpool. Author of The Integrative 
Action of the Nervous System. 

Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R S. (1836-1907). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1 886-1 894. Director-General 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Clive; &c. 



Spinal Cord: Physiology. 



Sivas {in part). 



Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 
1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 



D. H. 

D. M. W. 

E. A. 
E. A. F. 
E. C. B. 

E. G. 

E. H. M. 
Ed. M. 
E. Ms. 
E. M. S. 

E. H. T. 

E.O.* 
E.Pr. 

E.W.H. 

F. A. B. 



David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 

Navy ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 



Author of Short History of the Royal 



J Sonata Forms; 
[ Spohr, Ludwig. 

Side; Sis; 
Sivas (in part); 
Smyrna (in part); 
Soli (Asia Minor). 

Sluys, Battle of; 

Spain: History (in part); 

Spanish Succession, War of: 

Naval and Military Opera- 
tions; 
Spinola, Ambrose. 



Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign 
Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International 
and Officier de l'lnstruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of the New Volumes 
(10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the 
Egyptian Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c. 

Edward Arber, D.Litt., F.S.A. 

See the biographical article: Arber, Edward. 

Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biqgraphical article : Freeman, E. A. 

Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., 
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 



Shuvalov, Count. 



M.A., D.Litt. 

' The Lausiac History of Palladius ' 



Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund. 



Smith, John (1579-1631). 
Sicily: History (in part). 

I Silvestrines; 

[ Simeon Stylites, St. 

Song (Literary); 

Stanley, Thomas; 
f Stevenson, Robert Louis; 
[ Style. 



Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant 
Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 



Slavs; 
Slovaks; 
Slovenes; Sorbs. 

Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt., LL.D. f 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des -j Smerdis. 
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. [_ 

Edward Manson. f 

Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of the Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author -I Stocks and Shares. 
of Law of Trading Companies ; Practical Guide to Company Law ; &c. [ 

Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick (Mrs Henry Sidgwick), D.Litt., LL.D. f 

Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, 1892-1910. Hon. Secretary to the J . ., 
Society for Psychical Research. Author of Papers in the Proceedings of the Society 1 Spiritualism. 
for Psychical Research. L 

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Director and Principal Librarian. British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader 
in Bibliography, Cambridge University, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University J 
College, Oxford. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of 
the Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society 
the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles. 



Stichometry. 



Skull: Cranial Surgery 
Spinal Cord (Surgery) ; 
Stomach. 

Silva, Antonio J. da; 
Sousa, Luiz de. 



Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edgar Prestage. f 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com- J 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal 1 
Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society ; &c. I 

Ernest William Hobson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. f . 

Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ's College, Cambridge. Stokes Lecturer in -j Spherical Harmonics, 
Mathematics in the University. I 

Francis Arthur Bather, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Assistant Keeper of Geology, British Museum. Rolleston Prizeman, Oxford, 1892. -j Starfish. 
Author of " Echinoderma " in A Treatise on Zoology; Triassic Echinoderms of 
Bakony; &c. 



Vlll 

F. C. S. S. 

F. G. M. B. 
F. G. P. 

F. J. H. 

F. J. S. 
F. LI. G. 

F. L. L. 

F. N. M. 

F. Po. 
F. R. G. 

F. W.* 

F. W. R.* 

G. A. C* 

G. A. Gr. 
G. C. L. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller, M.A., D.Sc. C 

Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Author of Riddles of the < Spencer, Herbert. 

Sphinx ; Studies in Humanism ; &c I 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. J Sigurd; 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. I Strathclyde. 



Skeleton; 

Skin and Exoskeleton; 

Skull; 

Spinal Cord (in part). 



Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, 
London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ - 
Church. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of 
Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 

Frederick John Snell, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c. 

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. r 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and . . 

Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial -s Sphinx {in part) 
German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis ; | 
&c. 



Silures; 

Spain: History, Ancient. 

I Spenser, Edmund (in part). 



Sokoto. 



Lady Lugard. 

See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D. 

Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the -\ Strategy, 
World's Policy ; The Leipzig Campaign ; The Jena Campaign. 

Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article : Pollock : Family. 



{ 



Stephen, Sir J. F., Bart. 



Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 



Siwa; Sobat (in pari); 

Somaliland; 

South Africa: Geography and 

Statistics; History (in part), 

and Bibliography; 
Stanley, Sir Henry. 

Silk (in part). 



Sidon. 



G. C. W. 
G. E. H. 

G. G. B. 
G. G. C. 

G. G. S. 



Frank Warner. 

President of the Silk Association of Great Britain and Ireland; Hon. Secretary 
of the Ladies' National Silk Association. Chairman of the Silk Section, London " 
Chamber of Commerce, and of the Council of the Textile Institute. I 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Sinter; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902.^ Spinel; 

President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. [ Spodumene. 

Rev. George Albert Cooke, D.D. { 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of 

Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh., " 

Author of Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions ; &c. 

George Abraham Grierson, CLE., Ph.D., D.Litt. 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of the Linguistic 

Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice- i Sindhi and Lahnda. 

President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. 

Author of The Languages of India; &c. 

George Collins Levey, C.M.G. 

Member of the Board of Advice to the Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly 
Editor and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of 
Royal Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary, Adelaide Exhibition, - 
1887. Secretary, Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-1895. Secretary to 
Commissioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Phila- 
delphia and Melbourne. 

George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. f 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard J g mar ( John. 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition j ' 

of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. I 

George Ellery Hale, LL.D., Sc.D. 

Director of the Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton at Pasadena, California. Director of the Yerkes Observatory, Chicago, 1895- 
1905. Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London. Inventor of the Spectro- 
heliograph. Author of Papers on solar and stellar physics in the Astrophysical 
Journal; &c. 



Stawell, Sir William. 



Spectroheliograph. 



Very Rev. George Granville Bradley, D.D. J~ Stanley, Dean (in part). 

See the biographical article: Bradley, George Granville. \ 

George Goudie Chisholm, MA f sicily: Geography and 

Lecturer on Geography in the University of Edinburgh. Secretary ot the Royal J c . . . . , . *,„-,} 
Scottish Geographical Society. Author of Handbook of Commercial Geography. 1 oiansncs \in pari). 
Editor of Longman's Gazetteer of the World. L 

George Gregory Smith, M.A. f Stirling, William Alexander, 

" Author of The\ Earl of (in part). 



Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast. 

Days of James IV. ; The Transition Period ; Specimens of Middle Scots ; &c. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



IX 



G. J. T. 

G. Mo. 
G. Sa. 
G. W. T. 

H.Br. 
H. CI. 



Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden i Soke. 



George James Turner. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
Society. 

Gaetano Mosca. 

Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Turin. 

George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B. 

Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. f 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old i Slbawaihl. 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. L 

Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D. f 

Fellow of the British Academy. Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary i Slang. 
(Oxford). Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c. I 

Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G. 

Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly 
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author 
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India, &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary 
of the Malay Language. 



J Sicily: Geography and Statistics 
I- {in part). 



Stael, Madame de. 



Singapore; 
Straits Settlements. 



H. 


E. 


S.* 


H. 


F. 


G. 


H. 


H. 


F. 


H. 


Ja 




H. 


M 


R. 


H 


M 


Wo 



Author of Life of James Russell Lowell ; 1 Stowe, Mrs Beecher, 



V 



Horace Elisha Scudder (d. 1902). 

Formerly Editor of the Atlantic Monthly. 
History of the United States ; &c. 

Hans Friedrich Gadow, M.A., F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History; &c. 

H. Hamilton Fyfe. f 

Special Correspondent of the Daily Mail ; Dramatic critic of The World. Author of J Stepniak, SergillS. 
A Modern Aspasia; The New Spirit in Egypt; &c. [ 



Snakes; 

Song: Of Birds; 

Sphenodon. 



Socrates; 
Sophists; 
Speusippus. 



H. 0. F. 

H. R. T. 

H.St. 
H. S. J. 

H. W. C. D. 
LA. 

J. A. Co. 

J. A. E. 

J. A. H. 
J. B. 



Henry Jackson, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D., O.M. 

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Trinity 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to illustrate the History 
of Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle. 

Hugh Munro Ross. . . J Signal: Army Signalling (in 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering 1 part) and Railway Signalling 
Supplement. Author of British Railways. I n n 

Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc. [ 

Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of Uni- 
versity College, London. Author of " Haemoflagellates " in Sir £. Ray Lankester's 
Treatise of Zoology, and of various scientific papers. 

Henry Ogg Forbes, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Director of Museums to the Corporation of Liverpool. Reader in Ethnography in 
the University of Liverpool. Explorer of Mount Owen Stanley, New Guinea, 
Chatham Islands and Sokotra. Author of A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern 
Archipelago; Editor and part-author of Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el- 
Kuri; &c. 

Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. 

Henry Sturt, M.A. 

Author of Idola Thealri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism. 

Henry Stuart Jones, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. 
Author of The Roman Empire ; &c. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 



Sporozoa. 



Sokotra (in part). 



Societies, Learned. 



■\ Space 
Strabo. 



and Time. 



J Simeon of Durham; 
I Stephen, King of Er 



Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short ' 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 



Simon Ben Yohai; 
Singer, Simeon; 
Smolenskin, Pen 
Steinschneider, ' 



Hon. Sir John Alexander Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D. 

Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Premier and Chief Secretary, j o nu fk Austra' 
South Australia, 1889-1890: Minister of Education and Agriculture, 1893-1898 ; 1 wluun " 
Agent-General in London, 1898-1901. Author of Australian Federation; &c. |_ 

James Alfred Ewing, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.CE. f Siemens, Si 

Director of (British) Naval Education. Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. J steam Eng 
Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics in the University of Cambridge, | gt ren gt n f 
1890-1903. Author of The Strength of Materials; &c. I 5 u 



1890-1903. Author of The Strength of 

John Allen Howe. f . . 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of i Silurian 
Geology of Building Stones. I jrnon; 

James Bonar, M.A., LL.D. (" rd. 

Master of the Royal Mint, Ottawa. Senior Examiner to the Civil Service Com- | gocia' 
mission, 1 895-1 907. Author of Malthus and his Work; Philosophy and Political'] 
Economy; &c. I i n part). 



udhaile. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



J. Bra. 
J. Bt. 

J. C. Br. 

J. D. B. 
J. F.-K. 



Joseph Braun, SJ. 

Author of Die Liturgische Gewandung ; &c. 



{ 



Stole. 



James Bartlett. . , f Staircase: Construction; 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, at King s J g^ ee j Construction" 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior | gt ' 

Engineers. I 

John Casper Branner, Ph.D., LL.D., F.G.S. C 

Vice-President and Professor of Geology in Leland Stanford University, California. 

Director of the Branner-Agassiz Expedition to Brazil, 1899. State Geologist of-j South America. 

Arkansas, 1 887-1 893. Author of numerous works on the geology of Brazil , Arkansas | 

and California. ^ 



James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 



Silistria; 
Sofia; 
Stambolov, Stefan. 



J. 


G. 


C. A. 


J. 


G. 


M. 


J. 


H. 


A. H. 


J. 


H 


P. 


J. 


H 


R. 


J 


H1.B. 



James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. f 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Spain: Language (in part), and 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy.-^ T Urralure (in bart) 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of literature (.tn paw. 

Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. ^ 

J Sinope. 

John Gray McKendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.). f Sleep; 

Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Physi- -< smell. 
ology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of Helmholtz; &c. L 



John George Clark Anderson, M.A. 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College. 
Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. 



J Sibylline Oracles. 



John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Poynting, D.Sc, F.R.S. r 

Professor of Physics and Dean of the Faculty of Science in the University of | 
Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Joint-author of 1 aouna. 
Text-Book of Physics. [_ 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. f Stafford: Family; 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and J Stanley : Family (in part). 

Family History ; Peerage and Pedigree ; &c. [' 

John Holland Rose, M. A., Litt.D. r„. . _ . T . 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge J Sieyes, Emmanuel JOSepJl, 
University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic ■) Stein, Baron. 
Studies ; The Development of the European Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. 






J. H. van't H. Jacobus Hendricus van't Hoff, LL.D., D.Sc, 

See the biographical article Van't Hoff, Jacobus Hendbicus. 



i Stereoisomerism. 



J. K. I. 
J. L. M. 

J. L. N. 
J. M. 

J. M. H. 
J.O.N. 
J. Pe. 
J. P. E. 

J. S. F. 



t Slavery (in part); 

1 : 



Soil: Soil and Disease. 



Sovereignty; 
Spheres of Influence. 



John Kells Ingram, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Ingram, John Kells. -j Smith, Adam (in part). 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A. , 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of 
Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient i Soli (Cyprus). 
Geography in the University of Liverpool, and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology 
in the University of Oxford. 

J. Lane-Notter, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.Med. f 

Colonel (retired), Royal Army Medical Corps. Formerly Professor of Military^ 
Hygiene, Army Medical School at Netley. Author of The Theory and Practice of 
Hygiene; &c. 

Sir John Macdonell, C.B., M.A., LL.D. 

Master of the Supreme Court, London. Formerly Counsel to the Board of Trade 
and the London Chamber of Commerce. Quain Professor of Comparative Law, 
and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University College, London. Editor of State" 
Trials; Civil Judicial Statistics; &c. Author of Survey of Political Economy; 
The Land Question ; &c. 

John Malcolm Mitchell. | Solon; 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London < Sphinx (in part) ; 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 1 StrategUS. 

Rev. James Okey Nash, M.A. r 

Hertford College, Oxford. Headmaster of St John's College, Johannesburg. J Sisterhoods. 
Formerly Missionary of the S.P.G. in Johannesburg. [ 

John Percival, M.A. f 

St. John's College, Cambridge. Professor of Agricultural Botany at University J Soil. 
College, Reading. Author of Text-Book of Agricultural Botany; &c. [_ 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein. [ 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours eiementaire d'histoire du droit 
francais; &c. 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Petrographer tc the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer 
on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 



States-General: France. 



f Sill; 

\ Slate: Geology; 

\ Spherulites. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI 



J. S. R. 

J. T. Be. 

J. V. B. 
J.W. 
J. W. G. 

J. W. He. 

K. G. J. 
K.L. 

K. S. 

L. C. 
L. D.* 

L. J. S. 

L. W. Ch. 
M. Ca. 
M. G. 



M.Ja. 




H.M. 




M. N. T. 




H. 0. B. 


C 


N.M. 




O.A. 





James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.M., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Cambridge and Fellow and Tutor . 
of Gonville and Caius College. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of 
Christ's College. Editor of Cicero's Academica; De Amicitia; &c. 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical - 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 



Silius Italicus; 
Statius. 

Siberia (in pari); 
Simbirsk (in part); 
Smolensk (in part); 
Stavropol (in part). 



South Australia: Geology. 



James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. j 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic 1 Stephen, St. 
Age; &c. L 

James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. f 

All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln -I Statute. 
College. Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Law of the Universities ; &c. [ 

John Walter Gregory, D.Sc, F.R.S. f 

Professor of Geology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and 
Mineralogy in the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Heart 
of Australia; &c. 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

Kingsley Garland Jayne. 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. 

Rev. Kirsopp Lake, M.A. 

Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa- J o n ,i OT1 u ormanll wnn 
ment Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testa- j oouen > nermann von. 
ment; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c. I 

Kathleen Schlesinger. f cic*™™- Cmriinn. Cr.ir.ot. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the -i *'. m ' Boralno » »Pmei, 
Orchestra. { Stringed Instruments. 

Rev. Lewis Campbell, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Campbell, Lewis. 

Louis Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, Louis M. O. 



Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. - : 



SteRhan, Heinrich von. 

J Spain: Geography and 
\_ Statistics. 

r 



Sophocles. 

J* Siricius; 
I Sixtus I.-III. 

Sillimanite; Smaltite; 
Sodalite; Sphene; Stannite; 
Staurolite; Stephanite; 
Stibnite; Stilbite; Strontianite. 



r 



Smoke (in part). 



Stevinus, Simon. 



Sturdza (family). 



O.M. 



Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralo- 
gical Magazine. 

Laurence Wensley Chubb. 

Secretary of the Coal Smoke Abatement Society, and of the Commons and Foot- 
paths Preservation Society. 

Moritz Cantor, Ph.D. 

Honorary Professor of Mathematics in the University of Heidelberg. Hofrat of the 
German Empire. Author of Vorlesungen uber die Geschichte der Malhematik ; &c. 

Moses Gaster, Ph.D. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Ilchester Lecturer at 
Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President of the - 
Folk-lore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author 
of History of Rumanian Popular Literature ; &c. 

Morris Jastrow, Ph.D. f 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion \ Sin (Moon-god), 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. l_ 

Max Arthur Macauliffe. f 

Formerly Divisional Judge in the Punjab. Author of The Sikh Religion: its Gurus, J Sikh; 
Sacred Writings and Authors; &c. Editor of Life of Guru Nanak, in the Punjabi | Sikhism. 
language. I 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. f 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. -< Sparta. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. \_ 

Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. f 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Binning- -j Sicyon. 
ham University, 1905-1908. [ 

Norman McLean, M.A. f 

Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ's -j Stephen Bar Sudhaile. 
College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint. [_ 

Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D. r 

H.M. Divisional Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of J Sidney, Algernon; 
Education, London. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles 1 SomerS, Lord. 
//. ; &c. Editor of the Lauderdale Papers ; &c. (. 

David Orme Masson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. f 

Professor of Chemistry, Melbourne University. Author of papers on chemistry in -j Smoke (in part). 
the transactions of various learned societies. [_ 



Xll 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



0. T. 



P. A. A. 



P. A. K. 



P. C. M. 



Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Senior Assistant, Natural History Department of the British Museum. 
Catalogue of Marsupialia in the British Museum. 



Author of i Skunk {in part). 



Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., D. Juris. [ . 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History i Simson, Martin E. VOn. 

of the English Constitution. I 



Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A. 



Siberia {in part); 
Simbirsk {in part); 
Smolensk {in part); 
Stavropol {in part). 



P. 


C. 


Y. 




p. 


S. 






p. 


Vi. 






R. 








R. 


A. 


S. 


M 


R. 


D. 


H. 




R 


H. 


C. 





\ Strafford. 



R. H. L. 
R. H. V. 

R. I. P. 
R. J. M. 

R.L.* 
R. Mu. 

R. M. B. P. K. 



Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. , D.Sc, LL.D. 

Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in J 
Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-3891. 1 Species. 
Author of Outlines of Biology ; &c. I 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England 

Philip Schidrowitz, Ph.D., F.C.S. f 

Member of the Council, Institute of Brewing; Member of the Committee of Society J gpjjjts. 
of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and! 
Technology of Brewing, Distilling, &c, L 

Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L., LL.D. •! Socage. 

See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul. \ 

Lord Rayleigh. f „. 

See the biographical article: Rayleigh, 3RD Baron. \ " Kv ' 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. f 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Ex- -j Sodom and Gomorrah. 
ploration Fund. 1 

Robert Drew Hicks, M.A. f ct j cs 

Fellow, formerly Lecturer in Classics, Trinity College, Cambridge. \ 

Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. f 

Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford, and Fellow of Merton | 

College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, -j Solomon, The Psalms of. 
Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; 
Book of Jubilees; &c. I 

Robin Humphrey Legge. f 

Principal Musical Critic for the Daily Telegraph. Author of Annals of the Norwich < Strauss, Richard. 
Festivals; &c. L 

Robert Hamilton Vetch, C.B. 

Colonel R.E. Employed on the defences of Bermuda, Bristol Channel, Plymouth 
Harbour and Malta, 1861-1876. Secretary of R.E. Institute, Chatham, 1877-1883. . 
Deputy Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1889-1894. Author of Gordon's 
Campaign in China ; Life of Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham. Editor of the 
RE. Journal, 1 877-1 884. 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 



Strathnairn, Lord. 



Spiders. 



Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 
Gazette (London). 



Formerly Editor of the St James's 



Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1 874-1 882. Author of 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer 
of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. 



Sidney, Sir Henry; 

Simnel, Lambert; 

Smith, Sir Henry; 

Somerset, Earls and Dukes of; 

Stone, Archbishop. 

Sifaka; Sirenia; 

Skunk {in part); 

Souslik; Squirrel; 

Squirrel Monkey. 



Stonehenge; 
Stone Monuments. 



Robert Munro, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.). 

Dalrymple Lecturer on Archaeology in the University of Glasgow for 1910. Rhind 
Lecturer on Archaeology, 1888. Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
1888-1899. Founder of the Munro Lectureship on Anthropology and Prehistoric 
Archaeology in the University of Edinburgh. Author of The Lake-dwellings of 
Europe ; Prehistoric Scotland, and its place in European Civilization ; &c. 

Richard Makdougall Brisbane Francis Kelly, D.S.O. f 

Colonel R.A. Commanding R.G.A., Southern Defences, Portsmouth. Served J Sights, 
through the South African War, 1899-1902. Chief Instructor at the School of ] 
Gunnery, 1904-1908. L 

Sigismund 



R. N. B. 



K.OBERT NlSBET BAIN (d. IO09). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: The 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900; The First Romanovs, 
1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from 
1469 to 1796; &c. 



and III. of 



I., II. 

Poland; 
Skarga, Piotr; Skram, Peder; 
Skrzynecki, Jan Zygmunt; 
Sophia Aleksyeevna; 
Sprengtporten, Count Goran; 
Sprengtporten, Jakob; 
Stanislaus I. and II. of Poland; 
Stephen I. and V. of Hungary,' 
Stephen Bathory; 
Struensee, Johan F.; 
Sture {family). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



Xlll 



R. P. S. 

R.Sn. 
R. S. C. 

S. A. C. 

S. BI. 
S. F. M. 

St G. S. 
S.N. 

T.As. 

T. A. A. 
T. A. C. 

T. Ba. 



T. 


F. 


c. 




T. 


Se. 






T. W. 


-D. 




T. 


W. 


F. 




T. 


W. 


R. 


D 



V. w. 



m. A. B. c. 



W. A. G. 



W. A. J. F. 



R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. f 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past J Stair; 

President of the Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 1 Stairease: Architecture; 

London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's Spire. 

History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. ^ 

Examiner in Silk Throwing and Spinning for the City and Guilds of London Institute. L Silk: Trade and Commerce - 
Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. f 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J cj pu ij (irihA 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville 1 olcuu \frloej. 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. I 

Stanley Arthur Cook. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Simeon; 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of~\ Solomon. 
A ramaic Inscriptions ; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi ; Critical 
Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

Sigfus Blondal. 

Librarian of the University of Copenhagen. 

Sir Shirley Forster Murphy, F.R.C.S. 

Medical Officer of Health for the County of London. 

St George Stock, M.A. 

Pembroke College, Oxford. 



Lecturer in Greek in the University of Birmingham. 



Simon Newcomb, D.Sc, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Newcomb, Simon. 



\ SigurSsson, Jdn. 
| Slaughter-house. 
\ Simon Magus. 
| Solar System. 



Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of 1 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography 
of the Roman Campagna. 



{ 



Thomas Andrew Archer, M.A. 

Author of The Crusade of Richard I. ; &c. 

Timothy Augustlne Coghlan, I.S.O. r 

Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, 
1 886-1 905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth -j 
and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account of Australia and New 
Zealand; &c. I 

Sir Thomas Barclay. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Black- 
burn, 1910. 

Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 



Sicily: Geography and Statistics 
{in part), and History [$n 
part); 

Siena {in pari); 

Signia; Soluntum; 

Sora; Spoleto; 

Stabiae; Subiaco. 

Silvester II. 



South Australia: Geography 

and Statistics. 



Spy {in part); 
State. 



Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. \ " lxtus v ' 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. r 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, J Smollett; 
University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of 1 Stephen Sir Leslie. 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. L 

Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton. J 

See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore. j_ Sonnet. 

Thomas William Fox. f 

Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. Author of Mechanics of-< Spinning. 
Weaving. (. 

Thomas William Rhys Davids, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali 
Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of Pali and Buddhist 
Literature, University College, London, 1 882-1904. Secretary and Librarian of" 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1 885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c. 

The Hon. Lady Welby. 

Formerly Maid of Honour to Queen Victoria. 
Sense ; What is Meaning? 



Sigiri. 



Author of Links and Clues ; Grains of J. Signifies. 



Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphine; The Range of • 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c. 

Walter Armstrong Graham. 

Adviser to his Siamese Majesty's Minister for Agriculture. Commander, Order of 
the White Elephant. Member of the Burma Civil Service, 1 889-1 903. Author of " 
The French Roman Catholic Mission in Siam ; Kelantan, a Handbook ; &c. 

Walter Armitage Justice Ford. 

Sometime Scholar of King's College, Cambridge. 
College of Music, London. 



Simler, Josias; 
Simplon Pass; Sion {town); 
Soleure {canton); 
Soleure {town); 
Splttgen Pass; Stans; 
. Stumpf, Johann. 

Siam. 



Teacher of Singing at the Royal -j Song {in music). 



Xiv 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



W. A. P. 



w. 


CD. 


W 


w. 


E. G. 




w. 


Ho. 




w. 


Hu. 




w. 


L. C. 


► 


w. 


L. G. 





W. M. 



w. 


MacC. 


w. 


McD. 


w. 


M. 


F. P 


w. 


M. 


R. 


w. 


M. 


Ra. 


w. 


N. 


S. 



W. W. P.* 



Sir; 

Spain: History (in pari); 

States-General; 

Stole (in part). 

Solution. 



Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. 

William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S. f 

Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Theory of Solution ; 1 
Recent Development of Physical Science ; The Family and the Nation ; &c. I 

Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G. f 

British Government Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of \ Sobat (in part). 
Irrigation, Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908. I 

Wynnard Hooper, M.A. 

Clare College, Cambridge. Financial Editor of The Times, London. 

Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D. 

President of the Royal Historical Society, 1905-1909. Author of History of the - 
English Church, $97-1666; The Church of England in the Middle Ages, &c. 

William Lee Corbin, A.M. 

Associate Professor of English, Wells College, Aurora, New York State. 
William Lawson Grant, M.A. 

Professor of Colonial History, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly J Stratheona and Mount Royal, 

Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy 1 Lord. 

Council (Canadian Series). | 



f Statistics; 

I Stock Exchange. 

Stubbs, William. 
\ Spaiks, Jared. 



William Minto, M.A. 

See the biographical article : Minto, William. 

Sir William MacCormac, Bart. 

See the biographical article: MacCormac, Sir William, Bart. 

William McDougall, M.A. 

Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford, 
of St John's College, Cambridge. 

William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D. 
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D.C.L., D.Litt. 
See the biographical article: Ramsay, Sir W. Mitchell. 

William Napier Shaw, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Director of the Meteorological Office, London. Reader in Meteorology in the 
University of London. President of Permanent International Meteorological 
Committee. Member of Meteorological Council, 1897-1905. Hon. Fellow of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Fellow of Emmanuel College, 1877-1906; Senior 
Tutor, 1890-1899. Joint author of Text Book of Practical Physics; &c. 

William Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period ; &c. 



Spenser, Edmund (in pari) ;. 
Steele, Sir Richard (in part); 
Sterne, Laurence (in part). 

Simon, Sir John. 



Formerly Fellow J Subliminal Self. 

■! Sinai: The Peninsula. 

Signorelli, Luca; 
Sodoma, II. 

-1 Smyrna (in part). 



Squall. 



Silvanus. 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Sibyls. 


Sodium. 


Speaker. 


Stem. 


Sierra Leone. 


Soissons. 


Spectacles. 


Stettin. 


Sign-board. 


Solanaceae. 


Speranski, Count. 


Stickleback. 


Sikh Wars. 


Solicitor. 


Sphere. 


Stirling. 


Silesia. 


Solomon Islands. 


Spitsbergen. 


Stirlingshire. 


Silicon. 


Somersetshire. 


Springfield. 


Stockholm. 


Silver. 


Somme. 


Staff. 


Stoichiometry. 


Simony. 


Somnambulism. 


Stafford. 


Stolen Goods. 


Sind. 


Sorbonne. 


Staffordshire. 


Strassburg. 


Skating. 


Southampton. 


Stalactites. 


Stratford-on-Avon. 


Ski. 


South Carolina. 


Stamford. 


Straw and Straw Manufactures 


Skin Diseases. 


South Dakota. 


Stammering. 


Strawberry. 


Skye. 


South Sea Bubble. 


Stamp. 


Strontium. 


Sligo. 


Southwark. 


Starch. 


Strophanthus. 


Smallpox. 


Sowing. 


S tar-Chamber. 


Strychnine. 


Smithsonian Institution. 


Spalato. 


Staten Island. 


Sturgeon. 


Snail. 


Spanish-American War. 


State Rights. 


Stuttgart. 


Soap. 


.Spanish Reformed Church. 


Steenkirk, 


Styria. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXV 



SHUVALOV (sometimes written Schouvaloff), PETER 
ANDREIVICH, Count (1827-1889), Russian diplomatist, was 
born in 1827 of an old Russian family which rose to distinction 
and imperial favour about the middle of the 18th century. 
Several of its members attained high rank in the army and the 
civil administration, and one of them may be regarded as the 
founder of the Moscow University and the St Petersburg Academy 
of the Fine Arts. As a youth Count Peter Andreivich showed 
no desire to emulate his distinguished ancestors. He studied 
just enough to qualify for the army, and for nearly twenty years 
he led the agreeable, commonplace life of a fashionable officer 
of the Guards. In 1864 Court influence secured for him the 
appointment of Governor-General of the Baltic Provinces, and 
in that position he gave evidence of so much natural ability and 
tact that in 1866, when the revolutionary fermentation in the 
younger section of the educated classes made it advisable to 
place at the head of the political police a man of exceptional 
intelligence and energy, he was selected by the emperor for the 
post. In addition to his regular functions, he was entrusted by 
his Majesty with much work of a confidential, delicate nature, 
including a mission to London in 1873. The ostensible object 
of this mission was to arrange amicably certain diplomatic 
difficulties created by the advance of Russia in Central Asia, 
but he was instructed at the same time to prepare the way for 
the marriage of the grand duchess Marie Alexandrovna with the 
duke of Edinburgh, which took place in January of the following 
year. At that time the emperor Alexander II. was anxious 
to establish cordial relations with Great Britain, and he thought 
this object might best be attained by appointing as his diplo- 
matic representative at the British Court the man who had con- 
ducted successfully the recent matrimonial negotiations. Count 
Shuvalov was accordingly appointed ambassador to London; 
and he justified his selection by the extraordinary diplomatic 
ability he displayed during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 
and the subsequent negotiations, when the relations between 
Russia and Great Britain were strained almost to the point of 
rupture. After the publication of the treaty of San Stefano, 
which astonished Europe and seemed to render a conflict inevit- 
able, he concluded with Lord Salisbury a secret convention 
which enabled the two powers to meet in congress and find 
a pacific solution for all the questions at issue. In the delibera- 
tions and discussions of the congress he played a leading- part, 
and defended the interests of his country with a dexterity which 
excited the admiration of his colleagues; but when it became 
known that the San Stefano arrangements were profoundly 
modified by the treaty of Berlin, public opinion in Russia con- 
xxv. 1 



demned him as too conciliatory, and reproached him with having 
needlessly given up many of the advantages secured by the war. 
For a time Alexander II. resisted the popular clamour, but in 
the autumn of 1879, when Prince Bismarck assumed an attitude 
of hostility towards Russia, Count Shuvalov, who had been 
long regarded as too amenable to Bismarckian influence, was 
recalled from his post as ambassador in London; and after 
living for nearly ten years in retirement, he died at St Petersburg 
in 1889. (D. M. W.) 

SHUYA, a town in the government of Vladimir, 68 m. by rail 
N.E. of the town of Vladimir. It is one of the chief centres of 
the cotton and linen industries in middle Russia. It is built on 
the high left bank of the navigable Teza, a tributary of the 
Klyazma, with two suburbs on the right bank. Annalists men- 
tion princes of Shuya in 1403. Its first linen manufactures were 
established in 1755; but in 1800 its population did not exceed 
1500. In 1882 it had 19,560 inhabitants, and 18,968 in 1897. 
Tanneries, especially for the preparation of sheepskins — widely 
renowned throughout Russia — still maintain their importance, 
although this industry has migrated to a great extent to the 
country districts. The cathedral (1 799) is a large building, with 
five gilt cupolas. Nearly every village in the vicinity has a 
specialty of its own — bricks, pottery, wheels, toys, packing- 
boxes, looms and other weaving implements, house furniture, 
sieves, combs, boots, gloves, felt goods, candles, and so on. The 
manufacture of linen and cotton in the villages, as well as the 
preparation and manufacture of sheepskins and rough gloves, 
occupies about 40,000 peasants. The Shuya merchants carry 
on an active trade in these products all over Russia, and in corn, 
spirits, salt and other food stuffs, imported. 

SHWEBO, a town and district in the Sagaing division of Upper 
Burma. The town is situated in the midst of a rice plain, 53 m. 
by rail N.E. from Mandalay: pop. (1901) 9626. It is of historic 
interest as the birthplace and [capital of Alompra, the founder 
of the last Burmese dynasty. After British annexation it became 
an important military cantonment; but only the wing of a 
European regiment is now stationed here. The area of the 
district is 5634 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 286,891, showing an increase 
of 24 % in the decade. It lies between the Katha, Upper and 
Lower Chindwin and Mandalay districts. The Irrawaddy forms 
the dividing line on the east. The physical features of the 
district vary considerably. The Minwun range runs down 
the whole eastern side, skirting the Irrawaddy. In the north 
it is a defined range, but at Sheinmaga, in the south, it sinks 
to an undulation. West of the Mu river, in the centre of the 
district, there is a gradual ascent to the hills which divide 

n 



SIALKOT— SIAM 



Sagaing from the Upper Chindwin. Between these ranges and 
on both sides of the Mu is a plain, unbroken except for some 
isolated hills in the north and north-east and the low Sadaung-gyi 
range in the south-east. The greater part of this plain is a rice- 
growing tract, but on the sloping ground maize, millets, sesamum, 
cotton and peas are raised. A good deal of sugar is also produced 
from groves of the tart palm. The Mu river is navigable for 
three months in the year, from June to August, but in the dry 
season it can be forded almost anywhere. A good deal of salt 
is produced in a line which closely follows the railway. Coal 
has been worked at Letkokpin, near the Irrawaddy. 

The Ye-u reserved forests are much more valuable than those 
to the east on the Minwun and the Mudein. Extensive irrigation 
works existed in Shwebo district, but they fell into disrepair 
in King Thibaw's time. Chief of these was the Mahananda Lake. 
The old works have recently been in process of restoration, and 
in 1906 the main canal was formally opened. The rainfall 
follows the valleys of the Mu and the Irrawaddy, and leaves the 
rest of the district comparatively dry. It varies from an average 
of 29 to 49 in. The average temperature is 90° in the hot season, 
and falls to 60° or 61° in the cold season, the maximum and 
minimum readings being 104 and 56°. 

SIALKOT, or Sealkote, a town and district of British India, 
in the Lahore division of the Punjab. The town, which has a 
station on the North- Western railway, is 72 m. N.E. of Lahore. 
Pop. (1901) 57,956. It is a military cantonment, being the 
headquarters of a brigade in the 2nd division of the northern 
army. There are remains of a fort dating from about the 10th 
century; but the mound on which they stand is traditionally 
supposed to mark the site of a much earlier stronghold, and some 
authorities identify it with the ancient Sakala or Sagal. Other 
ancient buildings are the shrine of Baba Nanak, the first Sikh 
Guru, that of the Mahommedan Imam Ali-ul-hakk and Raja 
Tej Singh's temple. The town has an extensive trade, and 
manufactures of sporting implements, boots, paper, cotton, 
cloth and shawl-edging. There are Scottish and American 
missions, a Scottish mission training institution and an arts 
college. 

The District of Sialkot has an area of 1991 sq. m. It is 
an oblong tract of country occupying the submontane portion 
of the Rechna (Ravi-Chenab) Doab, fringed on either side by a 
line of fresh alluvial soil, above which rise the high banks that 
form the limits of the river-beds. The Degh, which rises in the 
Jammu hills, traverses the district parallel to the Ravi, and is 
likewise fringed by low alluvial soil. The north-eastern boundary 
is 20 m. distant from the outer line of the Himalayas; but about 
midway between the Ravi and the Chenab is a high dorsal tract, 
extending from beyond the border and stretching far into the 
district. Sialkot is above the average of the Punjab in fertility. 
The upper portion is very productive; but the southern portion, 
farther removed from the influence of the rains, shows a marked 
decrease of fertility. The district is also watered by numerous 
small torrents; and several swamps or jhils, scattered over the 
face of the country, are of considerable value as reservoirs of 
surplus water for purposes of irrigation. Sialkot is reputed to 
be healthy; it is free from excessive heat, judged by the common 
standard of the Punjab; and its average annual rainfall varies 
. from 35 in. near the hills to 22 in. in the parts farthest from them. 
The population in 1901 was 1,083,909, showing a decrease of 3 % 
as against an increase of 11% in the previous decade. This is 
explained by the fact that Sialkot contributed over 100,000 
persons to the Chenab colony (q.v.). The principal crops are 
wheat, barley, maize, millets and sugar-cane. The district 
is crossed by a branch of the North-Western railway from 
Wazirabad to Jammu. 

The early history of Sialkot is closely interwoven with that of 
the rest of the Punjab. It was annexed by the British after the 
second Sikh war in 1849; since then its area has been consider- 
ably reduced, assuming its present proportions in 1867. During 
the Mutiny of 1857 the native troops plundered the treasury 
and destroyed all the records, when most of the European 
residents took refuge in the fort. 



SIAM (known to its inhabitants as Muang Thai), an inde- 
pendent kingdom of the Indo-Chinese peninsula or Further 
India. It lies between 4° 20' and 20 15' N. and between 96 30' 
and 106° E., and is bounded N. by the British Shan States and 
by the French Laos country, E. by the French Laos country 
and by Cambodia, S. by Cambodia and by the Gulf of Siam, 
and W. by the Tenasserim and Pegu divisions of Burma. A part 
of Siam which extends down the Malay Peninsula is bounded 
E. by the Gulf of Siam and by the South China Sea, S. by British 
Malaya and W. by the lower part of the Bay of Bengal. The 
total area is about 220,000 sq. m. (For map, see Indo-China.) 

The country may be best considered geographically in four 
parts: the northern, including the drainage area of the four 
rivers which unite near Pak-Nam Po to form the Menam Chao 
Phaya; the eastern, including the drainage area of the Nam Mun 
river and its tributaries; the central, including the drainage 
area of the Meklong, the Menam Chao Phaya and the Bang 
Pakong rivers; and the southern, including that part of the 
country which is situated in the Malay Peninsula. Northern 
Siam is about 60,000 sq. m. in area. In general appearance 
it is a series of parallel ranges of hills, lying N. and S., merely 
gently sloping acclivities in the S., but rising into precipitous 
mountain masses in the N. Between these ranges flow the 
rivers Meping, Mewang, Meyom and Menam, turbulent shallow 
streams in their upper reaches, but slow-moving and deep where 
they near the points of junction. The longest of them is over 
250 m. from its source to its mouth. The Meping and Mewang 
on the W., rising among the loftiest ranges, are rapid and 
navigable only for small boats, while the Meyom and Menam, 
the eastern pair, afford passage for large boats at all seasons 
and for deep draught river-steamers during the flood-time. The 
Menam is the largest, deepest and most sluggish of the four, 
and in many ways resembles its continuation, the Menam Chao- 
Phaya lower down. On the W. the river Salween and its tributary 
the Thoung Yin form the frontier between the Siam and Burma for 
some distance, draining a part of northern Siam, while in the 
far north-east, for a few miles below Chieng Sen, the Mekong 
does the same. The districts watered by the lower reaches of 
the four rivers are fertile and are inhabited by a considerable 
population of Siamese. Farther north the country is peopled 
by Laos, scattered in villages along all the river banks, and by 
numerous communities of Shan, Karen, Kamoo and other tribes 
living in the uplands and on the hilltops. 

Eastern Siam, some 70,000 sq. m. in area, is encircled by 
well-defined boundaries, the great river Mekong dividing it 
clearly from French Laos on the N. and E., the Pnom Dang Rek 
hill range from Cambodia on the S. and the Dom Pia Fai range 
from central Siam on the W. The right bank of the Mekong 
being closely flanked by an almost continuous hill range, the 
whole of this part of Siam is practically a huge basin, the bottom 
of which is a plain lying from 200 to 300 ft. above sea-level, and 
the sides hill ranges of between 1000 and 2000 ft. elevation. 
The plain is for the most part sandy and almost barren, subject 
to heavy floods in the rainy season, and to severe drought in the 
dry weather. The hills are clothed with a thin shadeless growth 
of stunted forest, which only here and there assumes the character- 
istics of ordinary jungle. The river Nam Mun, which is perhaps 
200 m. long, has a large number of tributaries, chief of which 
is the Nam Si. The river flows eastward and falls into the Mekong 
at 1 5 20' N. and 105 40' E. A good way farther north two 
small rivers, the Nam Kum and the Nam Song Kram, also 
tributaries of the Mekong, drain a small part of eastern Siam. 
Nearly two million people, mixed Siamese, Lao and Cambodian, 
probably among the poorest peasantry in the world, support 
existence in this inhospitable region. 

Central Siam, estimated at 50,000 sq. m. in area, is the heart 
of the kingdom, the home of the greater part of its population, 
and the source of nine-tenths of its wealth. In general appear- 
ance it is a great plain flanked by high mountains on its western 
border, inclining gently to the sea in the 3. and round the inner 
Gulf of Siam, and with a long strip of mountainous sea-board 
stretching out to the S.E. The mountain range on the W. is a 



SIAM 



continuation of one of the ranges of northern Siam, which, 
extending still farther southward, ultimately forms the backbone 
of the Malay Peninsula. Its ridge is the boundary between 
central Siam and Burma. The highest peak hereabouts is 
Mogadok, 5000 ft., close to the border. On the E. the Dom 
Pia Fai throws up a point over 4000 ft., and the south-eastern 
range which divides the narrow, littoral, Chantabun and Krat 
districts from Cambodia, has the Chemao, Saidao and Kmoch 
heights, between 3000 and 5000 ft. The Meklong river, which 
drains the western parts of central Siam, rises in the western 
border range, follows a course a little E. of S., and runs into the 
sea at the western corner of the inner gulf, some 200 m. distant 
from its source. It is a rapid, shallow stream, subject to sudden 
rises, and navigable for small boats only. The Bang Pakong 
river rises among the Wattana hills on the eastern ^border, 
between the Battambong province of Cambodia and Siam. It 
flows N., then W., then S., describing a semicircle through the 
fertile district of Pachim, and falls into the sea at the north-east 
corner of the inner gulf. The whole course of this river is about 
100 m. long; its current is sluggish, but that of its chief tributary, 
the Nakhon Nayok river, is rapid. The Bang Pakong is navi- 
gable for steamers of small draught for about 30 m. The Menam 
Chao Phaya, the principal river of Siam, flows from the point 
where it is formed by the junction of the rivers of northern Siam 
almost due S. for 154 m., when it empties itself into the inner 
gulf about midway between the Meklong and Bang Pakong 
mouths. In the neighbourhood of Chainat, 40 m. below Paknam 
Poh, it throws off three branches, the Suphan river and the 
Menam Noi on the right, and the Lopburi river on the left bank. 
The latter two rejoin the parent stream at points considerably 
lower down, but the Suphan river remains distinct, and has an 
outlet of its own to the sea. At a point a little more than half- 
way down its course, the Menam Chao Phaya receives the waters 
of its only tributary, the Nam Sak, a good-sized stream which 
rises in the east of northern Siam a.nd waters the most easterly 
part (the Pechabun valley) of that section of the country. The 
whole course of the Menam Chao Phaya lies through a perfectly 
flat country. It is deep, fairly rapid, subject to a regular rise 
and flood every autumn, but not to sudden freshets, and is 
affected by the tide 50 m. inland. For 20 m. it is navigable 
for vessels of over 1000 tons, and were it not for the enormous 
sand bar which lies across the mouth, ships of almost any size 
could he at the port of Bangkok about that distance from the 
sea (see Bangkok). Vessels up to 300 tons and 12 ft. draught 
can ascend the river 50 m. and more, and beyond that point 
large river-boats and deep-draught launches can navigate for 
many miles. The river is always charged with a great quantity 
of silt which during flood season is deposited over the surrounding 
plain to the great enhancement of its fertility. There is prac- 
tically no forest growth in central Siam, except on the slopes of 
the hills which bound this section. The rest is open rice-land, 
alternating with great stretches of grass, reed jungle and bamboo 
scrub, much of which is under water for quite three months of 
the year. 

Southern Siam, which has an area of about 20,000 sq. m., 
consists of that part of the Malay Peninsula which belongs to the 
Siamese kingdom. It extends from 10° N. southwards to 
6° 35' N. on the west coast of the peninsula, and to 6° 25' N. on 
the east coast, between which points stretches the frontier of 
British Malaya. It is a strip of land narrow at the north end 
and widening out towards the south, consisting roughly of the 
continuation of the mountain range which bounds central Siam 
on the W., though the range appears in certain parts as no more 
than a chain of hillocks. The inhabitable part of the land 
consists of the lower slopes of the range with the valleys and 
small alluvial plains which lie between its spurs. The remainder 
is covered for the most part with dense forest containing several 
kinds of valuable timber. The coast both east and west is much 
indented, and is studded with islands. The rivers are small 
and shallow. The highest mountain is Kao Luang, an almost 
isolated projection over 5000 ft. high, round the base of which 
lie the most fertile lands of this section, and near which are 



situated the towns of Bandon, Nakhon Sri Tammarat (Lakhon) 
and Patalung, as well as many villages. 

Geology. 1 — Very little is known of the geology of Siam. It appears 
to be composed chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks, concealed, in the plains, 
by Quaternary, and possibly Tertiary, deposits. Near Luang 
Prabang, just beyond the border, in French territory, limestones 
with Productus and Schwagerina, like the Productus limestone of 
the Indian Salt Range, have been found; also red clays and grau- 
wacke with plants similar to those of the Raniganj beds ; and violet 
clays with Dicynodon, supposed to be the equivalents of the Panche 
series of India. All these beds strike from north-east to south-west 
and must enter the northern part of Siam. Farther south, at Vien- 
Tiane, the Mekong passes through a gorge cut in sandstone, arkose 
and schists with a similar strike ; while at Lakhon there are steeply 
inclined limestones which strike north-west. 

Climate. — Although enervating, the climate of Siam, as is natural 
from the position of the country, is not one of extremes. The wet 
season — May to October — corresponds with the prevalence of the 
south-west monsoon in the Bay of Bengal. The full force of the 
monsoon is, however, broken by the western frontier hills; and 
while the rainfall at Mergui is over 180, and at Moulmein 240 in., 
that of Bangkok seldom exceeds 54, and Chiengmai records an 
average of about 42 in. Puket and Chantabun, being both on a lee 
shore, in this season experience rough weather and a heavy rainfall ; 
the latter, being farther from the equator, is the worse off in this 
respect. At this period the temperature is generally moderate, 
65 to 75 F. at night and 75 ° to 85° by day; but breaks in the 
rains occur which are hot and steamy. The cooi season begins with 
the commencement of the north-east monsoon in the China Sea in 
November. While Siam enjoys a dry climate with cool nights (the 
thermometer at night often falling to 40 — 50 F., and seldom being 
over 90 in the shade by day), the eastern coast of the Malay Penin- 
sula receives the full force of the north-easterly gales from the sea. 
This lasts into February, when the northerly current begins to lose 
strength, and the gradual heating of the land produces local sea 
breezes from the gulf along the coast-line. Inland, the thermometer 
rises during the day to over 100 F., but the extreme continental 
heats of India are not known. The comparative humidity of the 
atmosphere, however, makes the climate trying for Europeans. 

Flora. — In its flora and fauna Siam combines the forms of Burma 
and the Shan States with those of Malaya, farther south, and of 
Cambodia to the south-east. The coast region is characterized by 
mangroves, Pandanus, rattans, and similar palms with long flexible 
stems, and the middle region by the great rice-fields, the coco-nut 
and areca palms, and the usual tropical plants of culture. In the 
temperate uplands of the interior, as about Luang Prabang, Hima- 
layan and Japanese species occur — oaks, pines, chestnuts, peach 
and great apple trees, raspberries, honeysuckle, vines, saxifrages, 
Cichoraceae, anemones and Violaceae; there are many valuable 
timber trees — teak, sappan, eagle-wood, wood-oil (Hopea), and 
other Dipterocarpaceae, Cedrelaceae, Pterocarpaceae, Xylia, iron- 
wood and other dye-woods and resinous trees, these last forming 
in many districts a large proportion of the more open forests, with 
an undergrowth of bamboo. The teak tree grows all over the hill 
districts north of latitude 15 , but seems to attain its best develop- 
ment on the west, and on the east does not appear to be found 
south of 17°. Most of the so-called Burma teak exported from 
Moulmein is floated down from Siamese territory. Among other 
valuable forest products are thingan wood (Hopea odorata), largely 
used for boat-building; damar oil, taken throughout Indo-China 
from the Dipterccarpus levis; agilla wood, sapan, rosewood, iron- 
wood, ebony, rattan. Among the chief productions of the plains 
are rice (the staple export of the country) ; pepper (chiefly from 
Chantabun) ; sirih, sago, sugar-cane, coco-nut and betel, Palmyra or 
sugar and attap palms; 'many forms cf banana and other fruit, 
such as durian, orange-pommelo, guava, bread-fruit, mango, jack 
fruit, pine-apple, custard-apple and mangosteen. 

Fauna. — Few countries are so well stocked with big game as is 
Siam. Chief of animals is the elephant, which roams wild in large 
numbers, and is extensively caught and tamed by the people for 
transport. The tiger, leopard, fishing-cat, leopard-cat, and other 
species of wild-cat, as well as the honey-bear, large sloth-bear, and 
one- and two-horned rhinoceros, occur. Among the great wild 
cattle are the formidable gaur, or seladang, the banting, and the 
water-buffalo. The goat antelope is found, and several varieties 
of deer. Wild pig, several species of rats, and many bats — one of 
the commonest being the flying-fox, and many species of monkey — 
especially the gibbon — are also met with. Of snakes, 56 species are 
known, but only 12 are poisonous, and of these 4 are sea-snakes. 
The waters of Siam are particularly rich in fish. The crocodile is 
common in many of the rivers and estuaries of Siam, and there are 
many lizards. The country is rich in birds, a large number of which 
appear to be common to Burma and Cambodia. 

1 See E. Joubert in F. Gamier, Voyage a" exploration en Indo- 
Chine (Paris, 1873), vol. ii.; Counillon, Documents pour servir & 
I'etude ghlogique des environs de Luang Prabang (Cochinchine) , 
Comptes rendus (1896), cxxiii. 1330-1333. 



SIAM 



Inhabitants. — A census of the rural population was taken for 
the first time in 1905. The first census of Bangkok and its 
suburbs was taken in 1909. Results show the total population 
of the country to be about 6,230,000. Of this total about 
3,000,000 are Siamese, about 2,000,000 Laos, about 400,000 
Chinese, 1 1 5,000 Malay, 80,000 Cambodian and the rest Burmese, 
Indian, Mohn, Karen, Annamite, Kache, Lawa and others. Of 
Europeans and Americans there are between 1300 and 1500, 
mostly resident in Bangkok. Englishmen number about 500; 
Germans, 190; Danes, 160; Americans, 150, and other nation- 
alities are represented in smaller numbers. The Siamese inhabit 
central Siam principally, but extend into the nearer districts 
of all the other sections. The Laos predominate in northern 
and eastern Siam, Malays mingle with the Siamese in southern 
Siam, and the Chinese are found scattered all over, but keeping 
mostly to the towns. Bangkok, the capital, with some 650,000 
inhabitants, is about one-third Chinese, while in the suburbs are 
to be found settlements of Mohns, Burmese, Annamites and 
Cambodians, the descendants of captives taken in ancient wars. 
The Eurasian population of Siam is very small compared with 
that of other large cities of the East. Of the tribes which occupy 
the mountains of Siam some are the remnants of the very ancient 
inhabitants of the country, probably of the Mohn-Khmer family, 
who were supplanted by a later influx of more civilized Khmers 
from the south-east, the forerunners and part-ancestors of the 
Siamese, and were still farther thrust into the remoter hills 
when the Lao-Tai descended from the north. Of these the 
principal are the Lawa, Lamet, Ka Hok, Ka Yuen and Kamoo, 
the last four collectively known to the Siamese as Ka. Other 
tribes, whose presence is probably owing to immigration at 
remote or recent periods, are the Karens of the western frontier 
range, the Lu, Yao, Yao Yin, Meo and Musur of northern Siam. 
The Karens of Siam number about 20,000, and are found as 
far. south as 13 N. They are mere offshoots from the main 
tribes which inhabit the Burma side of the boundary range, 
and are suDposed by some to be of Burmo-Tibetan origin. The 
Lu, Yao, Yao Yin, Meo and Musur have Yunnanese charac- 
teristics, are met with in the Shan States north of Siam and in 
Yun-nan, and are supposed to have found their way into northern 
Siam since the beginning of the 19th century. In the mountains 
behind Chantabun a small tribe called Chong is found, and in 
southern Siam the Sakei and Semang inhabit the higher ranges. 
These last three have Negrito characteristics, and probably 
represent a race far older even than the ancient Ka. 

The typical Siamese is of medium height, well formed, with 
olive complexion, darker than the Chinese, but fairer than the 
Malays, eyes well shaped though slightly inclined to the oblique, 
nose broad and flat, lips prominent, the face wide across the 
cheek-bones and the chin short. A thin moustache is common, 
the beard, if present, is plucked out, and the hair of the head is 
black, coarse and cut short. The lips are usually deep red and 
the teeth stained black from the habit of betel-chewing. The 
children are pretty but soon lose their charm, and the race, 
generally speaking, is ugly from the European standpoint. 
The position of women is good. Polygamy is permitted, but is 
common only among the upper classes, and when it occurs the 
first wife is acknowledged head of the household. In disposition 
the Siamese are mild-mannered, patient, submissive to authority, 
kindly and hospitable to strangers. They are a light-hearted, 
apathetic people, little given to quarrelling or to the commission 
of violent crime. Though able and intelligent cultivators they 
do not take kindly to any form of labour other than agricultural, 
with the result that most of the industries and trades of the 
country are in the hands of Chinese. 

The national costume of the Siamese is the panung, a piece of 
cloth about I yd. wide and 3 yds. long. The middle of it is passed 
round the body, which it covers from the waist to the knees, and is 
hitched in front so that the two ends hang down in equal length 
before; these being twisted together are passed back between the 
legs, drawn up and tucked into the waist at the middle of the back. 
The panung is common to both sexes, the women supplementing it 
with a scarf worn round the body under the arms. Among the better 
classes both sexes wear also a jacket buttoned to the throat, stockings 
and shoes, and all the men, except servants, wear hats. 



The staple food of the Siamese is rice and fish. Meat is eaten, 
but, as the slaughter of animals is against Buddhist tenets, is not 
often obtainable, with the exception of pork, killed by Chinese. 
The men smoke, but the women do not. Everybody chews betel. 
The principal pastimes are gambling, boat-racing, cock- and fish- 
fighting and kite-flying, and a kind of football. 

Slavery, once common, has been gradually abolished by a series of 
laws, the last of which came into force in 1905. No such thing as 
caste exists, and low birth is no insuperable bar to the attainment of 
the highest dignities. There are no hereditary titles , those in use being 
conferred for life only and being attached to some particular office. 

Towns. — There are very few towns with a population of over 
10,000 inhabitants in Siam, the majority being merely scattered 
townships or clusters of villages, the capitals of the provinces 
(muang) being often no more than a few houses gathered round the 
market-place, the offices and the governor's residence. The more 
important places of northern Siam include Chieng Mai (q.v.), the 
capital ,of the north, Chieng Rai, near the northern frontier; 
Lampun, also known as Labong (originally Haribunchai), the first 
Lao settlement in Siam ; Lampang, Tern, Nan and Pre, each the 
seat of a Lao chief and of a Siamese commissioner; Utaradit, 
Pichai, Pichit, Pechabun and Raheng, the last of importance as a 
timber station, with Phitsnulok, Sukhotai, Swankalok, Kampeng 
Pet and Nakhon Sawan, former capitals of Khmer-Siamese king- 
doms, and at present the headquarters of provincial governments. 
In eastern Siam the only towns of importance are Korat and Ubon, 
capitals of divisions, and Nong Kai, an ancient place on the Mekong 
river. In central Siam, after Bangkok and Ayuthia, places of im- 
portance on the Menam Chao Phaya are Pak-Nam at the river 
mouth, the seat of a governor, terminus of a railway and site of 
modern fortifications; Paklat, the seat of a governor, a town of 
Mohns, descendants of refugees from Pegu ; Nontaburi, a few miles 
above Bangkok, the seat of a governor and possessing a large market; 
Pratoomtani, Angtong, Prom, Inburi, Chainat and Saraburi, all 
administrative centres ; and Lopburi, the last capital before Ayuthia 
and the residence of kings during the Ayuthia period, a city of ruins 
now gradually reawakening as a centre of railway traffic. To the 
west of the Menam Chao Phaya lie Suphanburi and Ratburi, ancient 
cities, now government headquarters; Pechaburi (the Piply of 
early travellers), the terminus of the western railway; and Phrapa- 
toom, with its huge pagoda on the site of the capital of Sri Wichaiya, 
a kingdom of 2000 years ago, and now a place of military, agricultural 
and other schools. To the east, in the Bang Pakong river-basin 
and down the eastern shore of the gulf, are Pachim, a divisional 
headquarters; Petriou (q.v.) ; Bang Plasoi, a fishing centre, with 
Rayong, Chantabun (q.v.) and Krat, producing gems and pepper. 
In southern Siam the chief towns are Chumpon; Bandon, with a 
growing timber industry ; Nakhon Sri Tammarat (q.v.) ; Singora 
Xq-v.) ; Puket (q.v.) ; Patani. 

Communications. — Central Siam is supplied with an exceptionally 
complete system of water communications; for not only has it the 
three rivers with their tributaries and much-divided courses, but all 
three are linked together by a series of canals which, running in 
parallel lines across the plain from E. to W., make the farthest 
corners of this section of the kingdom easily accessible from the 
capital. The level of the land is so low, the soil so soft, and stone 
suitable for metal so entirely absent, that the making and upkeep of 
roads would here be ruinously expensive. Former rulers have 
realized this and have therefore confined themselves to canal making. 
Some of the canals are very old, others are of comparatively recent 
construction. In the past they were often allowed to fall into dis- 
repair, but in 1903 a department of government was formed to 
control their upkeep, with the result that most of them were soon 
furnished with new locks, deepened, and made thoroughly service- 
able. The boat traffic on them is so great that the collection of a 
small toll more than suffices to pay for all maintenance expenses. 
In northern and southern Siam, where the conditions are different, 
roads are being slowly made, but natural difficulties are great, and 
travelling in those distant parts is still a matter of much discomfort. 

In 1909 there were 640 miles of railway open. All but 65 miles 
was under state management. The main line from Bangkok to the 
north had reached Pang Tong Phung, some distance north of 
Utaradit and 10 m. south of Meh Puak, which was selected as 
the terminus for the time being, the continuation to Chieng Mai, 
the original objective, being postponed pending the construction of 
another and more important line. This latter was the continuation 
through southern Siam of the line already constructed from Bangkok 
south-west to Petchaburi (no m.), with funds borrowed, under a 
recent agreement, from the Federated (British) Malay States 
government, which work, following upon surveys made in 1907, 
was begun in 1909 under the direction of a newly constituted 
southern branch of the Royal Railways department. From Ban 
Paji on the main line a branch extends north-eastwards no m. to 
Korat. To the east of Bangkok the Bangkok-Petriew line (40 m.) 
was completed and open for traffic. 

The postal service extends to all parts of the country and is fairly 
efficient. Siam joined the Postal Union in 1885. The inland tele- 
graph is also widely distributed, and foreign lines communicate with 
Saigon, the Straits Settlements and Moulmein. 
Agriculture. — The cultivation of paddi (unhusked rice) forms the 



SIAM 



occupation of practically the whole population of Siam outside the 
capital. Primitive methods obtain, but the Siamese are efficient 
cultivators and secure good harvests nevertheless. The sowing and 
planting season is from June to August, and the reaping season 
from December to February. Forty or fifty varieties of paddi are 
grown, and Siam rice is of the best in the world. Irrigation is 
rudimentary, for no system exists for raising the water of the in- 
numerable canals on to the fields. Water-supply depends chiefly, 
therefore, on local rainfall. In 1905 the government started pre- 
liminary surveys for a system of irrigation. Tobacco, pepper, 
coco-nuts and maize are other agricultural products. Tobacco of 
good quality supplies local requirements but is not exported ; pepper, 
grown chiefly in Chantabun and southern Siam, annually yields 
about 900 tons for export. From coco-nuts about 10,000 tons of 
copra are made for export each year, and maize is used for local 
consumption only. Of horned cattle statistical returns show over 
two million head in the whole country. 

Mining. — The minerals of Siam include gold, silver, rubies, 
sapphires, tin, copper, iron, zinc and coal. Tin-mining is a flourish- 
ing industry near Puket on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, 
and since 1905 much prospecting and some mining has been done 
on the east coast. The export of tin in 1908 exceeded 5000 tons, 
valued at over £600,000. Rubies and sapphires are mined in the 
Chantabun district in the south-east. The Mining Department of 
Siam is a well-organized branch of the government, employing 
several highly-qualified English experts. 

Timber. — The extraction of teak from the forests of northern Siam 
employs a large number of people. The industry is almost entirely 
in the hands of Europeans, British largely predominating. The 
number of teak logs brought out via the Salween and Menam Chao 
Phaya rivers average 160,000 annually, Siam being thus the largest 
teak-producing country of the world. A Forest Department, in 
which experienced officers recruited from the Indian Forest Service 
are employed, has for many years controlled the forests of Siam. 

Technology. — The government has since 1903 given attention to 
sericulture, and steps have been taken to improve Siamese silk with 
the aid of scientists borrowed from the Japanese Ministry of 
Agriculture. Surveying and the administration of the land have 
for a long time occupied the attention of the government. A 
Survey Department, inaugurated about 1887, has completed the 
general survey of the whole country, and has made a cadastral 
survey of a large part of the thickly inhabited and highly cultivated 
districts of central Siam. A Settlement Commission, organized in 
1901, decided the ownership of lands, and, on completion, handed 
over its work to a Land Registration Department. Thus a very 
complete settlement of much of the richest agricultural land in the 
country has been effected. The education of the youth of Siam in 
the technology of the industries practised has not been neglected. 
Pupils are sent to the best foreign agricultural, forestry and mining 
schools, and, after going through the prescribed course, often with 
distinction, return to Siam to apply their knowledge with more or 
less success. Moreover, a college under the control of the Ministry 
of Lands and Agriculture, which was founded in 1909, provides locally 
courses of instruction in these subjects and also in irrigation engineer- 
ing, sericulture and surveying. 

Commerce. — Rice-mills, saw-mills and a few distilleries of locally 
consumed liquor, one or two brick and tile factories, and here and 
there a shed in which coarse pottery is made, are all Siam has in 
the way of factories. All manufactured articles of daily use are 
imported, as is all ironware and machinery. The foreign commerce 
of Siam is very ancient. Her commerce with India, China and 
probably Japan dates from the beginning of the Christian era or 
earlier, while that with Europe began in the 16th century. Trade 
with her immediate neighbours is now insignificant, the total value 
of annual imports and exports being about £400,000; but sea- 
borne commerce is in a very flourishing condition. Bangkok, with 
an annual trade valued at £13,000,000, easily overtops all the rest 
of the country, the other ports together accounting for a total of 
imports and exports not exceeding £3,000,000. On both the east 
and west coasts of southern Siam trade is increasing rapidly, and is 
almost entirely with the Straits Settlements. The trade of the 
west coast is carried in British ships exclusively, that on the east 
coast by British and Siamese. 

Art. — The Siamese are an artistic nation. Their architecture, 
drawing, goldsmith's work, carving, music and dancing are all highly 
developed in strict accordance with the traditions of Indo-Chinese 
art. Architecture, chiefly exercised in connexion with religious 
buildings, is clearly a decadent form of that practised by the ancient 
Khmers, whose architectural remains are among the finest in the 
world. The system of music is elaborate but is not written, vocalists 
and instrumentalists performing entirely by ear. The interval corre- 
sponding to the octave being divided into seven equal parts, each 
about if semitone, it follows that Siamese music sounds strange in 
Western ears. Harmony is unknown, and orchestras, which include 
fiddles, flutes, drums and harmonicons, perform in unison. The 
goldsmith's work of Siam is justly celebrated. Repousse work in 
silver, which is still practised, dates from the most ancient times. 
Almost every province has its special patterns and processes, the 
most elaborate being those of Nakhon Sri Tammarat (Ligore), 
Chantabun and the Laos country. In the Ligore ware the hammered 



ground-work is inlaid with a black composition of sulphides of baser 
metals which throws up the pattern with distinctness. 

Government. — The government of Siam is an absolute monarchy. 
The heir to the throne is appointed by the king, and was formerly 
chosen from among all the members of his family, collateral as 
well as descendants. The choice was sometimes made early . 
in the reign when the heir held the title of " Chao Uparach " 
or " Wang' Na," miscalled " Second King " in English, and 
sometimes was left until the death of the king was imminent. 
The arrangement was fraught with danger to the public tran- 
quillity, and one of the reforms of the last sovereign was the 
abolition of the office of " Chao Uparach " and a decree that the 
throne should in future descend from the king to one of his sons 
born of a queen, which decree was immediately followed by the 
appointment of a crown prince. There is a council consisting 
of the ten ministers of state — for foreign affairs, war, interior, 
finance, household, justice, metropolitan government, public 
works, public instruction and for agriculture — together with the 
general adviser. There is also a legislative council, of which 
the above are ex officio members, consisting of forty-five persons 
appointed by the king. The council meets once a week for the 
transaction of the business of government. The king is an 
autocrat in practice as well as in theory, he has an absolute 
power of veto, and the initiative of measures rests largely 
with him. Most departments have the benefit of European 
advisers. The government offices are conducted much on 
European lines. The Christian Sunday is observed as a holiday 
and regular hours are prescribed for attendance. The numerous 
palace and other functions make some demand upon ministers' 
time, and, as the king transacts most of his affairs at night, 
high officials usually keep late office hours. The Ministry of 
Interior and certain technical departments are recruited from 
the civil service schools, but many appointments in government 
service go by patronage. For administrative purposes the 
country is divided into seventeen montons (or divisions) each 
in charge of a high commissioner, and an 'eighteenth, including 
Bangkok and the surrounding suburban provinces, under the 
direct control of the minister for metropolitan government (see 
Bangkok). The high commissioners are responsible to the 
minister of interior, and the montons are furnished with a very 
complete staff for the various branches of the administration. 
The montons consist of groups of the old rural provinces (muang), 
the hereditary chiefs of which, except in the Lao country in the 
north and in the Malay States, have been replaced by governors 
trained in administrative work and subordinate to the high 
commissioner. Each muang is subdivided into ampurs under 
assistant commissioners, and these again are divided into village 
circles under headmen (kamnans), which circles comprise villages 
under the control of elders. The suburban provinces of the 
metropolitan monton are also divided as above. The policing 
of the seventeen montons is provided for by a gendarmerie of 
over 7000 men and officers (many of the latter Danes), a 
well-equipped and well-disciplined force. That of the sub- 
urban provinces is effected by branches of the Bangkok civil 
police. 

Finance. — The revenue administration is controlled by the 
ministers of the interior, of metropolitan government and of finance, 
by means of well-organized departments and with expert European 
assistance. The total revenue of the country for 1908-1909 amounted 
to 58,000,000 ticals, or, at the prevailing rate of exchange, about 
£4,300,000, made up as follows : — 

Farms and monopolies (spirits, gambling, &c.) . £783,000 

Opium revenue 823,000 

Lands, forests, mines, capitation. . . . 1,330,000 

Customs and octroi 653,000 

Posts, telegraphs and railways .... 331,000 

Judicial and other fees 270,000 

Sundries 110,000 



Total £4,300,000 

The unit of Siamese currency is the tieal, a silver coin about equal 
in weight and fineness to the Indian rupee. In 1902, owing to the 
serious depreciation of the value of silver, the Siamese mint was closed 
to free coinage, and an arrangement was made providing for the 
gradual enhancement of the value of the tical until a suitable value 
should be attained at which it might be fixed. This measure was 



SIAM 



successful, the value of the tical having thereby been increased from 
n jd. in 1902 to is. 5{|d. in 1909, to the improvement of the 
national credit and of the value of the revenues. A paper currency 
was established in 1902, and proved a financial success. In 1905 
Siam contracted her first public loan, £1,000,000 being raised in 
London and Paris at 95^ and bearing 4.5 % interest. This sum was 
employed chiefly in railway construction, and in 1907 a second loan 
of £3,000,000 was issued in London, Paris and Berlin at 93! for the 
same purpose and for extension of irrigation works. A further sum 
of £4,000,000 was borrowed in 1909 from the government of the 
Federated (British) Malay States at par and bearing interest at 
4 %, also for railway construction. 

Weights and Measures. — In accordance with the custom formerly 
prevalent in all the kingdoms of Further India, the coinage of Siam 
furnishes the standard of weight. The tical (baht) is the unit of 
currency and also the unit of weight. Eighty ticals equal one 
chang and fifty chang equal one haph, equivalent to the Chinese 
picul, or 1332ft avoirdupois. For the weighing of gold, gems, opium, 
&c, the fuang, equal to J tical, and the salung, equal to i tical, are 
used. The unit of linear measure is the wah, which is subdivided into 
J wah or sauk, f wah or kup, and into fa wah or niew. Twenty wah 
equal one sen and 400 sen equal one yote. The length of the wah 
has been fixed at two metres. The unit of land measure is the rai, 
which is equal to 400 square wah, and is subdivided into four equal 
ngan. Measures of capacity are the tang or bucket, and the sat or 
basket. Twenty tanan, originally a half coco-nut shell, equal one 
tang, and twenty-five of the same measure equal one sat. The tang 
is used for measuring rice and the sat for paddi and other grain. 
One sat of paddi weighs 42 J ft avoirdupois. 

Army and Navy. — By a law passed in 1903, the ancient system 
of recruiting the army and navy from the descendants of former 
prisoners of war was abolished in favour of compulsory service by 
all able-bodied men. The new arrangement, which is strictly terri- 
torial, was enforced in eight montons by the year 1909, resulting in a 
standing peace army of 20,000 of all ranks, in a marine service of 
about 10,000, and in the beginnings of first and second reserves. 
The navy, many of the officers of which are Danes and Norwegians, 
comprises a steel twin-screw cruiser of 2500 tons which serves as 
the royal yacht, four steel gunboats of between 500 and 700 tons all 
armed with modern quick-firing guns, two torpedo-boat destroyers 
and three torpedo boats, with other craft for river and coast work. 

Justice.— Since the institution of the Ministry of Justice in 1892 
very great improvements have been effected in this branch of the 
administration. The • old tribunals where customary law was 
administered by ignorant satellites of the great, amid unspeakable 
corruption, have all been replaced by organized courts with qualified 
judges appointed from the Bangkok law school, and under the 
direct control of the ministry in all except the most outlying parts. 
The ministry is well organized, and with the assistance of European 
and Japanese officers of experience has drafted a large number of 
laws and regulations, most of which have been brought into force. 
Extra-territorial jurisdiction was for long secured by treaty for the 
subjects of all foreign powers, who could therefore only be sued in 
the courts maintained in Siam by their own governments, while 
European assessors were employed in cases where foreigners sued 
Siamese. An indication, however, foreshadowing the disappearance 
of extra-territorial rights, appeared in the treaty of 1907 between 
France and Siam, the former power therein surrendering all such 
rights where Asiatics are concerned so soon as the Siamese penal and 
procedure codes should have become law, and this was followed 
by a much greater innovation in 1909 when Great Britain closed her 
courts in Siam and surrendered her subjects under certain temporary 
conditions to the jurisdiction of the Siamese courts. When it is 
understood that there are over 30,000 Chinese, Annamese, Burmese 
and other Asiatic foreign subjects living in Siam, the importance to 
the country of this change will be to some extent realized. 

Religion. — While the pure-blooded Malays of the Peninsula are 
Mahommedans, the Siamese and Lao profess a form of Buddhism 
which is tinged by Cingalese and Burmese influences, and, especially 
in the more remote country districts, by the spirit-worship which is 
characteristic of the imaginative and timid Ka and other hill peoples 
of Indo-China. In the capital a curious admixture of early Brah- 
minical influence is still noticeable, and no act of public importance 
takes place without the assistance of the divinations of the Brahmin 
priests. The Siamese, as southern Buddhists, pride themselves on 
their orthodoxy; and since Burma, like Ceylon, has lost its inde- 
pendence, the king is regarded in the light of the sole surviving 
defender of the faith. There is a close connexion between the laity 
and priesthood, as the Buddhist rule, which prescribes that every 
man should enter the priesthood for at least a few months, is almost 
universally observed, even young princes and noblemen who have 
been educated in Europe donning the yellow robe on their return to 
Siam. A certain amount of scepticism prevails among the educated 
classes, and political motives may contribute to their apparent 
orthodoxy, but there is no open dissent from Buddhism, and those 
who discard its dogmas still, as a rule, venerate it as an ethical 
system. The accounts given by some writers as to the profligacy 
and immorality in the monasteries are grossly exaggerated. Many 
of the temples in the capital are under the direct supervision of the 
king, and in these a stricter rule of life is observed. Some of the 



priests are learned in the Buddhist scriptures, and most of the Pali 
scholarship in Siam is to be found in monasteries, but there is no 
learning of a secular nature. There is little public worship in the 
Christian sense of the word. On the day set apart for worship (Wan 
Phra, or " Day of the Lord ") the attendance at the temples is small 
and consists mostly of women. Religious or semi-religious cere- 
monies, however, play a great part in the life of the Siamese, and 
few weeks pass without some great function or procession. Among 
these the cremation ceremonies are especially conspicuous. The 
more exalted the personage the longer, as a rule, is the body kept 
before cremation. The cremations of great people, which often last 
several days, are the occasion of public festivities and are celebrated 
with processions, theatrical shows, illuminations and fireworks. 
The missionaries in Siam are entirely French Roman Catholics and 
American Protestants. They have done much to help on the general 
work of civilization, and the progress of education has been largely 
due to their efforts. 

Education. — As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered 
throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary 
education in the rural districts. A provincial training college was 
established in 1903 for the purpose of instructing priests and laymen 
in the work of teaching, and has turned out many qualified teachers 
whose subsequent work has proved satisfactory. By these means, 
and with regular government supervision and control, the monastic 
schools are being brought into line with the government educational 
organization. They now contain not far short of 100,000 pupils. 
In the metropolitan monton there are primary, secondary and special 
schools for boys and girls, affording instruction to some 10,000 
pupils. There are also the medical school, the law school, the civil 
service school, the military schools and the agricultural college, 
which are entered by students who have passed through the secondary 
grade for the purpose of receiving professional instruction. Many 
of the special . schools use the English language for conveying 
instruction, and there are three special schools where the whole 
curriculum is conducted in English by English masters. Two 
scholarships of £300 a year each for four years are annually com- 
peted for by the scholars of these schools, the winners of which 
proceed to Europe to study a subject of their own selection which 
shall fit them for the future service of their country. Most of the 
special schools also give scholarships to enable the best of their 
pupils to complete their studies abroad. The result of the wide- 
spread monastic school system is that almost all men can read and 
write a little, though the women are altogether illiterate. 



History. 
Concerning the origin of the name " Siam " many theories 
have been advanced. The early European visitors to the 
country noticed that it was not officially referred to by any such 
name, and therefore apparently conceived that the term must 
have been applied from outside. Hence the first written accounts 
give Portuguese, Malay and other derivations, some of which 
have continued to find credence among quite recent writers. 
It is now known, however, that " Siam " or " Sayam " is one 
of the most ancient names of the country, and that at least 
a thousand years ago it was in common use, such titles as 
Swankalok-Sukhotai, Shahr-i-nao, Dwarapuri, Ayuthia, the last 
sometimes corrupted to " Judea," by which the kingdom has 
been known at various periods of its history, being no more than 
the names of the different capital cities whose rulers in turn 
brought the land under their sway. The Siamese (Thai) call 
their country Muang Thai, or " the country of the Thai race," 
but the ancient name Muang Sayam has lately been revived. 
The gradual evolution of the Siamese (Thai) from the fusion of 
Lao-Tai and Khmer races has been mentioned above. Their 
language, the most distinctively Lao-Tai" attribute which they 
have, plainly shows their very close relationship with the latter 
race and its present branches, the Shans (Tai Long) and the 
Ahom of Assam, while their appearance, customs, written 
character and religion bear strong evidence of their affinity with 
the Khmers. The southward movement of the Lao-Tai family 
from their original seats in south-west China is of very ancient 
date, the Lao states of Luang Prabang and Wieng Chan on the 
Mekong having been founded at least two thousand years ago. 
The first incursions of Lao-Tai among the Khmers of northern 
Siam were probably later, for the town of Lampun (Labong or 
Haribunchai), the first Lao capital in Siam, was founded about 
a.d. 575. The fusion of races may be said to have begun then, 
for it was during the succeeding centuries that the kings of 
Swankalok-Sukhotai gradually assumed Lao characteristics, 
and that the Siamese language, written character and other 
racial peculiarities were in course of formation. But the finishing 



SIAM 



touches to the new race were supplied by the great expulsion of 
Lao-Tai from south-west China by Kublai Khan in a.d. 1250, 
which profoundly affected the whole of Further India. There- 
after the north, the west and the south-west of Siam, comprising 
the kingdom of Swankalok-Sukhotai, and the states of Suphan 
and Nakhon Sri Tammarat (Ligore), with their sub-feudatories, 
were reduced by the Siamese (Thai) , who, during their southern 
progress, moved their capital from Sukhotai to Nakhon Sawan, 
thence to Kampeng Pet, and thence again to Suvarnabhumi 
near the present Kanburi. A Sukhotai inscription of about 
1284 states that the dominions of King Rama Kamheng ex- 
tended across the country from the Mekong to Pechaburi, and 
thence down the Gulf of Siam to Ligore; and the Malay annals 
say that the Siamese had penetrated to the extremity of the 
peninsula before the first Malay colony from Menangkabu 
founded Singapore, i.e. about 1160. Meanwhile the ancient 
state of Lavo (Lopburi), with its capital at Sano (Sornau or 
Shahr-i-nao), at one time feudatory to Swankalok-Sukhotai, 
remained the last stronghold of the Khmer, although even here 
the race was much modified by Lao-Tai blood; but presently 
Sano also was attacked, and its fall completed the ascendancy 
of the Siamese (Thai) throughout the country. The city of 
Ayuthia which rose in a.d. 1350 upon the ruins of Sano was the 
capital of the first true Siamese king of all Siam. This king's 
sway extended to Moulmein, Tavoy, Tenasserim and the whole 
Malacca peninsula (where among the traders from the west 
Siam was known as Sornau, i.e. Shahr-i-nau, long after Sano 
had disappeared — Yule's Marco Polo, ii. 260), and was felt even 
in Java. This is corroborated by Javan records, which describe 
a " Cambodian " invasion about 1340; but Cambodia was 
itself invaded about this time by the Siamese, who took Angkor 
and held it for a time, carrying off 90,000 captives. The great 
southward expansion here recorded is confirmed by the Chinese 
annals of the period. The wars with Cambodia continued with 
varying success for some 400 years, but Cambodia gradually 
lost ground and was finally shorn of several provinces, her 
sovereign falling entirely under Siamese influence. This, how- 
ever, latterly became displeasing to the French, now in Cochin 
China, and Siam was ultimately obliged to recognize the pro- 
tectorate forced on Cambodia by that power. Vigorous attacks 
were also made during this period on the Lao states to the north- 
west and north-east, followed by vast deportation of the people, 
and Siamese supremacy was pretty firmly established in Chieng- 
mai and its dependencies by the end of the 18th century, and over 
the great eastern capitals, Luang Prabang and Vien-chang, 
about 1828. During the 15th and 16th centuries Siam was 
frequently invaded by the Burmese and Peguans, who, attracted 
probably by the great wealth of Ayuthia, besieged it more than 
once without success, the defenders being aided by Portuguese 
mercenaries, till about 1555, when the city was taken and Siam 
reduced to dependence. From this condition, however, it was 
raised a few years later by the great conqueror and national 
hero Phra Naret, who after subduing Laos and Cambodia 
invaded Pegu, which was utterly overthrown in the next century 
by his successors. But after the civil wars of the 18th century 
the Burmese, having previously taken Chieng-mai, which 
appealed to Siam for help, entered Tenasserim and took Mergui 
and Tavoy in 1764, and then advancing simultaneously from 
the north and the west captured and destroyed Ayuthia after 
a two years' siege (1767). 

The intercourse between France and Siam began about 1680 
under Phra Narain, who, by the advice of his minister, the 
Cephalonian adventurer Constantine Phaulcon, sent an embassy 
to Louis XIV. When the return mission arrived, the eagerness 
of the ambassador for the king's conversion to Christianity, 
added to the intrigues of Phaulcon with the Jesuits with the 
supposed intention of establishing a French supremacy, led to 
the death of Phaulcon, the persecution of the Christians, and 
the cessation of all intercourse with France. An interesting 
episode was the active intercourse, chiefly commercial, between 
the Siamese and Japanese governments from 1502 to 1632. 
Many Japanese settled in Siam, where they were much employed. 



They were dreaded as soldiers, and as individuals commanded 
a position resembling that of Europeans in most eastern countries. 
The jealousy of their increasing influence at last led to a massacre, 
and to the expulsion or absorption of the survivors. Japan 
was soon after this, in 1636, closed to foreigners; but trade 
was carried on at all events down to 1745 through Dutch and 
Chinese and occasional English traders. In 1752 an embassy 
came from Ceylon, desiring to renew the ancient friendship and 
to discuss religious matters. After the fall of Ayuthia a great 
general, Phaya Takh Sin, collected the remains of the army 
and restored the fortunes of the kingdom, establishing his 
capital at Bangkok; but, becoming insane, he was put to 
death, and was succeeded by another successful general, Phaya 
Chakkri, who founded the present dynasty. Under him Tenas- 
serim was invaded and Tavoy held for the last time by the 
Siamese in 1792, though in 1825, taking advantage of the Bur- 
mese difficulty with England, they bombarded some of the towns 
on that coast. The supremacy of China is indicated by occasional 
missions sent, as on the founding of a new dynasty, to Peking, 
to bring back a seal and a calendar. But the Siamese now 
repudiate this supremacy, and have sent neither mission nor 
tribute for sixty years, while no steps have been taken by the 
Chinese to enforce its recognition. The sovereign, Phra Para- 
mendr Maha Mongkut, was a very accomplished man, an en- 
lightened reformer and devoted to science; his death, indeed, 
was caused by iatigue and exposure while observing an eclipse. 
Many of his predecessors, too, were men of different fibre from 
the ordinary Oriental sovereign, while his son Chulalong Korn, 
who succeeded him in 1868, showed himself an administrator of 
the highest capacity. He died on the 23rd of October 1910. 

Of European nations the Portuguese first established inter- 
course with Siam. This was in 1511, after the conquest of 
Malacca by D 'Albuquerque, and the intimacy lasted over a 
century, the tradition of their greatness having hardly yet died 
out. They were supplanted gradually in the 17th century by 
the Dutch, whose intercourse also lasted for a similar period; but 
they have left no traces of their presence, as the Portuguese 
always did in these countries to a greater extent than any other 
people. English traders were in Siam very early in the 17th 
century; there was a friendly interchange of letters between 
James I. and the king of Siam, who had some Englishmen in his 
service, and, when the ships visited " Sia " (which was " as 
great a city as London ") or the queen of Patani, they were 
hospitably received and accorded privileges — the important 
items of export being, as now, tin, varnish, deer-skins and 
" precious drugs." Later on, the East India Company's servants, 
jealous at the employment of Englishmen not in their service, 
attacked the Siamese, which led to a massacre of the English 
at Mergui in 1687, and the factory at Ayuthia was abandoned 
in 1688. A similar attack is said to have been made in 1719 
by the governor of Madras. After this the trade was neglected. 
Pulo Penang, an island belonging to the Siamese dependency 
of Kedah, was granted on a permanent lease to the East India 
Company in 1786, and treaties were entered into by the sultan 
of Kedah with the company. In 1822 John Crawfurd was sent 
to Bangkok to negotiate a treaty with the suzerain power, but 
the mission was unsuccessful. In 1824, by treaty with the 
Dutch, British interests became paramount in the Malay 
Peninsula and in Siam, and, two years later, Captain Burney 
signed the first treaty of friendship and commerce between 
England and Siam. A similar treaty was effected with America 
in 1833. Subsequently trade with British possessions revived, 
and in time a more elaborate treaty with England became 
desirable. Sir J. Brooke opened negotiations in 1850 which 
came to nothing, but in 1855 Sir J. Bowring signed a new treaty 
whereby Siam agreed to the appointment of a British consul in 
Bangkok, and to the exercise by that official of full extra- 
territorial powers. Englishmen were permitted to own land in 
certain defined districts, customs and port dues and land revenues 
were fixed, and many new trade facilities were granted. This 
important arrangement was followed at intervals by similar 
treaties with the other powers, the last two being those with 



8 



SIAM 



Japan in 1898 and Russia in 1899. A further convention 
afterwards provided for a second British consular district in 
northern Siam, while England and France have both appointed 
vice-consuls in different parts of the country. Thus foreigners 
in Siam, except Chinese who have no consul, could only be tried 
for criminal offences, or sued in civil cases, in their own consular 
courts. A large portion of the work of the foreign consuls, 
especially the British, was consequently judicial, and in 1901 
the office of judge was created by the British government, a 
special judge with an assistant judge being appointed to this 
post. Meanwhile, trade steadily increased, especially with 
Great Britain and the British colonies of Hong Kong and 
Singapore. 

The peaceful internal development of Siam seemed also likely 
to be favoured by the events that were taking place outside her 
frontiers. For centuries she had been distracted by wars with 
Cambodians, Peguans and Burmans, but the incorporation of 
Lower Cochin China, Annam and Tongking by the French, and 
the annexation of Lower and Upper Burma successively by the 
British, freed her from all further danger on the part of her old 
rivals. Unfortunately, she was not destined to escape trouble. 
The frontiers cf Siam, both to the east and the west, had always, 
been vague and ill-defined, as was natural in wild and unexplored 
regions inhabited by more or less barbarous tribes. The frontier 
between Siam and the new British possessions in Burma was 
settled amicably and without difficulty, but the boundary 
question on the east was a much more intricate one and was 
still outstanding. Disputes with frontier tribes led to complica- 
tions with France, who asserted that the Siamese were occupying 
territory that rightfully belonged to Annam, which was now 
under French protection. France, while assuring the British 
Government that she laid no claim to the province of Luang 
Prabang, which was situated on both banks of the upper 
Mekong, roughly between the 18th and 20th parallels, claimed 
that farther south the Mekong formed the true boundary between 
Siam and Annam, and demanded the evacuation of certain 
Siamese posts east of the river. The Siamese refused to yield, 
and early in 1893 encounters took place in the disputed area, 
in which a French officer was captured and French soldiers were 
killed. The French then despatched gunboats from Saigon to 
enforce their demands at Bangkok, and these made their way 
up to the capital in spite of an attempt on the part of the Siamese 
naval forces to bar their way. In consequence of the resistance 
with which they had met, the French now greatly increased 
their demands, insisting on the Siamese giving up all territory 
east of the Mekong, including about half of Luang Prabang, 
on the payment of an indemnity and on the permanent with- 
drawal of all troops and police to a distance of 25 kilometres 
from the right bank of the Mekong. Ten days' blockade of the 
port caused the Siamese government to accede to these demands, 
and a treaty was made, the French sending troops to occupy 
Chantabun until its provisions should have been carried out. 

In 1895 lengthy negotiations took place between France and 
England concerning their respective eastern and western frontiers 
in Farther India. These negotiations bore important fruit 
in the Anglo-French convention of 1896, the chief provision of 
which was the neutralization by the contracting parties of the 
central portion of Siam, consisting of the basin of the river 
Menam, with its rich and fertile land, which contains most of the 
population and the wealth of the country. Neither eastern nor 
southern Siam was included in this agreement, but nothing was 
said to impair or lessen in any way the full sovereign rights of 
the king of Siam over those parts of the country. Siam thus has 
its independence guaranteed by the two European powers who 
alone have interests in Indo-China, England on the west and 
France on the east, and has therefore a considerable political 
interest similar to that of Afghanistan, which forms a buffer state 
between the Russian and British possessions on the north of 
India. Encouraged by the assurance of the Anglo-French 
convention, Siam now turned her whole attention to internal 
reform, and to such good purpose that, in a few years, improved 
government and expansion of trade aroused a general interest 



in her welfare, and gave her a stability which had before been 
lacking. With the growth of confidence negotiations with 
France were reopened, and, after long discussion, the treaty of 
1893 was set aside and Chantabun evacuated in return for the 
cession of the provinces of Bassac, Melupre, and the remainder 
of Luang Prabang, all on the right bank of the Mekong, and of 
the maritime district of Krat. These results were embodied 
in a new treaty signed and ratified in 1904. 

Meanwhile, in 1899, negotiations with the British government 
led to agreements defining the status of British subjects in Siam, 
and fixing the frontier between southern Siam and the British 
Malay States, while in 1900 the provisions of Sir J. Bowring's 
treaty of 1855, fixing the rates of land revenue, were abrogated 
in order to facilitate Siamese financial reform. 

In 1907 a further convention was made with France, Siam 
returning to the French protectorate of Cambodia the province 
of Battambang conquered in 181 1, and in compensation receiving 
back from France the maritime province of Krat and the district 
of Dansai, which had been ceded in 1904. This convention also 
modified the extra-territorial rights enjoyed by France in Siam, 
and disclosed an inclination to recognize the material improve- 
ments of the preceding years. In 1907 also negotiations were 
opened with Great Britain, the objects of which were to modify 
the extra-territorial rights conceded to that power by the 
treaty of 1855, and to remove various restrictions regarding 
taxation and general administration, which, though diminished 
from time to time by agreement, still continued to hamper the 
government very much. These negotiations continued all 
through 1908 and resulted in a treaty, signed and ratified in 
1909, by which Siam ceded to Great Britain her suzerain rights 
over trie dependencies of Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and 
Perlis, Malay states situated in southern Siam just north of 
British Malaya, containing in all about a million inhabitants 
and for the most part flourishing and wealthy, and obtained the 
practical abolition of British jurisdiction in Siam proper as well 
as relief from any obligations which, though probably very 
necessary when they were incurred, had long since become mere 
useless and vexatious obstacles to progress towards efficient 
government. This treaty, a costly one to Siam, is important 
as opening up a prospect of ultimate abandonment of extra- 
territorial rights by all the powers. Administrative reform 
and an advanced railway policy have made of Siam a market 
for the trade of Europe, which has become an object of keen 
competition. In 1908 the British empire retained the lead, but 
other nations, notably Germany, Denmark, Italy and Belgium, 
had recently acquired large interests in the commerce of the 
country. Japan also, after an interruption of more than two 
hundred years, had resumed active commercial relations with 
Siam. 

Authorities. — H. Alabaster, Wheel of the Law (London, 1871); 
Dr Anderson, English Intercourse with Siam in the 17th Century 
(London, 1890) ; W. J. Archer, Journey in the Mekong Valley (1892) ; 
C. Bock, Temples and Elephants; Sir John Bowring, The Kingdom 
and People of Siam (London, 1857) ; J. G. D. Campbell, Siam in 
the Twentieth Century (London, 1902) ; A. C. Carter, The Kingdom 
of Siam (New York, 1904) ; A. R. Colquhoun, Amongst the Shans 
(London, 1885) ; J. Crawfurd, Journal of an Embassy to Siam 
(London, 1829); Lord Curzon, Nineteenth Century (July, 1893); 
H.R.H. Prince Damrong, " The Foundation of Ayuthia," Siam 
Society Journal (1905); Diplomatic and Consular Reports for 
Bangkok and Chien Mai (1 888-1 907); Directory for Bangkok and 
Siam {Bangkok Times Office Annual); Francis Gamier, Voyage 
d' exploration en Indo-Chine (Paris, 1873); Geographical Journal, 
papers by J. S. Black, Lord Curzon, Lord Lamington, Professor 
H. Louis, J. M'Carthy, W. H. Smythe; Colonel G. E. Gerini,'; The 
Tonsure Ceremony," " The Art of War in Indo-Cbina "; " Siam's 
Intercourse with China," Asiatic Quarterly Review (1906) ; " Historical 
Retrospect of Junkceylon Island," Siam Society's Journal (1905); 
W. A. Graham, " Brief History of the R.C. Mission in Siam," Asiatic 
Quarterly Review (1901) ; Mrs Grindrod, Siam: a Geographical 
Summary; H. Hallet, A Thousand Miles on an Elephant (London, 
1890) ; Captain Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies (1688- 
1723); Prince Henri d'Orleans, Around Tonquin and Siam (London, 
1894); Professor A. H. Keane, Eastern Geography: Asia; Dr Keith, 
Journal Royal Asiatic Society (1892); C. S. Leckie, Journal Society 
of Arts (1894), vol. xlii. ; M. de la Loubere, Description du royaume 
de Siam (Amsterdam, 1714); Captain Low, Journal Asiatic Society, 



SIAM 



vol. vii. ; J. M'Carthy, Surveying and Exploring in Siam (London, 
1900); Henri Mouhot, Travels in Indo-China (London, 1844); 
F. A. Neale, Narrative of a Residence in Siam (London, 1852) ; Sir 
H. Norman, The Far East (London, 1904); Bishop Pallegoix, 
Description du royaume Thai on Siam (Paris, 1854); H. W. Smythe, 
Five Years in Siam (London, 1898); J. Thomson, Antiquities of 
Cambodia, Malacca, Indo-China and China (London, 1875); P. A. 
Thompson, Lotus Land (London, 1906) ; Turpin, Histoire de Siam 
(Paris, 1719); F. Vincent, Land of the White Elephant; E. Young, 
The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe (London, 1898). 

Language and Literature. 
Siamese belongs to the well-defined Tai group of the Siamese- 
Chinese family of languages. Its connexion with Chinese is 
clear though evidently distant, but its relationship with the other 
languages of the Tai group is very close. It is spoken throughout 
central Siam, in all parts of southern Siam except Patani Monton, 
in northern Siam along the river-banks as far up as Utaradit 
and Raheng, and in eastern Siam as far as the confines of the 
Korat Monton. In Patani the common language is still Malay, 
while in the upper parts of northern, and the outlying parts of 
eastern, Siam the prevailing language is Lao, though the many 
hill tribes which occupy the ranges of these parts have distinct 
languages of their own. 

Originally Siamese was purely monosyllabic, that is, each true 
word consisted of a single vowel sound preceded by, or followed by, 
a consonant. Of such monosyllables there are less than two thousand, 
and therefore many syllables have to do duty for the expression of 
more than one idea, confusion being avoided by the tone in which 
they are spoken, whence the term tonal," which is applied to all 
the languages of this family. The language now consists of about 
15,000 words, of which compounds of two monosyllabic words and 
appropriations from foreign sources form a very large part. Bali, 
the ancient language of the kingdom of Magadha, in which the 
sacred writings of Buddhism were made, was largely instrumental 
in forming all the languages of Further India, including Siamese — 
a fact which accounts for the numerous connecting links between 
the M6n, Burmese and Siamese languages of the present time, 
though these are of quite separate origin. When intercourse with 
the West began, and more especially when Western methods of 
government and education were first adopted in Siam, the tendency 
to utilize European words was very marked, but recently there 
has been an effort to avoid this by the coining of Siamese or Bali 
compound words. 

The current Siamese characters are derived from the more monu- 
mental Cambodian alphabet, which again owes its origin to the 
alphabet of the inscriptions, an offshoot of the character found on 
the stone monuments of southern India in the 6th and 8th centuries. 
The sacred books of Siam are still written in the Cambodian 
character. 

The Siamese alphabet consists of 44 consonants, in each of which 
the vowel sound " aw " is inherent, and of 32 vowels all marked 
not by individual letters, but by signs written above, below, before 
or after the consonant in connexion with which they are to be pro- 
nounced. It may seem at first that so many as 44 consonants can 
scarcely be necessary, but the explanation is that several of them 
express each a slightly different intonation of what is practically 
the same consonant, the sound of " kh," for instance, Being repre- 
sented by six different letters and the sound of " t " by eight. More- 
over, other letters are present only for use in certain words imported 
from Bali or Sanskrit. The vowel signs have no sound by them- 
selves, but act upon the vowel sound " aw " inherent in the con- 
sonants, converting it into " a," " i," " o," " ee," " ow," &c._ Each 
of the signs has a name, and some of them produce modulations so 
closely resembling those made by another that at the present day 
they are scarcely to be distinguished apart. A hard-and-fast rule 
of pronunciation is that only vowel or diphthong sounds, or the 
letters " m," " n," " ng," " k," " t " and " p " are permissible at 
the end of words, and hence the final letter of all words ending in 
anything else is simply suppressed or is pronounced as though it 
were a letter naturally producing one or other of those sounds. 
Thus many of the words procured from foreign sources, not ex- 
cluding Bali and Sanskrit, are more or less mutilated in pronuncia- 
tion, though the entirely suppressed or altered letter is still retained 
in writing. 

Siamese is written from left to right. In manuscript there is 
usually no space between words, but punctuation is expressed by 
intervals isolating phrases and sentences. 

The greatest difficulty with the Siamese language lies in the tonal 
system. Of the simple tones there are five — the even, the circumflex, 
the descending, the grave and the high — any one of which when 
applied to a word may give it a quite distinct meaning. Four of 
the simple tones are marked in the written character by signs 
placed over the consonant affected, and the absence of a mark 
implies that the one remaining tone is to be used. A complication 
B caused by the fact that the. consonants are grouped into three 



classes, to each of which a special tone applies, and consequently 
the application of a tonal sign to a letter has a different effect, accord- 
ing to the class to which such letter belongs. Though many syllables 
have to do duty for the expression of more than one idea, the 
majority have only one or at most two meanings, but there are some 
which are used with quite a number of different inflections, each 
of which gives the word a new meaning. Thus, for example, the 
syllable khao may mean " they," " badly," " rice," " white," 
" old," or " news," simply according to the tone in which the word 
is spoken. Words are unchangeable and incapable of inflection. 
There is no article, and no distinction of gender, number or case. 
These, when it is necessary to denote them, are expressed by ex- 
planatory words after the respective nouns; only the dative and 
ablative are denoted by subsidiary words, which precede the nouns, 
the nominative being marked by its position before, the objective 
by its position after, the verb, and the genitive (and also the ad- 
jective) by its place after the noun it qualifies. Occasionally, how- 
ever, auxiliary nouns serve that purpose. Words like " mother," 
" son," " water " are often employed in forming compounds to 
express ideas for which the Siamese have no single words, e.g. Idk 
cdn, " the son of hire," a labourer; mi mil, " the mother of the hand," 
the thumb. The use of class words with numerals obtains in Siamese 
as it does in Chinese, Burmese, Anamese, Malay and many other 
Eastern languages. As in these, so in Siamese the personal pronouns 
are mostly represented by nouns expressive of the various shades 
of superior or lower rank according to Eastern etiquette. The verb 
is, like the noun, perfectly colourless — person, number, tense and 
mood being indicated by auxiliary words only when they cannot be 
inferred from the context. Such auxiliary words are yu, " to be," 
" to dwell " (present) ; dai, " to have," leas, " end " (past) ; ci, 
" also " (future) ; the first and third follow, the second and fourth 
precede, the verb. H&i, " to give " (prefixed), often indicates the 
subjunctive. As there are compound nouns, so there are compound 
verbs; thus, e.g. pai, " to go," is joined to a transitive verb to 
convert it into an intransitive or neuter; and thtik, " to touch," 
and ibng, " to be compelled," serve to form a sort of passive voice. 
The number of adverbs, single and compound, is very large. The 
prepositions mostly consist of nouns. 

The construction of the sentence in Siamese is straightforward 
and simple. The subject of the sentence precedes the verb and the 
object follows it. The possessive pronoun follows the object. The 
adverb usually follows the verb. In compound sentences the verbs 
are placed together as in English, not separated by the object as in 
German. When an action is expressed in the past the word which 
forms with the verb the past tense is divided from the verb itself by 
the object. Examples are: — 

Rao (We) dekchai (boy) sam (three) kon (persons) cha (will) pai (go) 
chap (catch) pla (fish) samrap (for) hai (give) paw (father) kin (eat). 

Me (Mother) tan (you) yu (live) ti (place) nai (where) , or " Where is 
your mother ? " 

Me (Mother) pai (go) talat (bazaar) leao (finish), or " (My) mother 
has gone to the bazaar." 

The difficulties of the Siamese language are increased by the fact 
that in addition to the ordinary language of the people there is a 
completely different set of words ordained for the use of royalty. 
This " Palace language " appears to have come into existence from 
a desire to avoid the employment in the presence of royalty of 
downright expressions of vulgarity or of words which might be 
capable of conveying an unpleasant or indelicate idea other than 
the meaning intended. In the effort to escape from the vulgar, 
words of Sanskrit origin have been freely adopted and many Cam- 
bodian words are also used. The language is so complete that the 
dog, pig, crow and other common or unclean animals are all ex- 
pressed by special words, while the actions of royalty, such as 
eating, sleeping, walking, speaking, bathing, dying, are spoken of 
in words quite distinct from those used to describe similar actions 
of ordinary people. 

The prose literature of Siam consists largely of mythological 
and historical fables, almost all of which are of Indian origin, 
though many of them have come to Siam through Cambodia. 
Their number is larger than is usually supposed, many of them 
being known to few beyond the writers who laboriously copy 
them and the professional " raconteurs " who draw upon them 
to replenish their stock-in-trade. The best known have all been 
made into stage-plays, and it is in this form that they usually 
come before the notice of the general public. Amongst them 
are Ramakien, taken from the great Hindu epic Ramayana; 
Wetyasunyin, the tale of a king who became an ascetic after 
contemplation of a withered tree; Worawongs, the story of a 
prince who loved a princess and was killed by the thrust of a 
magic spear which guarded her; Chalaivan, the tale of a princess 
beloved by a crocodile; Unarud, the life story of Anuruddha, 
a demigod, the grandson of Krishna; Phumhon, the tale of a 
princess beloved by an elephant; Prang long, a story of a 
princess who before birth was promised to a " yak " or giant in 



IO 



SlBAWAIHI— SIBERIA 



return for a certain fruit which her mother desired to eat. 
Mahasot is an account of the wars of King Mahasot. Nok Khum 
is one of the theories of the genesis of mankind, the Nok Khum 
being the sacred goose or " Hansa " from whose eggs the first 
human beings were supposed to have been hatched. A consider- 
able proportion of the romances are founded upon episodes 
in the final life, or in one of the innumerable former existences, 
of the Buddha. The Pattama Sompothiyan is the standard 
Siamese life of the Buddha. Many of the stories have their 
scene laid in Himaphan, the Siamese fairyland, probably origin- 
ally the Himalaya. 

A great many works on astrology and the casting of horoscopes, 
on the ways to secure victory in war, success in love, in business 
or in gambling, are known, as also works on other branches 
of magic, to which subject the Siamese have always been partial. 
On the practice of medicine, which is in close alliance with magic, 
there are several well-known works. 

The Niti literature forms a class apart. The word Niti is 
from the Bali, and means " old saying," " tradition," " good 
counsel." The best known of such works are Rules for the 
Conduct of Kings, translated from the Bali, and The Maxims 
of Phra Ruang, the national hero-king, on whose wonderful 
sayings and doings the imagination of Siamese youth is fed. 

In works on history the literature of Siam is unfortunately rather 
poor. There can be little doubt that, as in the case of all the other 
kingdoms of Further India, complete and detailed chronicles were 
compiled from reign to reign by Order of her kings, but of the more 
ancient of these, the wars and disturbances which continued with 
such frequency down to quite recent times have left no trace. The 
A nnals of the North, the A nnals of Krung Kao (Ayuthia) and the Book 
of the Lives of the Four Kings (of the present dynasty) together 
form the only more or less connected history of the country from 
remote times down to the beginning of the present reign, and these, 
at least so far as the earlier parts are concerned, contain much that 
is inaccurate and a good deal which is altogether untrue. Foreign 
histories include a work on Pegu, a few tales of Cambodian kings and 
recently published class-books on European history compiled by 
the educational department. 

The number of works on law is considerable. The Laksana Phra 
Thamasat, the Phra Tamra, Phra Tamnon, Phra Racha Kamnot 
and Inthapat are ancient works setting forth the laws of the country 
in their oldest form, adapted from the Dharmacastra and the Classifi- 
cation of the Law of Manu. These, and also many of the edicts 
passed by kings of the Ayuthia period which have been preserved, 
are now of value more as curiosities of literature and history than 
anything else, since, for all practical purposes, they have long been 
superseded by laws more in accordance with modern ideas. The 
laws of the sovereigns who have reigned at Bangkok form the most 
notable part of this branch of Siamese literature. They include a 
great number of revenue regulations, laws on civil matters such as 
mortgage, bankruptcy, rights of way, companies, &c, and laws 
governing the procedure of courts, all of which adhere to Western 
principles in the main. The latest addition is the Penal Code, a 
large and comprehensive work based upon the Indian, Japanese 
and French codes and issued in 1908. 

Poetry is a very ancient art in Siam and has always been held in 
high honour, some of the best-known poets being, indeed, members 
of the royal family. There are several quite distinct forms of metre, 
of which those most commonly used are the Klong, the Kap and the 
Klon. The Klong is rhythmic, the play being on the inflection of the 
voice in speaking the words, which inflection is arranged according 
to fixed schemes; the rhyme, if it can so be called, being sought 
not in the similarity of syllables but of intonation. The Kap is 
rhythmical and also has rhyming syllables. The lines contain an 
equal number of syllables, and are arranged in stanzas of four lines 
each. The last syllable of the first line rhymes with the third 
syllable of the second line, the last of the second with the last of 
the third and also with the first of the fourth line, and the last syllable 
of the fourth line rhymes with the last of the second line of the next 
succeeding stanza. The number of poems in one or other of these 
two metres is very great, and includes verses on almost every theme. 
In the Nirat poetry, a favourite form of verse, both are often used, a 
stanza in Klong serving as a sort of argument at the head of a set of 
verses in Kap. This Nirat poetry takes the form of narrative 
addressed by a traveller to his lady-love, of a journey in which every 
object and circumstance serves but to remind the wanderer of some 
virtue or beauty of his correspondent. In most of such works the 
journey is of course imaginary, but in some cases it is a true record 
of travelling or campaigning, and has been found to contain in- 
formation of value concerning the condition at certain times of out- 
lying parts of the kingdom. Of the little love songs in Klon metre, 
called Klon pet ton, there are many hundreds. These follow a 
prescribed form, and consist of eight lines divided into two stanzas 



of four lines each, every line containing eight syllables. The last 
syllable of the first line rhymes with the third syllable of the second, 
and the final of the second line with the final of the third. The 
songs treat of all the aspects of love. A fourth poetical metre is 
Chan, which, however, is not so much used as the others. 

The introduction of printing in the Siamese character has re- 
volutionized the literature of the country. Reading has become a 
general accomplishment, a demand for reading matter has arisen, 
and bookshops stocked with books have appeared to satisfy it. The 
historical works above referred to have been issued in many editions, 
and selections from the ancient fables and romances are continually 
being edited and reissued in narrative form or as plays. The 
educational department has done good work in compiling volumes 
of prose and verse which have found much favour with the public. 
All the laws, edicts and regulations at present in force are to be had 
in print at popular prices. Printing, in fact, has supplied a great 
incentive to the development of literature, the output has increased 
enormously, and will doubtless continue to do so for a long time to 
come. (W. A. G.) 

SlBAWAIHI [Abu Bishr, or Abu-1 Hasan' Amr ibn'Uthman ibn 
Qanbar, known as Sibawaihi or Sibuya] {c. 753-793), Arabian 
grammarian, was by origin a Persian and a freedman. Of his 
early years nothing is known. At the age of thirty-two he went 
to Basra, where he was a pupil of the celebrated grammarian 
Khalil. Later he went to Bagdad, but soon left, owing to a 
dispute with the Kufan grammarian Kisa'i, and returned to 
Persia, where he died at the age of about forty. His great 
grammar of Arabic, known simply as The Book, is not only the 
earliest systematic presentation of Arabic grammar, but is 
recognized among Arabs as the most perfect. It is not always 
clear, but is very full and valuable for its many illustrations 
from the Koran and the poets. 

The Book was published by H. Derenbourg (2 vols., Paris, 1881- 
1889), and a German translation, with extracts from the commentary 
of SirafI (d. 978) and others, was published by G. Jahn (Berlin, 1895- 
1900). (G. W. T.) 

SIBBALD, SIR ROBERT (1641-1722), Scottish physician and 
antiquary, was born in Edinburgh on the 15th of April 1641. 
Educated at Edinburgh, Leiden and Paris, he took his doctor's 
degree at Angers in 1662, and soon afterwards settled as a 
physician in Edinburgh. In 1667 with Sir Andrew Balfour 
he started the botanical garden in Edinburgh, and he took a 
leading part in establishing the Royal College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh, of which he was elected president in 1684. In 
1685 he was appointed the first professor of medicine in the 
university. He was also appointed geographer-royal in 1682, 
and his numerous and miscellaneous writings deal effectively 
with historical and antiquarian as well as botanical and medical 
subjects. He died in August 1722. 

Amongst Sibbald's historical and antiquarian works may be 
mentioned A History Ancient and Modern of the Sheriffdoms of Fife 
and Kinross (Edinburgh, 1710, and Cupar, 1803), An Account of the 
Scottish Atlas (folio, Edinburgh, 1683), Scotia Ulustrata (Edinburgh, 
1684) and Description of the Isles of Orkney and Shetland (iolio, 
Edinburgh', 171 1 and 1845). The Remains of Sir Robert Sibbald, 
containing his autobiography, memoirs of the Royal College of 
Physicians, portion of his literary correspondence and account of 
his manuscripts, was published at Edinburgh in 1833. 

SIBERIA. This name (Russ. Sibir) in the 16th century 
indicated the chief settlement of the Tatar khan Ku chum — Isker 
on the Irtysh. Subsequently the name was extended 
to include the whole of the Russian dominions in Asia. 
Geographically, Siberia is now limited by the Ural 
Mountains on the W., by the Arctic and North Pacific Oceans 
on the N. and E. respectively, and on the S. by a line running 
from the sources of the river Ural to the Tarbagatai range (thus 
separating the steppes of the Irtysh basin from those of the Aral 
and Balkash basins), thence along the Chinese frontier as far as 
the S.E. corner of Transbaikalia, and then along the rivers 
Argun, Amur and Usuri to the frontier of Korea. This wide 
area is naturally subdivided into West Siberia (basins of the Ob 
and the Irtysh) and East Siberia (the remainder of the region). 

The inhabited districts are well laid down on the best maps; 
but the immense areas between and beyond them are mapped only 
along a few routes hundreds of miles apart. The inter- Q roerapn y 
mediate spaces are filled in according to information _ ^' 

derived from various hunters. With regard to a great many rivers 
we know only the position of their mouths and their approximate 
lengths estimated by natives in terms of a day's march. Even the 



Name and 
extent. 



SIBERIA 



ii 



hydrographical network is very imperfectly known, especially in the 
uninhabited hilly tracts. 1 

Like other plateaus, the great plateau of the centre of Asia, 
stretching from the Himalayas to Bering Strait, 2 has on its surface 
a number of gentle eminences (angehaufte Gebirge of K. Ritter), 
which, although reaching great absolute altitudes, are relatively 
low. 3 These heights for the most part follow a north-easterly direc- 
tion in Siberia. On the margins of the plateau there are several 
gaps or indentations, which can best be likened to gigantic trenches, 
like railway cuttings, as with an insensible gradient they climb to a 
higher level. These trenches have for successive geological periods 
been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) 
which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which 
surrounded it. And it is along these trenches that the principal 
commercial routes have been made for reaching the higher levels of 
the plateau itself. In the plateau there are in reality two terraces — 
a higher and a lower, both very well defined in Transbaikalia and in 
Mongolia. The Yablonoi range and its south-western continuation 
the Kentei are border-ridges of the upper terrace. Both rise very 
gently above it, but have steep slopes towards the lower terrace, 
which is occupied by the Nerchinsk steppes in Transbaikalia and by 
the great desert of Gobi in Mongolia (2000 to 2500 ft. above the sea). 
They rise 5000 to 7000 ft. above the sea; the peak of Sokhondo in 
Transbaikalia (111° E.) reaches nearly 8050 ft. Several low chains 
of mountains have their base on the lower terrace and run from 
south-west to north-east; they are known as the Nerchinsk Moun- 
tains in Transbaikalia, and their continuations reach the northern 
parts of the Gobi. 4 

The great plateau is fringed on the north-west by a series of lofty 
border-ranges, which have their southern base on the plateau and 
their northern at a much lower level. They may be traced from 
the Tian-shan to the Arctic Circle, and have an east-north-easterly 
direction in lower latitudes and a north-easterly direction farther 
north. The Alai range of the Pamir, continued by the Kokshaltau 
range and the Khan-tengri group of the Tian-shan, and the Sailughem 
range of the Altai, which is continued in the unnamed border-range 
of West Sayan (between the Bei-kem and the Us), belong to this 
category. There are, however, among these border-ranges several 
breaches of continuity — broad depressions or trenches leading from 
Lake Balkash and Lake Zaisan to the upper parts of the plateau. 
On the other hand, there are on the western outskirts of the plateau 
a few mountain chains which take a direction at right angles to the 
above (that is, from north-west to south-east), and parallel to the 
great line of upheavals in south-west Asia. The Tarbagatai Moun- 
tains, on the borders of Siberia, as well as several chains in Turkestan, 
are instances. The border-ridges of the Alai Mountains, the Khan- 
tengri group, the Sailughem range and the West Sayan contain the 
highest peaks of their respective regions. Beyond 102 ° E. the 
configuration is complicated by the great lateral indentation of 
Lake Baikal. But around and north-east of this lake the same well- 
marked ranges fringe the plateau and turn their steep north-western 
slope towards the valleys of the Irkut, the Barguzin, the Muya and 
the Chara, while their southern base lies on the plateaus of the 
Selenga (nearly 4000 ft. high) and the Vitim. The peaks of the 
Sailughem range reach 9000 to 11,000 ft. above the sea, those of 
West Sayan about 10,000. In East Sayan is Munku-Sardyk, a peak 
11,450 ft. high, together with many others from 8000 to 9000 ft. 
Farther east, on the southern shore of Lake Baikal, Khamar-daban 
rises to 6900 ft., and the bald dome-shaped summits of the Barguzin 
and southern Muya Mountains attain elevations of 6000 to 7000 ft. 
above sea-level. The orography of the Aldan region is little known ; 
but travellers who journey from the Aldan (tributary of the Lena) 
to the Amur or to the Sea of Okhotsk have to cross the same plateau 
and its border-range. The. former becomes narrower and barely 
attains an average altitude of 3200 ft. 

A typical feature of the north-eastern border of the high plateau 
is a succession of broad longitudinal 6 valleys along its outer base, 

'The wide area between the middle Lena and the Amur, as well 
as the hilly tracts west of Lake Baikal, and the Yeniseisk mining 
region are in this condition. 

2 The great plateau of North America, also turning its narrower 
point towards Bering Strait, naturally suggests the idea that there 
was a period in the history of our planet when the continents turned 
their narrow extremities towards the northern pole, as now they turn 
them towards the southern. 

3 See " General Sketch of the Orography of Siberia ; " with map 
and " Sketch of the Orography of Minusinsk, &c," by Prince P. A. 
Kropotkin, in Mem. Russ. Geogr. Sot., General Geography (vol. v., 

1875)- 

4 The lower terrace is obviously continued in the Tarim basin 
of East Turkestan; but in the present state of our knowledge we 
cannot determine whether the further continuations of the border- 
ridge of the higher terrace (Yablonoi, Kentei) must be looked for 
in the Great Altai or in some other range situated farther south. 
There may be also a breach of continuity in some depression towards 
Barkul. 

5 The word "longitudinal" is here used in an orographical, 
not a geological sense. These valleys are not synclinal foldings of 
rocks; they seem to be erosion- valleys. 



Alpine 
region. 



shut in on the outer side by rugged mountains having a very steep 
slope towards them. Formerly filled with alpine lakes, these valleys 
are now sheeted with flat alluvial soil and occupied by human 
settlements, and are drained by rivers which flow along them before 
they make their way to the north through narrow gorges pierced 
in the mountain-walls. This conformation is seen in the valley of 
the Us in West Sayan, in that of the upper Oka and Irkut in East 
Sayan, in the valley of the Barguzin, the upper Tsipa, the Muya 
and the Chara, at the foot of the Vitim plateau, as also, probably, 
in the Aldan. 6 The chains of mountains which border these valleys 
on the north-west contain the wildest parts of Siberia. They are 
named the Usinsk Mountains in West Sayan and the Tunka Alps 
in East Sayan; the latter, pierced by the Angara at Irkutsk, are in 
all probability continued north-east in the Baikal Mountains, which 
stretch from Irkutsk to Olkhon Island and the Svyatoi Nos peninsula 
of Lake Baikal, thus dividing the lake into two parts. 7 

An alpine region, 100 to 150 m. in breadth, fringes the plateau on 
the N. W., outside of the ranges just mentioned. This constitutes 
what is called - in East Siberia the taiga: it consists of 
separate chains of mountains whose peaks rise 4800 to 
6500 ft. above the sea, beyond the upper limits of forest 
vegetation; while the narrow valleys afford difficult means of 
communication, their floors being thickly strewn with boulders, or 
else swampy. The whole is clothed with impenetrable forest. 
The orography of this alpine region is very imperfectly known; 
but the chains have a predominant direction from south-west to 
north-east. They are described under different names in Siberia — 
the Altai Mountains in West Siberia, the Kuznetskiy Ala-tau and 
the Us and Oya Mountains in West Sayan, the Nizhne-Udinsk taiga 
or gold-mine district, several chains pierced by the Oka river, the 
Kitoi Alps in East Sayan, the mountains of the upper Lena and 
Kirenga, the Olekminsk gold-mine district, and the unnamed 
mountains which project north-east between the Lena and the 
Aldan. 

Outside of these alpine regions comes a broad belt of elevated 
plains, ranging between 1200 and 1700 ft. above the sea. These 
plains, which are entered by the great Siberian highway Elevated 
about Tomsk and extend south-west to the Altai Moun- D iai a s 
tains, are for the most part fertile, though sometimes dry, 
and are rapidly being covered with the villages of the Russian 
immigrants. About Kansk in East Siberia they penetrate in the 
form of a broad gulf south-eastwards as far as Irkutsk. Those oh 
the upper Lena, having a somewhat greater altitude and being 
situated in higher latitudes, are almost wholly unfitted for agriculture. 
The north-western border of these elevated plains cannot be deter- 
mined with exactitude. In the region between Viluisk (ontheVilui) 
and Yeniseisk a broad belt of alpine tracts, reaching their greatest 
elevation in the northern Yeniseisk taiga (between the Upper 
Tunguzka and the Podkamennaya Tunguzka) and continued to the 
south-west in lower upheavals, separates the elevated plains from 
the lowlands which extend towards the Arctic Ocean. In West 
Siberia these high plains seem to form a narrower belt towards 
Barnaul and Semipalatinsk, and are bordered by the Aral-Caspian 
depression. 

Farther to the north-west, beyond these high plains, comes a 
broad belt of lowlands. This vast tract, which is only a few dozen 
feet above the sea, and most probably was covered by the 
sea during the Post-Pliocene period, stretches from the 
Aral-Caspian depression to the lowlands of the Tobol, 
Irtysh and Ob, and thence towards the lower parts of the Yenisei 
and the Lena. Only a few detached mountain ranges, like the 
Byrranga on the Taymyr peninsula, the Syverma Mountains, the 
Verkhoyansk and the Kharaulakh (E. of the Lena) ranges, diversify 
these monotonous lowlands, which are covered with a thick sheet of 
black earth in the south and assume the character of barren tundras 
in the north. 

The south-eastern slope of the great plateau of Asia cannot 
properly be reckoned to Siberia, although parts of the province of 
Amur and the Maritime Province are situated on it ; South- 
they have quite a different character, climate and vege- eastern 
tation, and ought properly to be reckoned to the Man- slope ot 
churian region. To the east of the Yablonoi border- range plateau 
lies the lower terrace of the high plateau, reaching 2000 p 
to 2500 ft. in Transbaikalia and extending farther south-west 
through the Gobi to East Turkestan. The south-eastern edge of this 
lower terrace is fringed by a massive border-range — the Khingan — 
which runs in a north-easterly direction from the Great Wall of 
China to the sources of the Nonni-ula. 

A narrow alpine region (40 to 50 m.), consisting of a series of short 
secondary chains parallel to the border-range, fringes this latter on 
its eastern face. Two such folds maybe distinguished, correspond- 
ing on a smaller scale to the belt of alpine tracts which fringe the 
plateau on the north-west. The resemblance is further sustained by 
a broad belt of elevated plains, ranging from 1200 to 1700 ft., which 

8 The upper Bukhtarma valley in the Sailughem range of the 
Altai system appears to belong to the same type. 

'The deep fissure occupied by Lake Baikal would thus appear 
to consist of two longitudinal valleys connected together by the 
passage between Olkhon and Svyatoi Nos. 



Northern 
lowlands. 



12 



SIBERIA 



accompany the eastern edge of the plateau. The eastern Gobi, the 
occasionally fertile and occasionally sandy plains between the Nonni 
and the Sungari, and the rich plains of the Bureya and Silinji in the 
Amur province belong to this belt, 400 m. in breadth, the surface of 
which is diversified by the low hills of Ilkhuri-alin, Khulun and 
Turana. These high plains are bordered on the south-east by a 
picturesque chain — the Bureya Mountains, which are to be identified 
with the Little Khingan. It extends, with unaltered character, 
from Mukden and Kirin to Ulban Bay in the Sea of Okhotsk (close 
by the Shantar Islands), its peaks clothed from top to bottom 
with luxuriant forest vegetation, ascending 4500 to 6000 ft. A 
lowland belt about 200 m. broad runs in the same direction along 
the outer margin of the above chain. The lower Amur occupies 
the northern part of this broad valley. These lowlands, dotted ovef 
with numberless marshes and lakes, seem to have emerged from the 
sea at a quite recent geological period; the rivers that meander 
across them are still excavating their valleys. 

Volcanic formations, so far as is known, occur chiefly along the 
north-western border-range of the great plateau. Ejections of 
basaltic lava have been observed on the southern slope 
volcanoes. Q j t jjj s range, extending over wide areas on the plateau 
itself, over a stretch of more than 600 m. — namely, in East Sayan 
about Lake Kosso-gol and in the valley of the Tunka (river Irkut), 
in the vicinity of Selenginsk, and widely distributed on the Vitim 
plateau (rivers Vitim and Tsipa). Deposits of trap stretch for more 
than 1200 m. along the Tunguzka; they appear also in the Noril 
Mountains on the Yenisei, whence they extend towards the Arctic 
Ocean. Basaltic lavas are reported to have been found in the Aldan 
region. On the Pacific slope extinct volcanoes (mentioned in 
Chinese annals) have been reported in the Ilkhuri-alin mountains 
in northern Manchuria. 

The mineral wealth of Siberia is considerable. Gold-dust is found 
in almost all the alpine regions fringing the great plateau. The 
„ . principal gold-mining regions in these tracts are the 
Minerals. c^ ta ^ t jj e U p per ( or Nizhne-Udinsk) and the lower (or 
Yeniseisk) taigas, and the Olekma region. Gold is found on the 
high plateau in the basin of the upper Vitim, on the lower plateau 
in the Nerchinsk district, and on the upper tributaries of the Amur 
(especially the Oldoi) and the Zeya, in the north-east continuation 
of the Nerchinsk Mountains. It has been discovered also in the 
Bureya range, and in its north-east continuation in the Amgufi 
region. Auriferous sands, but not very rich, have been discovered 
in the feeders of Lake Hanka and the Suifong river, as also on the 
smaller islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great. Mining is the next 
most important industry after agriculture. In East Siberia gold is 
obtained almost exclusively from gravel-washings, quartz mining 
being confined to three localities, one near Vladivostok and two in 
Transbaikalia. In West Siberia, however, quartz-mining is steadily 
increasing in importance: whereas in 1900 the output of gold from 
this source was less than 10,000 oz., in 1904 it amounted to close 
upon 50,00c oz. On the other hand gravel-washing gives a declining 
yield in West Siberia, for while in 1900 the output from this source 
was approximately 172,000 oz., in 1904 it was only 81,000 oz. 
The districts of Mariinsk and Achinsk are the most successful 
quartz-mining localities. Altogether West Siberia yields annually 
130,000 oz. of gold. The gold-bearing gravels of East Siberia, 
especially those of the Lena and the Amur, are relatively more 
prolific than those of West Siberia. The total yield annually amounts 
to some 700,000 oz., the largest quantity coming from the Olekminsk 
district in the province of Yakutsk, and this district is followed by 
the Amur region, the Maritime province, and Nerchinsk and Trans- 
baikalia. Silver and lead ores exist in the Altai and the Nerchinsk 
Mountains, as well as copper, cinnabar and tin. Iron-ores are known 
at several places on the outskirts of the alpine tracts (as about 
Irkutsk), as well as in the Selenginsk region and in the Altai. The 
more important iron-works of the Urals are situated on the Siberian 
slope of the range. Coal occurs in many Jurassic fresh-water 
basins, namely, on the outskirts of the Altai, in south Yeniseisk, 
about Irkutsk, in the Nerchinsk district, at many places in the 
Maritime province, and on the island of Sakhalin. Beds of excellent 
graphite have been found in the Kitoi Alps (Mount Alibert) and in 
the Turukhansk district in Yenisei. Rock-salt occurs at several 
places on the Lena and in Transbaikalia, and salt-springs are 
numerous — those of Ust-kutsk on the Lena and of Usolie near 
Irkutsk being the most noteworthy. A large number of lakes, 
especially in Transbaikalia and in Tomsk, yield salt. Lastly, from 
the Altai region, as well as from the Nerchinsk Mountains, precious 
stones, such as jasper, malachite, beryl, dark quartz, and the like, 
are exported. The Ekaterinburg stone-polishing works in the Urals 
and those of Kolyvafi in the Altai are well known. 

The orography sketched above explains the great development 
of the river-systems of Siberia and the uniformity of their course. 
_. The three principal rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei, and the 

Hirers. Lena — take their rise on the high plateau or in the alpine 
regions fringing it, and, after descending from the plateau and 
piercing the alpine regions, flow for many hundreds of miles across 
the high plains and lowlands before they reach the Arctic Ocean. 
The three rivers of north-eastern Siberia — the Yana, Indigirka and 
Kolyma — have the same general character, their courses being, 
however, much shorter, as in these latitudes the plateau approaches 



nearer to the Arctic Ocean. The Amur, the upper tributaries of 
which rise on the eastern border-range of the high plateau, is similar. 
The Shilka and the Argun, which form it, flow first towards the 
north-east along the windings of the lower terrace of the great 
plateau; from this the Amur descends, cutting through the Great 
Khingan and flowing down the terraces of the eastern versant 
towards the Pacific. A noteworthy feature of the principal Siberian 
rivers is that each is formed by the confluence of a pair of rivers. 
Examples are the Ob and the Irtysh, the Yenisei and the Angara 
(itself a double river formed by the Angara and the Lower Tunguzka), 
the Lena and the Vitim, the Argun and the Shilka, while the Amur 
in its turn receives a tributary as large as itself — the Sungari. Owing 
to this twinning and the general direction of their courses, the rivers 
of Siberia offer immense advantages for inland navigation, not only 
from north to south but also from west to east. It is this 
circumstance that facilitated the rapid invasion of Siberia ^„^f„, 
by the Russian Cossacks and hunters; they followed the """"""" 



communi- 
cation. 



courses of the twin rivers in their advance towards the 
east, and discovered short portages which permitted them to transfer 
their boats from the system of the Ob to that of the Yenisei, and 
from the latter to that of the Lena, a tributary of which — the Aldan — 
brought them close to the Sea of Okhotsk. At the present day 
steamers ply from Tyumen, at the foot of the Urals, to Semipalatinsk 
on the border of the Kirghiz steppe and to Tomsk in the very heart 
of West Siberia. Uninterrupted water communication could readily 
be established from Tyumen to Yakutsk, Aldansk, and the gold- 
mines of the Vitim. Owing to the fact that the great plateau 
separates the Lena from the Amur, no easy water communication 
can be established between the latter and the other Siberian rivers. 
The tributaries of the Amur (the Shilka with its affluent the Ingoda) 
become navigable only on the lower terrace of the plateau. But 
the trench of the Uda, to the east of Lake Baikal, offers easy access 
for the Great Siberian railway up to and across the high plateau. 
Unfortunately all the rivers are frozen for many months every year. 
Even in lower latitudes (52 to 55° N.) they are ice-bound from the 
beginning of November to the beginning of May; 1 while in 65 ° N. 
they are open only for 90 to 120 days, and only for 100 days (the 
Yenisei) or even 70 days (the Lena) in 70 ° N. During the winter the 
smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January 
Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of 
bearing files of loaded sledges. 

Numberless lakes occur in both East and West Siberia. There are 
wide areas on the plains of West Siberia and on the high plateau of 
East Siberia, which, virtually, are still passing through . . 
the Lacustrine period; but the total area now under Lane • 
water bears but a trifling proportion to the vast surface which the 
lakes covered even at a very recent period, when Neolithic man 
inhabited Siberia. All the valleys and depressions bear traces of 
immense post-Pliocene lakes. Even within historical times and 
during the 19th century the desiccation of the lakes has gone on at 
a very rapid rate. 2 The principal lake is Lake Baikal, more than 
400 m. long, and 20 to 50 broad. Another great lake, Lake Kosso- 
gol, on the Mongolian frontier, is 120 m. long and 50 broad. Vast 
numbers of small lakes stud the Vitim and upper Selenga plateaus; 
the lower valley of the latter river contains the Goose Lake (Gusinoye). 
In the basin of the Amur are Lake Hanka (1700 sq. m.), connected 
with the Usuri; Lakes Kada and Kidzi, by which the lower Amur 
once flowed to the Pacific ; and very many smaller ones on the left 
side of the lower Amur. Numerous lakes and extensive marshes 
diversify the low plains of West Siberia ; the Baraba steppe is dotted 
with lakes and ponds — Lake Chany (1400 sq. m.) and the innumer- 
able smaller lakes which surround it being but relatively insignificant 
remains of the former lacustrine basins; while at the confluence of 
the Irtysh and the Ob impassable marshes stretch over many 
thousands of square miles. Several alpine lakes, of which the 
picturesque Teletskoye may be specially mentioned, occupy the 
deeper parts of the valleys of the Altai. 

The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic 
Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at 
least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordensk- 
jold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the Coasts 
possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly Mands 
doubtful whether it can ever become a commercial route 
of any importance. The coast-line has few indentations, the chief 
being the double gulf of the Ob and the Taz, separated from the 
Sea of Kara by an elongated peninsula (Samoyede), and from the 
bay of the Yenisei by another. The immense peninsula of Taymyr — 
a barren tundra intersected by the wild Byrranga Hills-projects 
in Cape Chelyuskin as far north as 77° 46' N. The bay of the Yana, 
east of the delta of the Lena, is a wide indentation sheltered on the 
north by the islands of New Siberia. The bays of the Kolyma, the 
Chaun and Kolyuchin are of little importance. The New Siberia 
islands are occasionally visited by hunters, as is also the small 
group of the Bear Islands opposite the mouth of the Kolyma. 
Wrangel or Kellett Island is still quite unknown. Bering Strait, at 

1 The Lena at Verkholensk is navigable for 170 days, at Yakutsk 
for 153 days: the Yenisei at Krasnoyarsk for 196 days. 

s See Yadrintsev, in Izvestia of the Russian Geogr. Soc, (1886, 
No. 1, with maps). 



SIBERIA 



13 



the north-east extremity of Siberia, and Bering Sea between the 
land of the Chukchis and Alaska, with the Gulf of Anadyr, are often 
visited by seal-hunters, and the Commander Islands off Kamchatka 
are valuable stations for this pursuit. The Sea of Okhotsk, separated 
from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of 
Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of 
the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of 
floating ice. The Shantar Islands in the bay of the Uda possess 
geological interest. The double bay of Gizhiga and Penzhina, as 
well as that of Taui, would be useful as harbours were they not 
frozen seven or eight months in the year and persistently shrouded 
in dense fogs in summer. The northern part of the Sea of Japan, 
which washes the Usuri region, has, besides the smaller bays of 
Olga and Vladimir, the beautiful Gulf of Peter the Great, on 
which stands Vladivostok, the Russian naval station on the 
Pacific. Okhotsk and Ayan on the Sea of Okhotsk, Petropav- 
lovsk on the east shore of Kamchatka, Nikolayevsk, and Vladivo- 
stok on the Sea of Japan, and Dui on Sakhalin are the only ports of 
Siberia. 

Climate. — The climate is extremely severe, even in the southern 
parts. This arises chiefly from the orographical structure; the 
vast plateau of Central Asia prevents the moderating influence of the 
sea from being felt. The extensive lowlands which stretch over 
more than one half of the area, as well as the elevated plains, lie 
open to the Arctic Ocean. Although attaining altitudes of 6000 to 
10,000 ft., the mountain peaks of East Siberia do not reach the 
snow-line, which is found only en the Munku-Sardyk in East Sayan, 
above 10,000 ft. Patches of perpetual snow occur in East Siberia 
only on the mountains of the far north. On the Altai Mountains 
the snow-line runs at about 7000 ft. The air, after being chilled 
on the plateaus during the winter, drifts, owing to its greater density, 
down upon the lowlands; hence in the region of the lower Lena 
there obtains an exceedingly low temperature throughout the winter, 
and Verkhoyansk, in 67°N., is the pole of cold of the eastern hemi- 
sphere. The average temperature of winter (December to February) 
at Yakutsk is -40-2° F., at Verkhoyansk -53-1°. At the polar 
meteorological station of Sagastyr, in the delta of the Lena (73° 
23' N.), the following average temperatures have been observed: 
January -34-3° F. (February -43-6 ), July 40-8°, year 2-1°. The 
lowest average temperature of a day is -61 -6° F. Nevertheless 
owing to the dryness of the climate, the unclouded sun fully warms 
the earth during the long summer days in those high latitudes, and 
gives a short period of warm and even hot weather in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the pole of cold. Frosts of -13° to -18 F. are 
not uncommon at Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk and Nerchinsk; even in the 
warmer southern regions of West Siberia and of the Amur the average 
winter temperature is 2-4° F. and -10-2° respectively; while at 
Yakutsk and Verkhoyansk the thermometer occasionally falls as 
low as -75 and -85 F. The minimum temperatures recorded 
at these two stations are -84 F. and -90° respectively; the 
minimum at Krasnoyarsk is -67 F., at Irkutsk -51 °, at Omsk 
-56 , and at Tobolsk -58 F. The soil freezes many feet deep over 
immense areas even in southern Siberia. More dreaded than the 
frosts are the terrible burans or snowstorms, which occur in eariy 
spring and destroy thousands of horses and cattle that have been 
grazing on the steppes throughout the winter. Although very 
heavy falls of snow take place in the alpine tracts — especially about 
Lake Baikal — on the other side, in the steppe regions of the Altai 
and Transbaikalia and in the neighbourhood of Krasnoyarsk, the 
amount of snow is so small that travellers use wheeled vehicles, 
and cattle are able to find food in the steppe. Spring sets in with 
remarkable rapidity and charm at the end of April; but in the 
second half of May come the " icy saints' days," so blighting that 
it is impossible to cultivate the apple or pear. After this short 
period of frost and snow summer comes in its full beauty; the 
days are very hot, and, although they are always followed by cold 
nights, vegetation advances at an astonishing rate. Corn sown 
about Yakutsk in the end of May is ripe in the end of August. 
Still, at many places night frosts set in as early as the second half 
of July. They become quite common in August and September. 
Nevertheless September is much warmer than May,- and October 
than April, even in the most continental parts of Siberia. The 
isotherms are exceedingly interesting. That of 32 F. crosses the 
middle parts of West Siberia and the southern parts of East Siberia. 
The summer isotherm of 68° F., which in Europe passes through 
Cracow and Kaluga, traverses Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, 
whence it turns north to Yakutsk, and then south again to Vladivo- 
stok. Even the mouths of the Ob, Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma in 
70 N. have in July an average temperature of 40 to 50°. Quite 
contrary is the course of the January isotherms. That of 14 F., 
which passes in Europe through Uleaborg in Finland only touches 
the southern part of West Siberia in the Altai Mountains. That of 
-4 F., which crosses Novaya Zemlya in Europe, passes through 
Tobolsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, and touches 45 N. at 
Urga in Mongolia, turning north in the Amur region and reaching 
the Pacific at Nikolayevsk. The isotherm of -22° F., which touches 
the north point of Novaya Zemlya, passes in Siberia through Turuk- 
hansk (at the confluence of the Lena and the Lower Tunguzka) and 
descends as low as 55° N. in Transbaikalia, whence it turns north 
to the Arctic Ocean. 



Most rain falls in summer, especially in July and August. During 
the summer an average of 8 in. falls on a zone that stretches from 
Moscow and St Petersburg through Perm to Tobolsk and, after a 
dry belt as far as Tomsk, continues in a narrower strip as far as the 
S. end of Lake Baikal, then it broadens out so as to include the 
whole of the Amur basin, the total summer precipitation there being 
about 12 in. North of this zone the rainfall decreases towards the 
Arctic. 

Flora. — The flora of Siberia presents very great local varieties, not 
only on account of the diversity of physical characteristics, but also 
in consequence of the intrusion of new species from the neighbouring 
regions, as widely different as the arctic littoral, the arid steppes of 
Central Asia, and the wet monsoon regions of the Pacific littoral. 
Siberia is situated for the most part in what Grisebach describes as 
the " forest region of the Eastern continent." 1 The northern limit 
of this region, must, however, be drawn nearer to the Arctic Ocean. 
A strip 60 to 200 m. wide is totally devoid of tree vegetation. The 
last trees which struggle for existence on the verge of the tundras are 
crippled dwarfs and almost without branches, and trees a hundred 
years old are only a few feet high and a few inches through and 
thickly encrusted with lichens. 2 The following species, none of 
which are found in European Russia, are characteristic of the tundras 
— arbutus (Arctostaphilus alpina), heaths or andomedas (Cassiope 
tetragona and C. hypnoides), Phyllodoce taxifolia, Loiseleuria pro- 
cumbejis, a species of Latifolium, a Polar azalea (Osmotkamnus 
fragrans) and a Polar willow (Salix ardica). In Yakutsk the tundra 
vegetation consists principally of mosses of the genera Polytrichum, 
Bryum and Hypnum. Some two hundred species of flowering plants 
struggle for a precarious existence in the tundra region, the frozen 
ground and the want of humus militating against them more than 
the want of warmth. 3 From this northern limit to the Aral-Caspian 
and Mongolian steppes stretches all over Siberia the forest region; 
the forests are, however, very unequally distributed, covering from 
50 to 99% of the area in different districts. In the hill tracts and 
the marshy depression of the Ob they are unbroken, except by the 
bald summits of the loftier mountains (goltsy) ; they have the aspect 
of agreeable bosquets in the Baraba steppe, and they are thinly 
scattered through south-eastern Transbaikalia, where the dryness of 
the Gobi steppe makes its influence appreciably felt. Immense 
marshy plains covered with the dwarf birch take their place in the 
north as the tundras are approached. Over this immense area the 
trees are for the most part the same as we are familiar with in 
Europe. The larch becomes predominant chiefly in two new species 
(Larix sibirica and L. dahurica). The fir appears in the Siberian 
varieties Picea obovata and P. ayanensis. The silver fir (Abies 
sibirica, Pinus pectinata) and the stone-pine (P. Cembra) are quite 
common; they reach the higher summits, where the last-named is 
represented by a recumbent species (Cembra pumila). The birch in 
the loftier alpine tracts and plateaus becomes a shrub (Betula nana, 

B. fruticosa), and in Transbaikalia assumes a new and very elegant 
aspect with a dark bark (B. da-urica). In the deeper valleys and on 
the lowlands of West Siberia the larches, pines and silver firs, inter- 
mingled with birches and aspens, attain a great size, and the streams 
are fringed with thickets of poplar and willow. The alpine rose 
(Rhododendron dauricum) clusters in masses on the higher mountains; 
juniper, spiraea, sorbus, the pseudo-acacia (Caragana sibirica and 

C. arborescens, C. jubata in some of the higher tracts), various 
Rosaceae — Potentilla fruticosa and Cotoneaster uniflora — the wild 
cherry (Prunus Padus), and many other shrubs occupy the spaces 
between the trees. Berry-yielding plants are found everywhere, 
even on the goltsy, at the upper limit of tree vegetation ; on the lower 
grounds they are an article of diet. The red whortleberry or cow- 
berry (Vaccinium Vitis idaea), the bog whortleberry (V. uliginosum, 
the bilberry (V. myrtillus) and the arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus) 
extend very far northward; raspberries and red and black currants 
form a luxuriant undergrowth in the forests, together with Ribes 
dikusha in East Siberia. The oak, elm, hazel, ash, apple, lime and 
maple disappear to the east of the Urals, but reappear in new varieties 
on the eastern slope of the border-ridge of the great plateau. 4 There 
we encounter the oak (Q. mongolica) , maple (Acerginala, Max.), ash 
(Fraxinus manchurica), elm (Ulmus montana), hazel (Corylus hetero- 
phylla) and several other European acquaintances. Farther east, 
in the Amur region, a great number of new species of European 



1 According to A. Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte 
der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) 
the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region — north 
Siberian province; (c) the Central -Asian domain — Altai and Daurian 
mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the 
basin of the Amur. 

2 See Middendorff 's observations on vegetable and animal life 
in the tundras, attractively told in vol. iv. of his Sibirische Reise. 

3 Kjellmann, Vega Expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iahttagelser (Stockr 
holm, 1 872-1 887) reckons their number at 182; 124 species were 
found by Middendorff on the Taymyr peninsula, 219 along the 
borders of the forest region of Olenek, and 344 species within the 
forest region of the same; 470 species were collected by Maack in 
the Vilui region. 

4 Nowhere, perhaps, is the change better seen than on crossing 
the Great Khingan. 



H 



SIBERIA 



trees, and even new genera, such as the cork-tree (Phellodendron 
amurense, walnut (Juglans manchurica) , acacia (Maackia amurensis) , 
the graceful climber Maximowiczia amurensis, the Japanese Trocho- 
stigma and many others — all unknown to Siberia proper — are met 
with. 

On the high plateau the larch predominates over all other species 
of conifers or deciduous trees; the wide, open valleys are thickly 
planted with Betula nana and B. fruticosa in the north and with 
thick grasses (poor in species) in the southern and drier parts. The 
Siberian larch predominates also in the alpine tracts fringing the 
plateau on the north, intermingled with the fir, stone-pine, aspen 
and birch. In the drier parts the Scotch fir {Pinus sylvestris) makes 
its appearance. In the alpine tracts of the north the narrowness^ of 
the valleys and the steep stony slopes strewn with debris, on which 
only lichens and mosses are able to grow, make every plot of green 
grass (even if it be only of Carex) valuable. For days consecutively 
the horse of the explorer can get no other food than the dwarf birch. 
But even in these districts the botanist and the geographer can 
easily distinguish between the chern or thick forest of the Altai and 
the taiga of East Siberia. The lower plateau exhibits, of course, 
new characteristics. Its open spaces are lovely prairies, on which 
the Daurian flora flourishes in full beauty. In spring the traveller 
crosses a sea of grass above which the flowers of the paeony, aconite, 
Orobus, Carallia, Saussurea and the like wave 4 or 5 ft. high. As the 
Gobi desert is approached the forests disappear, the ground becomes 
covered chiefly with dry Gramineae, and Salsolaceae make their 
appearance. The high plains of the west slope of the plateau are 
also rich prairies diversified with woods. Nearly all the species of 
plants which grow on these prairies are common to Europe (paeonies, 
Hemerocallis, asters, pinks, gentians, violets, Cypripedium, Aquilegia, 
Delphinium, aconites, irises and so on) ; but here the plants attain 
a much greater size; a man standing erect is often hidden by the 
grasses. The flora of Minusinsk — the Italy of Siberia — is well known ; 
the prairies on the Ishim and of the Baraba steppe are adorned with 
the same rich vegetation, so graphically described by Middendorff 
and O. Finsch. Farther north we come to the urmans of West 
Siberia, dense thickets of trees often rising from a treacherous carpet 
of thickly interlaced grasses, which conceals deep marshes, where 
even the bear has learnt to tread circumspectly. 

Fauna. — The fauna of Siberia is closely akin to that of central 
Europe; and the Ural Mountains, although the habitat of a few 
species which warrant the naturalist in regarding the southern Urals 
as a separate region, are not so important a boundary zoologically 
as they are botanically. As in European Russia, so in Siberia, three 
principal zones — the arctic, the boreal and the middle — may be 
distinguished, and these may be subdivided into several sub-regions. 
The Amur region shares the characteristics of the north Chinese 
fauna. On the whole, we may say that the arctic and boreal faunas 
of Europe extend over Siberia, with a few additional species in the 
Ural and Baraba region — a number of new species also appearing in 
East Siberia, some spreading along the high plateau and others 
along the lower plateau from the steppes of the Gobi. The arctic 
fauna is very poor. According to Nordenskjold 1 it numbers only 
twenty-nine species of mammals, of which seven are marine and 
seventeen or eighteen may be safely considered as living beyond the 
forest limit. Of these, again, four are characteristic of the land of 
the Chukchis. The reindeer, arctic fox {Canis lagopus), hare, wolf, 
lemming (Myodes obensis), collar lemming {Cuniculus torquatus) and 
two species of voles (Arvicolae) are the most common on land. The 
avifauna is very rich in migratory water and marsh fowl (Grallatores 
and Natatores), which come to breed in the coast region; but only 
five land birds — the ptarmigan (Lagopus alpinus), snow-bunting, 
Iceland falcon, snow-owl and raven — are permanent inhabitants of 
the region. The boreal fauna is, of course, much more abundant; 
but here also the great bulk of the species, both mammals and birds, 
are common to Europe and Asia. The bear, badger, wolverine, pole- 
cat, ermine, common weasel, otter, wolf, fox, lynx, mole, hedgehog, 
common shrew, water-shrew and lesser shrew (Sorex vulgaris, S. 
fodiens and 5. pygmaeus), two bats (the long-eared and the boreal), 
three species of Vespertilio (V. daubentoni, V. nattereri and V. mysta- 
cinus), the flying and the common squirrel (Tamias striatus), the 
brown, common, field and harvest mouse (Mus decumanus, M. 
musculus, M. sylvaticus, M. agrarius and M. minutus), four voles 
(Arvicola amphibius, A. rufocanus, A. rutilus and A. schistocolor), 
the beaver, variable hare, wild boar, roebuck, stag, reindeer, elk and 
Phoca annelata of Lake Baikal— all these are common alike to 
Europe and to Siberia; while the bear, musk-deer (Moschus moschi- 
ferus), ermine, sable, pouched marmot or souslik (Spermophilus 
eversmani), Arvicola obscurus and Lagomys hyperboraeus, distributed 
over Siberia, may be considered as belonging to the arctic fauna. 
In addition to the above -we find in East Siberia Mustela alpina, 
Canis alpinus, the sable antelope (Aegocerus sibiricus), several species 
of mouse (Mus gregatus, M. oeconomus and M. saxatilus), two voles 
(Arvicola russatus and A. macrotus), Syphneus aspalax and the alpine 
Lagomys from the Central Asian plateaus; while the tiger makes 
incursions not only into the Amur region but occasionally as far as 
Lake Baikal. On the lower terrace of the great plateau we find an 



admixture of Mongolian species, such as Canis corsae, Felis manul, 
Spermophilus dauricus, the jerboa (Dipus jaculus), two hamsters 
(Cricetus songarus and C. furunculus), three new voles (Arvicolae), 
the Tolai hare, Ogotona hare (Lagomys ogotona), Aegocerus argali, 
Antilope gutturosa and Equus hemionus (jighitai). Of birds no less 
than 285 species have been observed in Siberia, but of these forty-five 
only are absent from Europe. In south-east Siberia there are forty- 
three new species belonging to the north Manchurian or Amur fauna ; 
and in south-east Transbaikalia, on the borders of the Gobi steppe, 
only 103 species were found by G. F. R. Radde, among which the 
most numerous are migratory birds and the birds of prey which 
pursue them. The rivers and lakes of Siberia abound in hsh; but 
little is known of their relations with the species of neighbouring 
regions. 2 

The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few 
genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of 
West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria 
are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to 
the southern Amur. On the other hand, several American genera 
(Cephalaon, Ophryasles) extend into the north-eastern parts of 
Siberia. 3 As in all uncultivated countries, the forests and prairies 
of Siberia become almost uninhabitable in summer because of the 
mosquitoes. East Siberia suffers less from this plague than the 
marshy Baraba steppe ; but on the Amur and the Sungari large gnats 
are an intolerable plague. The dredgings of the " Vega " expedition 
in the Arctic Ocean disclosed an unexpected wealth of marine fauna, 
and those of L. Schrenck in the north of the Japanese Sea led to the 
discovery of no fewer than 256 species (Gasteropods, Brachiopods 
and Conchifers). Even in Lake Baikal Dybowski and Godlewski 
discovered no fewer than ninety-three species of Gammarides and 
twenty-five of Gasteropods. 4 The Sea of Okhotsk is very interesting, 
owing to its local species and the general composition of its fauna 
(70 species of Molluscs and 21 of Gasteropods). The land Molluscs, 
notwithstanding the unfavourable conditions of climate, number 
about seventy species — Siberia in this respect being not far behind 
north Europe. The increase of many animals in size (becoming 
twice as large as in Europe) ; the appearance of white varieties 
among both mammals and birds, and their great prevalence among 
domesticated animals (Yakut horses) ; the migrations of birds and 
mammals over immense regions, from the Central Asian steppes to 
the arctic coast, not only in the usual rotation of the seasons but also 
as a result of occasional climacteric conditions are not yet fully 
understood (e.g. the migration of thousands and thousands of roe- 
buck from Manchuria across the Amur to the left bank of the river, 
or the migration of reindeer related by Baron F von Wrangel) ; 
the various coloration of many animals according to the composition 
of the forests they inhabit (the sable and the squirrel are well-known 
instances) ; the intermingling northern and southern faunas in the 
Amur region and the remarkable consequences of that intermixture 
in the struggle for existence ;— all these render the study of the 
Siberian fauna most interesting. Finally, the laws of distribution 
of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes under- 
gone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are 
well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known. The 
remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their 
importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indi- 
cation of what may be expected in this field. 

Population. — In 1906 the estimated population was 6,740,600. 
In 1897 the distribution was as follows. Geographically, though 
not administratively, the steppe provinces of Akmolinsk and 
Semipalatinsk belong to Siberia. They are described under 

Steppes. 



1 In Vega Exped. Vetensk. lakttagelser., vol. ii. 





Area in 


Population 


Density 


Governments and Provinces. 


in. 


per 




sq. m. 


1897. 


sq. m. 


Tobolsk 


535.739 


1,444,470 


2-7 


Tomsk . 


327-173 


1,947,021 


5-1 


Irkutsk f Yeniseisk . 


981,607 


572,847 


0-6 


(general- -! Irkutsk 


280,429 


515,132 


1-8 


government) (. Yakutsk 


1,530,253 


271,830 


0-2 


f Transbaikalia 


229,520 


676,407 


3-o 


Far East j Amur . 


172,826 


119,909 


o-6 


(viceroyalty) 1 Maritime . 


712,585 


209,516 


0-7 


L Sakhalin 


14,700 


27,250 


1-9 


4.784.832 


5,784.382 


Av. 1-2 



2 Czekanowski (Izveslia Sib. Geog. Soc, 1877) has described fifty 
species from the basin of the Amur ; he considers that these constitute 
only two-thirds of the species inhabiting that basin. 

3 See L. Schrenck, Reisen und Forschungen im Amurlande (1858- 
1891). 

4 See Mem. de I'academie des sciences de St-Petersbourg, vol. xxii. 
(1876). 



SIBERIA 



15 



Of the total in 1897, 81-4% were Russians, 8-3% Turko-Tatars, 
5% Mongols and 0-6% " indigenous " races, i.e. Chukchis, Koryaks, 
_ Ghilyaks, Kamchadales and others. Only 8 % of the 

Kuss aas. tota j are c l asse( j as urban. The great bulk of the popula- 
tion are Russians, whose number increased with great rapidity 
during the 19th century; although not exceeding 150,000 in 1709 
and 500,000 a century later, they numbered nearly 6,500,000 in 
1904. Between 1870 and 1890 over half a million free immigrants 
entered Siberia from Russia, and of these 80 % settled in the govern- 
ment of Tobolsk; and between 1890 and 1905 it is estimated that 
something like a million and a half free immigrants entered the 
country. These people came for the most part from the northern 
parts of the black earth zone of middle Russia, and to a smaller 
extent from the Lithuanian governments and the Ural governments 
of Perm and Vyatka. The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, 
have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending 
branches to the Altai, to the Hi river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, 
as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the 
banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m. apart. As 
Lake Baikal is approached the stream of Russian immigration 
becomes narrower, being confined mostly to the valley of the Angara, 
with a string of villages up the Irkut; but it widens out again in 
Transbaikalia, and sends branches up the Selenga and its tributaries. 
It follows the course of the Amur, again in a succession of villages 
some 20 m. apart, and can be traced up the Usuri to Lake Khangka 
and Vladivostok, with a string of villages on the plains between 
the Zeya and the Silinji. Small Russian settlements are planted on 
a few bays of the North Pacific and the Sea of Okhotsk, as well as 
on Sakhalin. 

Colonization. — Siberia has been colonized in two different ways. 
On the one hand, the government sent parties (1) of Cossacks to 
settle on the frontiers, (2) of peasants who were bound to settle at 
appointed places and maintain communication along the routes, 
(3) of stryeltsy (i.e. Moscow imperial guards) to garrison forts, (4) of 
yamshiks — a special organization of Old Russia entrusted with the 
maintenance of horses for postal communication, and finally (5) of 
convicts. A good deal of the Amur region was peopled in this way. 
Serfs in the imperial mines were liberated and organized in Cossack 
regiments (the Transbaikal Cossacks) ; some of these were settled 
on the Amur, forming the Amur and Usuri Cossacks. Other parts 
of the river were colonized by peasants who emigrated with govern- 
ment aid, and were bound to settle in villages, along the Amur, at 
spots designated by officials. As a rule, this kind of colonization has 
not produced the results that were expected. On the other hand, 
free colonization has been more successful and has been undertaken 
on a much larger scale. Soon after the first appearance (1580) of 
the Cossacks of Yermak in Siberia thousands of hunters, attracted 
by the furs, immigrated from north Russia, explored the country, 
traced the first footpaths and erected the first houses in the wilder- 
ness. Later on serfdom, religious persecutions and conscription were 
the chief causes which led the peasants to make their escape to 
Siberia and build their villages in the most inaccessible forests, on 
the prairies and even on Chinese territory. But the severe measures 
adopted by the government against such " runaways " were power- 
less to prevent their immigration into Siberia. While governmental 
colonization studded Siberia with forts, free colonization filled up 
the intermediate spaces. Since the emancipation of the serfs in 
1861, it has been steadily increasing, the Russian peasants of a 
village often emigrating en bloc. 1 

Siberia was for many years a penal colony. Exile to Siberia began 
in the first years of its discovery, and as early as 1658 we read of the 
Exiles Nonconformist priest Awakum' following in chains the ex- 

ploring party of Pashkov on the Amur. Raskolniks or Non- 
conformists in the second half of the 17th century, rebel stryeltsy under 
Peter the Great, courtiers of rank during the reigns of the empresses, 
Polish confederates under Catherine II., the " Decembrists " under 
Nicholas I., nearly 50,000 Poles after the insurrection of 1863, and 
later on whole generations of socialists were sent to Siberia; while 
the number of common-law convicts and exiles transported thither 
increased steadily from the end of the 1 8th century. No exact 
statistics of Siberian exile were kept before 1823. But it is known 
that in the first years of the 19th century nearly 2000 persons were 
transported every year to Siberia. This figure reached an average 
of 18,250 in 1873-1877, and from about 1880 until the discontinuance 
of the system in 1900 an average of 20,000 persons were annually 
exiled to Siberia. After liberation the hard-labour convicts are 
settled in villages; but nearly all are in a wretched condition, and 
more than one-third have disappeared without being accounted 
for. Nearly 20,000 men (40,000 according to other estimates) are 
living in Siberia the life of brodyagi (runaways or outlaws), trying to 
make their way through the forests to their native provinces in 
Russia. 

Asiatic Races. — The Ural-Altaians consist principally of Turko- 
Tatars, Mongols, Tunguses, Finnish tribes and Samoyedes. The 
Samoyedes, who are confined to the province of Tobolsk, Tomsk 

1 See Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (in Russian, 2nd ed., St 
Petersburg, 1892). 

1 The autobiography of the protopope Awakum is one of the 
most popular books with Russian Nonconformists. 



and Yeniseisk, do not exceed 12,000 in all. The Finns consist 
principally of Mordvinians (18,500), Ostiaks (20,000) and Voguls 
(5000). Survivals of Turkish blood, once much more numerous, 
are scattered all over south Siberia as far as Lake Baikal. Their 
territories are being rapidly occupied by Russians, and their settle- 
ments are cut in two by the Russian stream — the Baraba Tatars 
and the Yakuts being to the north of it, and the others having been 
driven back to the hilly tracts of the Altai and Sayan Mountains. 
In all they number nearly a quarter of a million. The Turkish stock 
of the Yakuts in the basin of the Lena numbers 227,400. Most of 
these Turkish tribes live by pastoral pursuits and some by agriculture, 
and are a most laborious and honest population. 

The Mongols (less than 300,000) extend into West Siberia from 
the high plateau — nearly 20,000 Kalmucks living in the eastern 
Altai. In East Siberia the Buriats occupy the Selenga and the Uda, 

Earts of Nerchinsk, and the steppes between Irkutsk and the upper 
ena, as also the Baikal Mountains and the island of Orkhon; 
they support themselves chiefly by live-stock breeding, but some, 
especially in Irkutsk, are agriculturists. On the left of the Amur 
there are some 60,000 Chinese and Manchurians about the mouth 
of the Zeya, and 26,000 Koreans on the Pacific coast. The Tunguses 
(nearly 70,000) occupy as their hunting-grounds an immense region 
on the high plateau and its slopes to the Amur, but their limits are 
yearly becoming more and more circumscribed both by Russian 
gold-diggers and by Yakut settlers. In the Maritime Province, 
before the Boxer uprising of 1900, 26% of the population in the 
N. Usuri district and 36 % in the S. Usuri district were Koreans and 
Chinese, and in the Amur province there were nearly 15,000 Manchus 
and Koreans. Jews number 32,650 and some 5000 gipsies wander 
about Siberia. 

At first the indigenous populations were pitilessly deprived of 
their hunting and grazing grounds and compelled to resort to 
agriculture — a modification exceedingly hard for them, not only on 
account of their poverty but also because they were compelled to 
settle in the less favourable regions. European civilization made 
them familiar with all its worst sides and with none of its best. 
Taxed with a tribute in furs from the earliest years of the Russian 
conquest, they often revolted in the 17th century, but were cruelly 
reduced to obedience. In 1824 the settled indigenes had to pay the 
very heavy rate of 11 roubles (about £1) per head, and the arrears, 
which soon became equal to the sums levied, were rigorously exacted. 
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government 
prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian 
soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of 
agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, 
fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants. 
Even the best-intentioned government measures, such as the 
importation of corn, the prohibition of the sale of spirits, and 
so on, became new sources of oppression. The action of mission- 
aries, who cared only about nominal Christianizing, had no better 
effect. 

Social Features. — In West Siberia there exist compact masses of 
Russians who have lost little of their primitive ethnographical 
features: but the case is otherwise on the outskirts. M. A. Castren 
characterized Obdorsk (mouth of the Ob) as a true Samoyedic town, 
although peopled with " Russians." The Cossacks of West Siberia 
have the features and customs and many of the manners of life of 
the Kalmucks and Kirghiz. Yakutsk is thoroughly Yakutic; 
marriages of Russians with Yakut wives are common, and in the 
middle of the 19th century the Yakut language was predominant 
among the Russian merchants and officials. At Irkutsk and in 
the valley of the Irkut the admixture of Tungus and Buriat blood 
is obvious, and still more in the Nerchinsk district and among the 
Transbaikal Cossacks settled on the Argun. They speak the Buriat 
language as often as Russian, and in a Buriat dress can hardly be 
distinguished from the Buriats. In different parts of Siberia, on 
the borders of the hilly tracts, intermarriage of Russians with 
Tatars was quite common. Of course it is now rapidly growing 
less, and the settlers who entered Siberia in the 19th century married 
Russian wives and remained thoroughly Russian. There are 
accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or 
Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and 
the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in 
their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, 
in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character 
of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia. The 
special features of the language and partly also of the national 
character are due to the earliest settlers, who came mostly from 
northern Russia. 

The natural rate of increase of population is very slow as a rule, 
and does not exceed 7 or 8 per 1000 annually. The great mortality, 
especially among the children, is one of the causes of this, the birth- 
rate being also lower than in Russia. The climate of Siberia, how- 
ever, cannot be called unhealthy, except in certain localities where 
goitre is common, as it is on the Lena, in several valleys of Nerchinsk 
and in the Altai Mountains. The rapid growth of the actual popula- 
tion is chiefly due to immigration. 

Towns. — Only 8-1 % of the population live in towns (6-4% only 
in the governments of Tobolsk and Tomsk). There are seventeen 
towns with a population of 10,000 or more, namely, Tomsk (63,533 



i6 



SIBERIA 



in 1900) and Irkutsk (49,106)— the capitals of West and East Siberia 
respectively; Blagovyeshchensk (37,368), Vladivostok (38,000). 
Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; 
Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33,337) 
and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk 
(17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), adminis- 
trative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of 
Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703). 
the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), 
the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan 
( IO ,579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), m the 
southern part of the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west 
Mongolia. 

Education. — Education stands at a very low level. The chief 
town of every province is provided with* a classical gymnasium for 
boys and a gymnasium or progymnasium for girls; but the education 
there received is not of a high grade, and the desire of the local 
population for " real schools " is not satisfied. Primary education 
is in a very unsatisfactory state, and primary schools very scarce. 
The petitions for a university at Irkutsk, the money required for 
which has been freely offered to the government, have been refused, 
and the imperative demands of the local tradesmen for technical 
instruction have likewise met with little response. The Tomsk 
University remains incomplete, and has only 560 students. There 
are nevertheless eighteen scientific societies in Siberia, which issue 
publications of great value. Twelve natural history and ethnological 
museums have been established by the exiles — the Minusinsk 
museum being the best. There are also twenty public libraries. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture is the chief occupation both of the 
settled Russians and of the native population. South Siberia has a 
very fertile soil and yields heavy crops, but immense tracts of the 
country are utterly unfit for tillage. Altogether it is estimated that 
not more than 500,000 sq. m. are suitable for cultivation. The 
aggregate is thus distributed— 192,000 sq. m. in West Siberia, 20,000 
in Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk, 100,000 in East Siberia, 85,000 in 
Transbaikalia, 40,000 in Amur, and 63,000 in Usuri. In the low- 
lands of West Siberia cultivation is carried on up to 61 ° N. 1 On the 
high plains fringing the alpine tracts on the north-west it can be 
carried on only in the south, farther north only in the valleys, 
reaching 62 ° N. in that of the Lena, and in the alpine tracts in only 
a few valleys, as that of the Irkut. On the high plateau all attempts 
to grow cereals have failed, the wide trenches alone (Uda, Selenga, 
Jida) offering encouragement to the agriculturist. On the lower 
plateau, in Transbaikalia, grain is successfully raised in the Ner- 
chinsk region, with serious risks, however, from early frosts in the 
valleys. South-east Transbaikalia suffers from want of water, and 
the Buriats have to irrigate their fields. Although agriculture is 
carried on on the upper Amur, where land has been cleared from 
virgin forests, it really prospers only below Kumara and on the 
fertile plains of the Zeya and Silinji. In the depression between the 
Bureya range and the coast ranges it suffers greatly from the heavy 
July and August rains, and from inundations, while on the lower 
Amur the agriculturists barely maintain themselves by growing 
cereals in clearances on the slopes of the hills, so that the settlements 
on the lower Amur and Usuri continually require help from govern- 
ment to save them from famine. The chief grain-producing regions 
of Siberia an; — the Tobol and Ishim region, the Baraba, the region 
about Tomsk and the outskirts of the Altai. The Minusinsk district, 
one of the richest in Siberia (45,000 inhabitants, of whom 24,000 are 
nomadic), has more than 45,000 acres under crops. Mining, the 
second industry in point of importance, is dealt with above. 

Land Tenure. — Out of the total area of over 3,000,000,000 acres of 
land in Siberia, close upon 96 % belong to the state, while the cabinet 
of the reigning emperor owns 114,700,000 acres (112,300,000 in the 
Altai and 2,400,000 in Nerchinsk) or nearly 4%. Private property 
is insignificant in extent — purchase of land being permitted only 
in the Amur region. (In West Siberia it was only temporarily per- 
mitted in 1860-1868.) Siberia thus offers an example of the nationali- 
zation of land unparalleled throughout the world. Any purchase of 
land within a zone 67 m. wide on each side of the trans-Siberian 
railway was absolutely prohibited in 1895, and the extent of crown 
lands sold to a single person or group of persons never exceeds 1080 
acres unless an especially useful industrial enterprise is projected, 
and in that case the maximum is fixed at 2700 acres. The land is 
held by the Russian village communities in virtue of the right of 
occupation. Industrial surveys, having for their object the granting 
of land to the peasants to the extent of 40 acres per each male head, 
with 8 additional acres of wood and 8 acres as a reserve, were started 
many years ago, and after being stopped in 1887 were commenced 
again in 1898. At the present time the land allotments per male 
head vary greatly, even in the relatively populous region of southern 
Siberia. In the case of the peasants the allotments vary on an average 
from 32 to 102 acres (in some cases from 21-6 to 240 acres); the 
Transbaikal Cossacks have about 111 acres per male head, and the 
indigenous population 108 to 154 acres. 

1 The northern limits of agriculture are 60° N. on the Urals, 
62° at Yakutsk, 61 ° at Aldansk, 54° 30' at Udskoi, and 53° 
to 54° in the interior of Kamchatka (Middendorff, Sibirische Reise, 
vol. iv.). 



The total cultivated area and the average area under crops every 
year have been estimated by A. Kauf mann as follows 2 : — 



Province or 
Government. 


Area 

cultivated, 

Acres. 


Under Crops (Acres). 


Total. 


Average 
per House- 
hold. 


Average 
per 100 
Inhabit- 
ants. 


Tobolsk 
Tomsk . 
Yeniseisk 
Irkutsk 

Transbaikalia . 
Yakutsk 
Amur (Russians) 
South Usuri 
(peasants only) 


5,670,000 
8,647,000 
1,830,000 
1,800,000 
1,415,000 
81,000 
143,000 

151,000 


3,270,000 
5,259,000 
977,000 
910,000 
872,000 
43,000 
143,000 

151,000 


13-2 
15-7 
13-0 
13-2 
9.4 
o-8 
19-4 

24-0 


243 
310 
267 
265 

159 
16 

275 : 

375 


19,737,000 


11,625,000 







Bee- 
keeping. 



These figures are somewhat under-estimated, but the official figures 
are still lower, especially for Tomsk. Tillage is conducted on very 
primitive methods. After four to twelve years' cultivation the land 
is allowed to lie fallow for fen years or more. In the Baraba district 
it is the practice to sow four different grain crops in five to seven 
years and then to let the land rest ten to twenty-five years. The 
yield from the principal crops fluctuates greatly; indeed in a very 
good year it is almost three times that in a very bad one. The 
southern parts of Tobolsk, nearly all the government of Tomsk 
(exclusive of the Narym region), southern Yeniseisk and southern 
Irkutsk, have in an average year a surplus of grain varying from 
35 to 40% of the total crop, but in bad years the crop falls short 
of the actual needs of the population. There is considerable move- 
ment of grain in Siberia itself, the populations of vast portions of 
the territory, especially of the mining regions, having to rely upon 
imported corn. The forest area under supervision is about 30,000,000 
acres (in Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseisk and Irkutsk), out of a total 
area of forest land of 63,000,000 acres. 

As an independent pursuit, live-stock breeding is carried on by 
the Russians in eastern Transbaikalia, by the Yakuts in the province 
of Yakutsk, and by the Buriats in Irkutsk and Trans- 
baikalia, but elsewhere it is secondary to agriculture. t^k. 
Both cattle-breeding and sheep-grazing are more profit- s 
able than dairying; but the Kirghiz herds are not well tended, being 
left to graze on the steppes all the year, where they perish from wild 
animals and the cold. The live stock includes some 180,000 camels. 

Bee-keeping is widelycarriedon, especially inTomsk and 
the Altai. Honey is exported to Russia. The seeds of 
the stone-pine are collected for oil in West Siberia. 

Hunting. — Hunting is a profitable occupation, the male population 
of whole villages in the hilly and woody tracts setting out in October 
for a month's hunting. The sable, however, which formerly con- 
stituted the wealth of Siberia, is now exceedingly scarce. Squirrels, 
bears, foxes, arctic foxes, antelopes and especially deer in spring are 
the principal objects of the chase. The forests on the Amur yielded 
a rich return of furs during the first years of the Russian occupation, 
and the Amur sable, although much inferior to the Yakutsk and 
Transbaikalian, was iargely exported. 

Fishing. — Fishing is a valuable source of income on the lower 
courses of the great rivers, especially the Ob. The fisheries on Lake 
Baikal supply cheap food (the omul) to the poorer classes of Irkutsk 
and Transbaikalia. The native populations of the Amur. — Golds 
and Gilyaks — support themselves chiefly by fishing, when the salmon 
enters the Amur and its tributaries in dense masses. Fish (e.g. the 
keta, salmon and sturgeon) are a staple article, of diet in the north. 

Manufactures. — Though Siberia has within itself all the raw 
produce necessary for prosperous industries, it continues to import 
from Russia all the manufactured articles it uses. Owing to the 
distances over which they are carried and the bad organization of 
trade, all manufactured articles are exceedingly dear, especially in 
the east. The manufactories of Siberia employ less than 25,000 
workmen, and of these some 46% are employed in West Siberia. 
Nearly one-third of the total value of the output represents wine- 
spirit, 23% tanneries, 18% tallow-melting and a considerable sum 
cigarette-making. 

It is estimated that about one-half of the Russian agricultural 
population supplement their income by engaging in non-agricultural 
pursuits, but not more than 18 to 22% carry on domestic trades, 
the others finding occupation in the carrying trade— which is still 
important, even since the construction of the railway — in hunting 
(chiefly squirrel-hunting) and in work in the mines. Domestic and 
petty trades are therefore developed only round Tyumen, Tomsk and 
Irkutsk. The principal of these trades are the weaving of carpets 
— about Tyumen; the making of wire sieves; the painting of 
ikons or sacred images; the making of wooden vessels and of the 
necessaries for the carrying trade about Tomsk (sledges, wheels, &c); ; 

2 Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary, vol. lix. (1900). 



SIBERIA 



i7 



the preparation of felt boots and sheepskins; and the manufacture 
of dairy utensils and machinery. Weaving is engaged in for domestic 
purposes. But all these trades are sporadic, and are confined to 
limited areas, and often only to a few separate villages. 

Commerce. — There are no figures from which even an approximate 
idea can be gained as to the value of the internal trade of Siberia, 
but it is certainly considerable. The great fair at Irbit retains its 
importance, and there are, besides, over 500 fairs in Tobolsk and 
over 100 in other parts of the region. The aggregate returns of all 
these are estimated at £2,643,000 annually. The trade with the 
natives continues to be mainly the sale of spirits. 

In the external trade the exports to Russia consist chiefly of grain, 
cattle, sheep, butter and other animal products, furs, game, feathers 
and down. The production of butter for export began only in 
1894, but grew with great rapidity. In 1902 some 1800 dairies were 
at work, the greater number in West Siberia, and 40,000 tons of butter 
were exported. The total trade between Russia and China amounts 
to about £5,500,000 annually, of which 87 % stands for imports 
into Russia and 13% for exports to China. Tea makes up nearly 
one-half of the imports, the other commodities being silks, cottons, 
hides and wool; while cottons and other manufactured wares 
constitute considerably oyer 50% of the exports. Part of this 
Commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea 
to the Pacific ports. The principal centre for the remainder (textiles 
and petroleum), conveyed by land, is Kiakhta on the Mongolian 
frontier. Prior to the building of the trans-Siberian railway a fairly 
active trade was carried on between China and the Amur region; 
but since the opening of that railway (in 1902-1905) the Amur 
region has seriously and rapidly declined in all that concerns trade, 
industry, general prosperity and civilization. There is further an 
import trade amounting to between two and three-quarters and three 
millions sterling annually with Manchuria, to over one million sterling 
with the United States, and to a quarter to half a million sterling 
with Japan. As nearly as can be estimated, the total imports into 
Siberia amount approximately to £5,000,000, the amount having 
practically doubled between 1890 and 1902; the total exports 
average about £9,000,000. In the Far East the chief trade centres 
are Vladivostok and Nikolayevsk on the Amur, with Khabarovsk 
and Blagovyeshchensk, both on the same river. For some years a 
small trade was carried on by the British Captain Wiggins with the 
mouth of the river Yenisei through the Kara Sea, and after his death 
. in 1905 the Russians themselves endeavoured to carry farther the 
pioneer work which he had begun. 

Communications. — Navigation on the Siberian rivers has developed 
both as regards the number of steamers plying and the number of 
branch rivers traversed. In 1900, one hundred and thirty private 
and several crown steamers plied on the Ob-Irtysh river system as 
far as Semipalatinsk on the Irtysh, Biysk on the Ob, and Achinsk 
on the Chulym. The Ob- Yenisei canal is ready for use, but its actual 
usefulness is impaired by the scarcity of water in the smaller streams 
forming part of the system. On the Yenisei steamers ply from 
Minusinsk to Yeniseisk, and to Ghilghila at its mouth; on its 
tributary, the Angara, of which some rapids have been cleared, 
though the Padun rapids have still to be rounded by land; and on 
the Selenga. On the Lena and the Vitim there are steamers, and a 
small railway connects the Bodoibo river port with the Olekma 
gold-washings. In the Amur system, the Zeya, the Bureya and the 
Argun are navigated. 

The main line of communication is the great Moscow road. It 
starts from Perm on the Kama, and, crossing the Urals, reaches 
Ekaterinburg — the centre of mining industry — and Tyumen on the 
Tura, whence steamers ply via Tobolsk to Tomsk. From Tyumen 
the road proceeds to Omsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, 
sending off from Kolyvan a branch south to Barnaul in the Altai 
and to Turkestan. From Irkutsk it proceeds to Transbaikalia, 
Lake Baikal being crossed either by steamer or (when frozen) on 
sledges, in either case from Listvinichnoe to Misovaya. A route 
was laid out about 1868 round the south shore of Lake Baikal in 
order to maintain communication with Transbaikalia during the 
spring and autumn, and in 1905 the great Siberian railway was com- 
pleted round the same extremity of the lake. From Lake Baikal 
the road proceeds to Verkhne-udinsk, Chita and Stryetensk on the 
Shilka, whence steamers ply to the mouth of the Amur and up the 
Usuri and Sungacha to Lake Khangka. When the rivers are 
frozen communication is maintained by sledges on the Amur; but 
in spring and autumn the only continuous route down the Shilka 
and the Amur, to its mouth, is on horseback along a mountain 
path (very difficult across the Bureya range). On the lower Amur 
and on the Usuri the journey is also difficult even on horseback. 
When the water in the upper Amur is low, vessels are sometimes 
unable to reach the Shilka. Another route of importance before the 
conquest of the Amur is that which connects Yakutsk with Okhotsk 
or Ayan. Regular postal communication is maintained by the 
Russians between Kiakhta and Kalgan (close by Peking) across the 
desert of Gobi. 

The first railway to reach Siberia was built in 1878, when a line 
was constructed between Perm, at which point travellers for Siberia 
„ .. used to strike off from the Kama eastwards, and Ekaterin- 

Kavway*. ^urg, on t jj e eas ^ eTn s i ope f the Urals. In 1884 this line 
was continued as far as Tyumefi, the head of navigation on the 



Siberian rivers. It was supposed at that time that this line would 
form part of the projected trans-Siberian railway; but it was finally 
decided, in 1885, to give a more southerly direction to the railway 
and to continue the Moscow-Samara line to Ufa, Zlatoust in the 
Urals, and Chelyabinsk on the west Siberian prairies, at the head 
of one of the tributaries of the Ob. Thence the line was continued 
across the prairies to Kurgan and Omsk, and from there it followed 
the great Siberian highway to Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, and on 
round Lake Baikal to Chita and Stryetensk on the Shilka. From 
that place it was intended to push it down the Amur to Khabarovsk, 
and finally to proceed up the Usuri to Vladivostok. The building 
of the railway was begun at several points at once in 1892; it had, 
indeed, been started a year before that in the Usuri section. For 
reasons indicated elsewhere (see Russia : Railways) it was found 
inadvisable to continue the railroad along the Shilka and the Amur 
to Khabarovsk, and arrangements were made in 1 896 with the Chinese 
government for the construction of a trans- Manchurian railway. 
This line connects Kaidalovo, 20 m. below Chita, with Vladivostok, 
and sends off a branch from Kharbin, on the Sungari, to Dalny and 
Port Arthur. Those parts of it which run through Russian territory 
(in Transbaikalia 230 m.; in the neighbourhood of Vladivostok 
67 m.) were opened in 1902, and also the trans-Manchurian line 
(1000 m.), although not quite completed. A line was constructed 
from Vladivostok to the Amur before it became known that the 
idea of following the latter part of the route originally laid down 
would have to be abandoned. This line, which has been in working 
order since 1898, is 479 m. long, and proceeds first to Grafskay^, 
across the fertile and populous south Usuri region, then down the 
Usuri to Khabarovsk at the confluence of that river with the Amur. 
Returning westwards, Chelyabinsk has been connected with 
Ekaterinburg (153 m.) ; and a branch line has been built from the 
main Siberian line to Tomsk (54 m.). Altogether the entire railway 
system, including the cost of the Usuri line, the unfinished Amur 
line, the circum-Baikal line and the eastern Chinese railway, is put 
down at a total of £87,555,760, and the total distance, all branches 
included, is 5413 m., of which 1070 m. are in Chinese territory. 

Histgry. — The shores of all the lakes which filled the depressions 
during the Lacustrine period abound in remains dating from the 
Neolithic Stone period; and numberless kurgans (tumuli), furnaces 
and so on bear witness to a much denser population than the present. 
During the great migrations in Asia from east to west many popula- 
tions were probably driven to the northern borders of the great 
plateau and thence compelled to descend into Siberia; succeeding 
waves of immigration forced them still farther towards the barren 
grounds of the north, where they melted away. According to 
Radlov, the earliest inhabitants of Siberia were the Yeniseians, 
who spoke a language different from the Ural-Altaic; some few 
traces of them (Yeniseians, Sayan-Ostiaks, and Kottes) exist among 
the Sayan Mountains. The Yeniseians were followed by the Ugro- 
Samoyedes, who also came originally from the high plateau and 
were compelled, probably during the great migration of the Huns 
in the 3rd century B.C., to cross the Altai and Sayan ranges and to 
enter Siberia. To them must be assigned the very numerous remains 
dating from the Bronze period which are scattered all over southern 
Siberia. Iron was unknown to them; but they excelled in bronze, 
silver and gold work. Their bronze ornaments and implements, 
often polished, evince considerable artistic taste ; and their irrigated 
fields covered wide areas in the fertile tracts. On the whole, their 
civilization stood much higher than that of their more recent suc- 
cessors. Eight centuries later the Turkish stocks of " Tukiu " (the 
Chinese spelling for "Turks"), Khagases and Uigurs — also com- 
pelled to migrate north-westwards from their former seats — subdued 
the Ugro-Samoyedes. These new invaders likewise left numerous 
traces of their sojourn,. and two different periods may be easily 
distinguished in their remains. They were acquainted with iron, 
and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which 
they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a 
still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and 
more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments 
are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg 
museum of the Hermitage. This Turkish empire of the Khagases 
must have lasted until the 13th century, when the Mongols, under 
Jenghiz Khan, subdued them and destroyed their civilization. A 
decided decline is shown by the graves which have been discovered, 
until the country reached the low level atwhich it was found by the 
Russians on their arrival towards the close of the 16th century. In 
the beginning of the 1 6th century Tatar fugitives from Turkestan 
subdued the loosely associated tribes inhabiting the lowlands to the 
east of the Urals. Agriculturists, tanners, merchants and mollahs 
(priests) were called from Turkestan, and small principalities sprang 
up on the Irtysh and the Ob. These were united by Khan Ediger, 
and conflicts with the Russians who were then colonizing the Urals 
brought him into collision with Moscow; his envoys came to Moscow 
in 1555 and consented to a yearly tribute of a thousand sables. As 
early as the nth centuiy the Novgorodians had occasionally pene- 
trated into Siberia; but the fall of the republic and the loss of it's 
north-eastern dependencies checked the advance of the Russians 
across the Urals. On the defeat of the adventurer Stenka Razin 
(1667-1671) many who were unwilling to submit to the iron rule of 
Moscow made their way to the settlements of Stroganov in Perm, 



J i8 



SIBI— SIBSAGAR 



and tradition has it that, in order to get rid of his guests, Stroganov 
suggested to their chief, Yermak, that he should cross the Urals 
into Siberia, promising to help him with supplies of food and arms. 
Yermak entered Siberia in 1580 with a band of 1636 men, following 
the Tagil and Tura rivers. Next year they were on the Tobol, and 
500 men successfully laid siege to Isker, the residence of Khan 
Kuchum, in the neighbourhood of what is now Tobolsk. Kuchum 
fled to the steppes, abandoning his domains to Yermak, who, accord- 
ing to tradition, purchased by the present of Siberia to Ivan IV. 
his own restoration to favour. Yermak was drowned in the Irtysh 
in 1584 and the Cossacks abandoned Siberia. But new bands of 
hunters and adventurers poured every year into the country, and 
were supported by Moscow. To avoid conflicts with the denser 
populations of the south, they preferred to advance eastwards along 
higher latitudes; meanwhile Moscow erected forts and settled 
labourers around them to supply the garrisons with food. Within 
eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. 
This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither 
Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance. In 1607- 
1610 the Tunguses fought strenuously for their independence, but 
were subdued about 1623. I n 1628 the Russians reached the Lena, 
founded the fort of Yakutsk in 1637, and two years later reached 
the Sea of Okhotsk at the mouth of the Ulya river. The Buriats 
offered some opposition, but between 1631 and 1641 the Cossacks 
erected several palisaded forts in their territory, and in 1648 the 
fort on the upper Uda beyond Lake Baikal. In 1643 Poyarkov's 
boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of 
Okhotsk and the Aldan, and in 1 649-1 650 Khabarov occupied the 
banks of the Amur. The resistance of the Chinese, however, obliged 
the Cossacks to quit their forts, and by the treaty of Nerchinsk 
(1689) Russia abandoned her advance into the basin of the river. 
In 1852a Russian military expedition under Muraviev explored the 
Amur, and by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants were 
settled along the whole course of the river. The accomplished fact 
was recognized by China in 1857 an d i860 by a treaty. In the same 
year in which Khabarov explored the Amur (1648) the Cossack 
Dejnev, starting from the Kolyma, sailed round the north-eastern 
extremity of Asia through the strait which was rediscovered and 
described eighty years later by Bering (1728). Cook in 1778, and 
after him La Perouse, settled definitively the broad features of the 
northern Pacific coast. Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached 
as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its 
coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, 
Lasinius and Laptev — whose labours constitute a brilliant page in 
the annals of geographical discovery — was begun only in the 18th 
century (l735~ I 739)- 

The scientific exploration of Siberia, begun in the period 1733 to 
1742 by Messerschmidt, Gmelin, and De Lisle de la Croyere, was 
followed up by Miiller, Fischer and Georgi. Pallas, with several 
Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration 
of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country. 
The journeys of Hansteen and Erman (1828-1830) were a most 
important step in the exploration of the territory. Humboldt, 
Ehrenberg and Gustav Rose also paid in the course of these years 
short visits to Siberia, and gave a new impulse to the accumulation 
of scientific knowledge; while Ritter elaborated in his Asien (1832- 
1859) the foundations of a sound knowledge of the structure of 
Siberia. Middendorff's journey (1844-1845) to north-eastern Siberia 
— contemporaneous with Castren's journeys for the special study 
of the Ural-Altaian languages — directed attention to the far north 
and awakened interest in the Amur, the basin of which soon became 
the scene of the expeditions of Akhte and Schwarz (1852), and later 
on (1854-1857) of the Siberian expedition to which we owe so marked 
an advance in our knowledge of East Siberia. The Siberian branch 
of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time 
at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the ex- 
ploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin 
attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose 
works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become 
widely known. 

Bibliography. — A. T. von Middendorff, Sibirische Reise (St 
Petersburg, 1848-1875); L. Schrenck, Reisen und Forschungen im 
Amurgebiet (St Petersburg, 1858-1891); Trudy of the Siberian 
expedition — mathematical part (also geographical) by Schwarz, and 
physical part by Schmidt, Glehn and Brylkin (1874, seq.) ; G. 
Kennan, Tent Life in Siberia (1870); Paplov, Siberian Rivers 
(1878); A. E. Nordenskjoid, Voyage of the Vega (1881) and Vega 
Exped. Vetensk. Iaktlagelser (5 vols., Stockholm, 1872-1887); 
P. P. Semenov, Geogr. and Stat. Dictionary of the Russian Empire 
(in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884) — a most valuable 
source of information, with full bibliographical details under each 
article; Picturesque Russia (in Russian), ed. by P. Semenov, vol. xi. 
(West Siberia) and xii. (East Siberia) ; Scheglov, Chronology of Sib. 
Hist, from 1032 to 1882; Yadrintsev, Siberia (St Petersburg, 2nd 
ed., 1892, in Russian); Vagin, " Historical Documents on Siberia," 
in the collection Sibir, vol. i. ; Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony 
(new ed., 1892); F. M. Dostoievsky's novel, Buried Alive (1881); 
Baron A. von Rosen, Memoiren eines russischen Dekabristen (Leipzig, 
1870). Consult further Materials for the Study of the Economic 
Conditions of West Siberia (22 vols., St Petersburg, 1 889-1 898), 



condensed in Peasant Land-Tenure and Husbandry in Tobolsk and 
Tomsk (St Petersburg, 1894), both in Russian. Similar Materials 
for the Altai region, published at St Petersburg by the Cabinet of the 
emperor, and for irkutsk and Yeniseisk (12 fasc, Irkutsk, 1889- 
1893); Materials for Transbaikalia (16 vols., St Petersburg, 1898), 
summed up in Transbaikalia, by N. Razumov (St Petersburg, 1899). 
Other works deserving special mention are: Ermolov, Siberia as a 
Colony (3rd ed., 1894); Jarilow, Ein Beitrag zur Landwirtschaft in 
Sibirien (Leipzig, 1896). Among books of more recent publication 
must be mentioned G. Krahmer, Russland in Asien (3 vols., Leipzig, 
1898-1900) and Sibirien und die grosse sibirische Eisenbahn (2nd ed., 
1900); Wirt Gerrare, Greater Russia (London 1903); J. F. Fraser, 
The Real Siberia (London, 1902) ; P. Kropotkin, Orographic de la 
Siberie (Brussels, 1904); P. Leroy-Beaulieu, La Renovation de V Asie 
centrale (Paris, 1900); J. Stadling, Through Siberia (London, I 901); 
S. Turner, Siberia (London, 1906); G. F. Wright, Asiatic Russia 
(2 vols., London, 1903); L. Deutsch, Sixteen Years in Siberia 
(Eng. trans., London, 1905) ; V. Dolgorukov, Guide through Siberia 
(3rd ed., Tomsk, 1898, in Russian, with summaries in French); 
A. N. de Koulomzine, Le Trans-siberien (Paris, 1904) ; Bishop of 
Norwich, My Life in Mongolia and Siberia (London, 1903); S. 
Patkanov, Essai d'une statistique et d'une geographie des peuples 
paleoasiatiques de la Siberie (St Petersburg, 1903) ; M. P. de Semenov, 
La Russie extra-europeenne et polaire (Paris, 1900) ; T. W. Bookwalter, 
Siberia and Central Asia (Springfield, Ohio, 1899) ; Siberia and the 
Great Siberian Railway, by Ministry of Finance (Eng. trans., ed. by 
J. M. Crawford, St Petersburg, 1893, vol. v. for flora). Climatological 
Atlas of the Russian Empire, by the Physical Observatory (St 
Petersburg, 1900), gives data and observations covering the period 
1 849-1 899. A full bibliography will be found in the Russian Ency- 
clopaedic Dictionary, as also in Mezhov, Siberian Bibliography (3 vols., 
St Petersburg, 1891-1892), and in A. Pypin's History of Russian 
Ethnography, vol. iv. (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.) 

SIBI, a town and district of Baluchistan. The town is now 
an important junction on the Sind-Peshin railway, where 
the Harnai line and the Quetta loop line meet, near the entrance 
of the Bolan pass, 88 m. S.E. of Quetta. Pop. (1901) 4551. 
The district, which was constituted in 1903, has an area of 
4152 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 74,555. The greater part became British 
territory by the treaty of Gandamak in 1879; the rest is ad- 
ministered under a perpetual lease from the khan of Kalat. 
Political control is also exercised over the Marri-Bugti country, 
with an additional area of 7129 sq. m.: pop. (1901) 38,919. 
Besides the town of Sibi, the district contains the sanatorium 
of Ziarat, the summer residence of the government. 
See Sibi District Gazetteer (Bombay, 1907). 
SIBONGA, a town of the province of Cebu, island of Cebu, 
Philippine Islands, on the E. coast, 30 m. S.W. of Cebu, the 
capital. Pop. (1903) 25,848. Sibonga is an agricultural town 
with a port for coasting vessels, and is served by a railway. 
The principal products are Indian corn and tobacco. The climate 
is hot, but healthy. The language is Cebu-Visayan. 

SIBPUR, a town of British India, in the Hugli district of 
Bengal, on the right bank of the river Hugli, opposite Calcutta. 
It is a suburb of Howrah. It contains jute-mills, a flour-mill, 
rope-works, brick-works and other industrial establishments; 
the royal botanical garden; and the engineering college with 
electrical and mining departments and a boarding-house. 
The college, of gothic architecture, was originally built for a 
missionary institution, as the Bishop's College, in 1824. It has 
recently been decided to remove it to Ranchi, in Chota Nagpur. 
SIBSAGAR, a town and district of British India, in eastern 
Bengal and Assam. The town is situated on the Dikhu river, 
about 9 m. from the left bank of the Brahmaputra, being pictur- 
esquely built round a magnificent tank, covering an area of 
114 acres. Pop. (1901) 5712. In 1907 the transfer of the 
district headquarters to Jorhak (pop. 2899), on the Disai river, 
was sanctioned. 

The District or Sibsagar has an area of 4996 sq. m. It 
consists of a level plain, much overgrown with grass and jungle, 
and intersected by numerous tributaries of the Brahmaputra. 
It is divided by the little river Disai into two tracts, which differ 
in soil and general appearance. The surface of the eastern 
portion is very flat, the general level being broken only by the 
long lines of embankments raised by the Ahom kings to serve 
both as roadways and as a protection against floods. The soil 
consists of a heavy loam of a whitish colour, which is well adapted 
for rice cultivation. West of the Disai, though the surface 
soil is of the same character, the general aspect is diversified 



SIBTHORP— SIBYLS 



19 



by the protrusion of the subsoil, which consists of a stiff clay 
abounding in iron nodules, and is furrowed by frequent ravines 
and water-courses, which divide the cultivable fields into 
innumerable small sunken patches or kolas. The chief river is 
the Brahmaputra, which is navigable throughout the year by 
steamers. The tributaries of the Brahmaputra comprise the 
Dhaneswari, the Dihing, the Disang and the Dikhu, all flowing 
in a northerly direction from the Naga Hills. Included within 
the district is the island of Maguli, formed by the silt brought 
down by the Subansiri river from the Himalayas and deposited 
in the wide channel of the Brahmaputra. Coal, iron, petroleum 
and salt are found. The climate, like that of the rest of the 
Assam valley, is comparatively mild and temperate, and the 
annual rainfall averages about 94 in. 

In 10,01 the population was 597,969, showing an increase of 
24 % in the decade. Sibsagar is the chief centre of tea cultivation 
in the Brahmaputra valley, which was introduced by the Assam 
Company in 1852. It contains a large number of well-managed 
tea-gardens, which bring both men and money into the province. 
There are also several timber mills. The Assam-Bengal railway 
serves the southern part of the district, and a light railway 
connects this line with Kalikamukh on the Brahmaputra, itself 
an important highway of communication. 

On the decline of the Ahom dynasty Sibsagar, with the rest 
of the Assam valley, fell into the hands of the Burmese. As 
a result of the first Burmese war (1824-1826) the valley was 
annexed to British India, and the country now forming Sibsagar 
district, together with the southern portion of Lakhimpur, 
was placed under the rule of Raja Purandhar Singh, on his 
agreeing to pay a tribute of £5000. Owing to the raja's misrule, 
Sibsagar was reduced to a state of great poverty, and, as he was 
unable to pay the tribute, the territories were resumed by the 
government of India, and in 1838 were placed under the direct 
management of a British officer. 

See Sibsagar District Gazetteer (Allahabad, 1906). 

SIBTHORP, JOHN (1758-1796), English botanist, was born 
at Oxford on the 28th of October 1758, and was the youngest 
son of Dr Humphrey Sibthorp (1713-1797), who from 1747 
to 1784 was Sherardian professor of botany at Oxford. He 
graduated at Oxford in 1777, and then studied- medicine at 
Edinburgh and Montpellier. In 1784 he succeeded his father in 
the Sherardian chair. Leaving his professional duties to a 
deputy he left England for Gottingen and Vienna, in preparation 
for a botanical tour in Greece (1786). Returning to England 
at the end of the following year he took part in the foundation 
of the Linnaean Society in 1788, and set to work on a flora of 
Oxfordshire, which was published in 1794 as Flora Oxoniensis. 
He made a second journey to Greece, but developed consumption 
on the way home and died at Bath on the 8th of February 1796. 
By his will he bequeathed his books on natural history and 
agriculture to Oxford university, where also he founded the 
Sibthorpian professorship of rural economy, attaching it to 
the chair of botany. He directed that the endowment should 
first be applied to the publication of his Flora Graeca and Florae 
Graecae Frodromus, for which, however, he had done little 
beyond collecting some three thousand species and providing 
the plates. The task of preparing the works was undertaken 
by Sir J. E. Smith, who issued the two volumes of the Prodromus 
in 1806 and 1813, and six volumes of the Flora Graeca between 
1806 and 1828. The seventh appeared in 1830, after Smith's 
death, and the remaining three were produced by John Lindley 
between 1833 and 1840. 

Another member of the family, Ralph Waldo Sibthorp 
(1792-1879), a grandson of Dr Humphrey Sibthorp, was a 
well-known English divine. He was educated at Oxford and 
took Anglican orders in 181 5. He became known as a prominent 
" evangelical " in London, but in 1841 was received into the 
Roman Church. Two years later he returned to the Anglican 
Church, though he was not readmitted to the ministry till 1857. 
Finally he re-entered the Roman communion in 1865, but on 
his death in 1879 he was, by his own request, buried according 
to the service of the English Church. His elder brother, Colonel 



Charles de Laet Waldo Sibthorp (1783-1855), represented 
Lincoln in parliament from 1826 until his death, except for a 
short period in 1833-1834, and was notorious for the vigour with 
which he expressed his opinions and for his opposition to the 
Catholic Emancipation Bill and the Reform Bill. The eldest 
son of Colonel Sibthorp, Gervaise Tottenham' Waldo Sib- 
thorp (1815-1861), was also M.P. for Lincoln. 

SIBYLLINE ORACLES, a collection of Apocalyptic writings, 
composed in imitation of the heathen Sibylline books (see 
Sibyls) by the Jews and, later, by the Christians in their efforts 
to win the heathen world to their faith. The fact that they 
copied the form in which the heathen revelations were conveyed 
(Greek hexameter verses) and the Homeric language is evidence 
of a degree of external Hellenization, which is an important fact 
in the history of post-exilic Judaism. Such was the activity 
of these Jewish and Christian missionaries that their imitations 
have swamped the originals. Even Virgil in his fourth Eclogue 
seems to have used Jewish rather than purely heathen oracles. 

The extant fragments and conglomerations of the Sibylline 
oracles, heathen, Jewish and Christian, were collected, examined, 
translated and explained by C. Alexandre in a monumental 
edition full of exemplary learning and acumen. On the basis 
of his results, as they have been scrutinized by scholars like 
Schiirer and Geffcken, it is possible to disentangle some of the 
different strata with a certain degree of confidence. 

1. Book III. contains Jewish oracles relative to the Golden 
Age established by Roman supremacy in the East about the 
middle of the 2nd century B.C. (especially 1 75-181: cf. 1 Mace, 
viii. 1-16). The evacuation of Egypt by Antiochus Epiphanes 
at the bidding of the Roman ambassadors suits the warning 
addressed to " Greece " (732-740) against overweening ambition 
and any attempt upon the Holy City, which is somewhat 
strangely enforced by the famous Greek oracle, " Let Camarina 
be, 'tis best unstirred." Older than these are the Babylonian 
oracle (97-154) and the Persian (381-387). A later Jewish 
oracle (46-62) refers to the wars of the second Triumvirate of 
Rome, and the whole compilation seems to come from a Christian 
redactor. 

2. Book IV. is a definite .attack upon the heathen Sibyl — 
the Jews and Christians did not attempt to pass off their 
" forgeries " as genuine — as the mouthpiece of Apollo by a Jew 
who speaks for the Great God and yet uses a Greek review (49- 
114) of ancient history from the Assyrian empire. There are 
references to the legendary escape of Nero to Parthia (119-124) 
and the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70 (130-136). 

3. Book V. contains a more developed form of the myth of 
Nero redivivus in which a panegyric on him (137-141) has been 
brought up to date by some Jew or Christian, and eulogies of 
Hadrian and his successors (48-51) side by side with the legend 
of the miserable death of Titus in quittance of his destruction 
of Jerusalem (411-413) which probably represents the hope of 
the zealots who survived it. 

4. The remaining books appear to be Christian (some heretical) 
and to belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries. 

Editions. — C. Alexandre (Paris, 1841, 2 vols.; 1869, 1 vol.); 
Rzach (Prague, 1891; text and appendix of sources); Geffcken 
(Leipzig, 1902; text with full apparatus of variants, sources and 
parallel passages) ; see also his Komposition und Entstehungszeit des 
Oracula Sibyllina (Leipzig, 1902). An annotated Eng. trans, was 
undertaken in 1910 by H. C. O. Lanchester. For references to 
modern literature see Schiirer, Geschichte des jildischen Volkes, iii. 
( 4 th ed.), 555-592. (J. H. A.H.) 

SIBYLS 1 (Sibyllae), the name given by the Greeks and Romans 
to certain women who prophesied under the inspiration of a 
deity. The inspiration manifested itself outwardly in distorted 
features, foaming mouth and frantic gestures. Homer does not 
refer to a Sibyl, nor does Herodotus. The first Greek writer, 
so far as we know, who does so is Heraclitus (c. 500 B.C.). As 
to the number and native countries of the Sibyls much diversity 
of opinion prevailed. Plato only speaks of one, but in course 
of time the number increased to ten according to Lactantius 

1 The word is usually derived from Sw-/3o\Xa, the Doric form oit 
0«>D (3ouXi} ( = will of God). 



20 



SICANI— SICILY 



(quoting from Varro) : the Babylonian or Persian, the Libyan, 
the Cimmerian, the Delphian, the Erythraean, the Samian, the 
Cumaean, the Hellespontine, the Phrygian and the Tiburtine. 
The Sibyl of whom we hear most is the Erythraean, generally 
identified with the Cumaean, whom Aeneas consulted before his 
descent to the lower world (Aeneid, vi. 10); it was she who sold 
to Tarquin the Proud the Sibylline books. She first offered him 
nine; when he refused them, she burned three and offered him 
the remaining six at the same price; when he again refused 
them, she burned three more and offered him the remaining 
three still at the same price. Tarquin then bought them (Dion. 
Halic. iv. 62). He entrusted them to the care of two patricians; 
after 367 B.C. ten custodians were appointed, five patricians 
and five plebeians; subsequently (probably in the time of Sulla) 
their number was increased to fifteen. These officials, at the 
command of the senate, consulted the Sibylline books in order 
to discover, not exact predictions of definite future events, but 
the religious observances necessary to avert extraordinary 
calamities (pestilence, earthquake) and to expiate prodigies in 
cases where the national deities were unable, or unwilling, to 
help. Only the interpretation of the oracle which was con- 
sidered suitable to the emergency was made known to the public, 
not the oracle itself. An important effect of these books was 
the grecizing of Roman religion by the introduction of foreign 
deities and rites (worshipped and practised in the Troad) and 
the amalgamation of national Italian deities with the correspond- 
ing Greek ones (fully discussed in J. Marquardt, Staatsver- 
waltung, iii., 1885, pp. 42, 350, 382). They were written in hexa- 
meter verse and in Greek; hence the college of curators was 
always assisted by two Greek interpreters. The books were 
kept in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol and shared the 
destruction of the temple by fire in 83. After the restoration 
of the temple the senate sent ambassadors in 76 to Erythrae to 
collect the oracles afresh and they brought back about 1000 
verses; others were collected in Ilium, Samos, Sicily, Italy and 
Africa. In the year 12 B.C. Augustus sought out and burned 
a great many spurious oracles and subjected the Sibylline books 
to a critical revision; they were then placed by him in the 
temple of Apollo Patroiis on the Palatine, where we hear of them 
still existing in a.d. 363. They seem to have been burned by 
Stilicho shortly after 400. According to the researches of R. H. 
Klausen (Aeneas und die Penaten, 1839), the oldest collection of 
Sibylline oracles appears to have been made about the time of 
Solon and Cyrus at Gergis on Mount Ida in the Troad; it was 
attributed to the Hellespontine Sibyl and was preserved in the 
temple of Apollo at Gergis. Thence it passed to Erythrae, 
where it became famous. It was this very collection, it would 
appear, which found its way to Cumae and from Cumae to 
Rome. 

Some genuine Sibylline verses are preserved in the Book of Marvels 
(Utpl Bavnaaluv) of Phlegon of Tralles (2nd century a.d.). See 
H. Diels, Sibyllinische Blatter (1890). On the subject generally 
see J. Marquardt as above; A, Bouchfi-Leclerq, La Divination 
dans VantiquM (1879-1882); E. Maass, De Sibyllarum indicibus 
(1879); C. Schultess, Die sibyllinischen Biicher in Rom (1895; 
with references to authorities in notes). 

SICANI, in ancient geography, generally regarded (together 
with the Elymi) as the oldest inhabitants of Sicily. Sicania 
(the country of the Sicani) and the Siculi (q.v.) or Siceli are 
mentioned in Homer (Odyssey, xx. 383, xxiv. 307), the latter 
apparently being known to the Greeks as slave-dealers. There 
existed considerable difference of opinion among the ancients as 
to the origin of the Sicani. From the similarity of name, it 
would be natural to identify them with the Siculi, but ancient 
authorities expressly state that they were two distinct peoples 
(see Sicily: History, ad init.). At first the Sicani occupied 
nearly the whole of the island, but were gradually driven by the 
Siceli into the interior and the N. and N.W. They lived chiefly 
in small towns and supported themselves by agriculture. These 
towns were not subject to a single king, but each had its own 
ruler and constitution. The most important of the towns to 
which a Sicanian origin can be with certainty assigned and 
whose site can be determined, are: Hyccara (Muro di Carini), 



taken and plundered by the Athenians during the Sicilian 
expedition (415 B.C.) ; Omphake, between Agrigentum (Girgenti) 
and Gela (Terranova) ; and Camicus (site unknown), the residence 
of the mythical Sicanian king Cocalus, constructed for him by 
Daedalus (q.v.), to whom he had given shelter when pursued by 
Minos, king of Crete. 

SICARD, ROCH-AMBROISE CUCURRON (1742-1822), French 
abbe and instructor of deaf-mutes, was born at Le Fousseret, 
Haute-Garonne, on the 20th of September 1742. Educated 
as a priest, he was made principal of a school of deaf-mutes at 
Bordeaux in 1786, and in 1789, on the death of the Abb6 de 
l'Epee (see £pee), succeeded him at Paris. His chief work was 
his Cows d 'instruction d'un sourd-muet de naissance (1800). 
See Deaf and Dumb. The Abb6 Sicard managed to escape any 
serious harm in the political troubles of 1792, and became a 
member of the Institute in 179S, but the value of his educational 
work was hardly recognized till shortly before his death at Paris 
ontheiothof May 1822. 

SICILY (Ital. Sicilia), an island of the Mediterranean Sea 
belonging to the kingdom of Italy, and separated from the 
nearest point of the mainland of Italy only by the Straits of 
Messina, which at their narrowest part are about 2 m. in width. 
It is nearly bisected by the meridian of 14 E., and by far the 
greater part lies to the south of 38 N. Its southernmost point, 
however, in 36 38' N. is 40' to the north of Point Tarifa, the 
southernmost point of Spain and of the continent of Europe. 
In shape it is roughly triangular, 1 whence the ancient poetical 
name of Trinacria, referring to its three promontories of Pelorum 
(now Faro) in the north-east, Pachynum (now Passero) in the 
south-east, and Lilybaeum (now Boeo) in the west. Its area> 
exclusive of the adjacent small islands belonging to the comparti- 
mento, is, according to the calculations of the Military Geographi- 
cal Institute of Italy, 9860 sq. m.; while the area of the whole 
compartimento is 9936 sq. m. 

The island occupies that part of the Mediterranean in which 
the shallowing of the waters divides that sea into two basins, 
and in which there are numerous indications of frequent changes 
in a recent geological period. The channel between Cape Bon 
in Tunis and the south-west of Sicily (a distance of 80 m.) is, 
on the whole, shallower than the Straits of Messina, being for 
the most part under 100 fathoms in depth, and exceeding 200 
fathoms only for a very short interval, while the Straits of 
Messina, have almost every where a depth exceeding 150 fathoms. 
The geological structure in the neighbourhood of this strait 
shows that the island must originally have been formed by a 
rupture between it and the mainland, but that this rupture must 
have taken place at a period long antecedent to the advent of 
man, so that the name Rhegium cannot be based even on the 
tradition of any such catastrophe. The mountain range that 
runs out towards the north-east of Sicily is composed of crystal- 
line rocks precisely similar to those forming the parallel range 
of Aspromonte in Calabria, but both of these are girt about by 
sedimentary strata belonging in part to an early Tertiary epoch. 
That a subsequent land connexion took place, however, by the 
elevation of the sea-bed there is abundant evidence to show; 
and the occurrence of the remains of African Quaternary 
mammals, such as Elephas meridionalis, E. antiquus, Hippo- 
potamus pentlandi, as well as of those of still living African forms, 
such as Elephas africanus and Hyaena crocuta, makes it probable 
that there was a direct post-Tertiary connexion also with the 
African continent. 

The north coast is generally steep and cliff-bound, and 
abundantly provided with good harbours, of which that of 
Palermo is the finest. In the west and south, and in the south 
part of the east side, the hills are much lower and recede farther 
from the sea. The coast is for the most part flat, more regular 
in outline and less favourable to shipping, while in the east. 
1 The name Tpivcuipla was no doubt suggested by the Qpwaichi 
of Homer (which need no*, however, be Sicily), and the geography 
was then fitted to the apparent meaning given to the name by the 
change. But of these three so-called promontories the last is not a 
true promontory, and it is more accurate to treat Sicily as having a 
fourth side on the west. 



SICILY 



where the sea-bottom sinks rapidly down towards the eastern 

basin of the Mediterranean, steep rocky coasts prevail except 

opposite the plain of Catania. In the northern half of this coast 

the lava streams of Mount Etna stand out for a distance of about 

20 m. in a line of bold cliffs and promontories. At various points 

on the east, north and west coasts there are evidences of a rise 

of the land having taken place within historical times, at Trapani 

on the west coast even within the 19th century. As in the rest 

of the Mediterranean, tides are scarcely observable; but at 

several points on the west and south coasts a curious oscillation 

in the level of the waters, known to the natives as the marrobbio 

(or marobia), is sometimes noticed, and is said to be always 

preceded by certain atmospheric signs. This consists in a sudden 

rise of the sea-level, occasionally to the height of 3 ft., sometimes 

occurring only once, sometimes repeated at intervals of a minute 

for two hours, or even, at Mazzara, where it is most frequently 

observed, for twenty-four hours together. 

The surface of Sicily lies for the most part more than 500 ft 
above the level of the sea. Caltanissetta, which occupies the 
middle point in elevation as well as in respect of geographical 
situation, stands 1900 ft. above sea-level. Considerable mount- 
ains occur only in the north, where the lower slopes of all the 
heights form one continuous series of olive-yards and orangeries. 
Of the rest of the island the greater part forms a plateau varying 
in elevation and mostly covered with wheat-fields. The only 
plain of any great extent is that of Catania, watered by the 
Simeto, in the east; to the north of this plain the active volcano 
of Etna rises with an exceedingly gentle slope to the height of 
10,868 ft. from a base 400 sq. m. in extent. This is the highest 
elevation of the island. The steep and narrow crystalline ridge 
which trends north-eastwards, and is known to geographers by 
the name of the Peloritan Mountains, does not reach 4000 ft. 
The Nebrodian Mountains, a limestone range connected with 
the Peloritan range and having an east and west trend, rise to a 
somewhat greater height, and farther west, about the middle 
of the north coast, the Madonie (the only one of the groups 
mentioned which has a native name) culminate at the height 
of nearly 6500 ft. From the western end of the Nebrodian 
Mountains a lower range (in some places under 1500 [ft. in height) 
winds on the whole south-eastwards in the direction of Cape 
Passaro. With the exception of the Simeto, the principal 
perennial streams— the Salso, the Platani and the Belice— enter 
the sea on the soutli coast. 

Geology*— In general, the older beds occur along the northern 
coast, and progressively newer and newer beds are found towards 
the south Folding, however, has brought some of the older beds 
to the surface in the hills which lie to the north and north-east of 
sciacca. I he Monti Pelontani at the north-eastern extremity of the 
island consists of gneiss and crystalline schists; but with this ex- 
ception the whole of Sicily is formed of Mesozoic and later deposits 
the Tertiary beds covering by far the greater part. Triassic rocks 
lorm a discontinuous band along the northern coast, and are especially 
well developed in the neighbourhood of Palermo. They rise again 
to the surface in the southern part of the island, in the hills which 
, lie to the north of Sciacca and Bivona. In both areas thev are 
accompanied by Jurassic, and occasionally by Cretaceous, beds- 
but of the latter there are only a few small patches. In the south- 
eastern part of the island there are also a few very small outcrops 
of Mesozoic beds. The Eocene and Oligocene form a broad belt 
along the northern coast, very much more continuous than the 
Mesozoic band and from this belt a branch extends southwards to 
bciacca Another patch of considerable size lies to the east of 
r-iazza-Armenna. Miocene and Pliocene deposits cover nearly the 
whole of the country south of a line drawn from Etna to Marsala- 
and there is also a considerable Miocene area in the north about 

£1!^ f" 1 j£ amC u' avas , ?- nd a , shes of a recent geological period 
IM? no L onIy th u e wh °leof Etna but also a large part of the Monti 

vn it e ?°c ut - h - Sraa " P atch es occur also at Pachino and in the 
hills north of Sciacca. 

Climate .— The climate of Sicily resembles that of the other lands 
m the extreme south of Europe. As regards temperature, it has the 
warm and equable character which belongs to most of the Mediter- 
ranean region. At Palermo (where continuous observations have 
been made since 1791) the range of temperature between the mean of 



21 

the coldest and that of the hottest month is little greater than at 
Greenwich. The mean temperature of January (5if°F ) is neariv 
^'^Vl^f of o 0ctober « the south of England that of j" v 
(77 F.) about 13° warmer than the corresponding month at Green 
wich. In only seven of the thirty years, l8 7 i-l|oo, was the tier 
mometer observed to sink below the freezing-point; frost thus 
occurs in the island even on the low grounds, though never for more 
than a few hours. On the coast snow is seldom seen, buITt <w£5 
occasionally. On the Madonie it lies tiUJune, on EtL tmjulv 

Toln TnH ram - a11 ^ C6pt ° n th f h u igher ™°untains does not reach 
30 m., and as in other parts of the extreme south of Eurooek 
occurs chiefly ln the winter months, while the three months 
(Tune July and August) are almost quite dry. During these Months 
the whole rainfall does not exceed 2 in., except on the slorfes of the 

s m umme a r ln T n h P th v n r h - eaSt -- *¥"? m ° St of * he streamsTy up tn 
summer. The chief scourge is the sirocco, which is experienced in its 
most characteristic form on the north coast, as an oppressive narch 

at^ dry Wmd - ^° win u g Strongl y and steadil y fr° P n? thTIouth the 
atmosphere remaining through the whole period of its duration 
leaden-coloured and hazy in consequence of the presence of immense 
Quantities of reddish dust. It occurs most frequently fn ApT and 
then m May and September, but no month is entirety Lefrom "t 
Three days are the longest period for which it lasts. The same Tame 
is some tl rnes applied to a moist and not very hot, but vet oppressive 
south-east wmd wh.ch blows from time to time on the east coS' 
Malaria occurs in some parts of the island. 

Mora.— The flora of Sicily is remarkable for its wealth of species- 
but comparing Sicily with other islands that have been long^a*: 
ated from the mainland, the number of endemic species is not Seat 
The orders most abundantly represented are the Comtositae CrZ)' 
ferae Labiatae Caryophyllaceae and ScrophulartceaT^heRofaclae 

fpecfesVth U e n ros n p tly Th PreSented ' and "Tl* them are numerous 
species ot the rose. The general aspect of the vegetation of Sirilv 

however has been greatly affected, as in other partfof the Medker' 
ranean, by the introduction of plants within historicaHimes Be'ng 
more densely populated than any other large Mediterranean island 
and haying its population dependent chiefly on the products of the 
soil it is necessarily more extensively cultivated than any other of 
the larger islands referred to, and many of the objects 01 cultivation 
are not originally natives of the island. Not to mention the oliw 
which must have been introduced at a remote perio d, a"l he memblrs 
of the orange tribe, the agave and the prickly pear as welUsTher 
plants highly characteristic of Sicilian scenery^ nave blel introduced 
since the beginning of the Christian era. With respect to vSefati™ 
and cultivation three zones may be distinguished. P The ^ firTtreaches 
to about 1600 ft above sea-level, the upper limit of the members 
of the orange tribe; the second ascends to about 3300 ft the Hmit 
of the growth of wheat, the vine and the hardier Evergreens ^d 
the th.rd, that of forests reaches from about 330^ ft upwards 
But it is not merely height that determines the genera character 
al ^ ege , ta V° n - - The cultivated trees of Sicily moltiy demands uch 
an amount of moisture as can be obtained only on thelnount^n 
slopes, and it is worthy of notice that the structure of the rnolmtains 
is peculiarly favourable to the supply of this want. The Hmestones 
of which they are mostly composed act like a sponge abSrbW 
the rain-water through their innumerable pores and fissures and thuf 
storing it up in the interior, afterwards to allow it to well forth in 
SF • at , va y iOU ? Ovations lower down. In this way the rrfetion 
which is absolutely indispensable for the members of the orangf tribe 
tr nn Vu e - d - y S - eaSO - n is great] y facilitated, and even thosf trees 
for which irrigation ls not so indispensable receive a more amnk 
supply of moisture during the rainy season. Hence it Is that 
while the. plain of Catania is almost treeless and tr^-cultivation k 
comparat.vely imited in the west and south, where tte exWof knd 
under 1600 ft. is considerable, the whole of the north and north east 
Trrt f -° m * f he B u ay ,° f Castellammare round to Catania is an^ndle s 

with oTvl^ T^l 8 ' m Which ° ranges ' citrons and lemons alternate 
with olives, almonds, pomegranates, figs, carob trees, pistachfos 

?7™?t n lU?L Vl ?% ? he ,! imit in height of ^e oHve P s about 
?,n™ = '£« that ° f the Vlne about 35O0 ft. The lemon is really grown 
upon a bitter orange tree, grafted to bear the lemon. A conriae^ 
able silk production depends on the cultivation of the nVulberrvTn 
the neighbourhood of Messina and Catania. Among oth™ trees and 
shrubs may be mentioned the sumach, the date-pafm the plantani 
various bamboos, cycads and the dwarf-palm, the last of which 
!nT- S '.VT 6 Parts 0i - Sicil y more P rofus ely han anywhere else 
ve d et n h^ e n d T fa < te f r ? gi ° n in the s °uth-west yields almolt the only 
vegetable product of importance. The A rundo Dcnax, the tallest of 
European grasses, is largely grown for vine-stakes. 



A general account of the geology of the island will be found in 
L Baldacci, Descrizwne geologica dell' isola di Sicilia (Rome, 1886), 
Zta T 3 ?;. |, °?',. fuller an d later information reference should be 
made to the publications of the Reale Comitato Geologico d'ltalia. 



Population.— The area and population of the several provinces 
are shown m the table on the next page. Thus between 1881 and 
1 901 the population increased at the rate of 20-5% The 
average density is extremely high for a country which lives 
almost exclusively by agriculture, and is much higher than the 
average for Italy in general, 293 per sq. m. In 1905 the popula- 
tion was 3,568,124, the rate of increase being only 4-4% per 
annum; the low rate is due to emigration. 



22 



SICILY 



Province. 


Area in 
sq. m. 


Population 
1881. 


Population 
1901. 


No. of 
Communes. 


Density 

per sq. m. 

1901. 


Caltanissetta . 
Catania . 
Girgenti . 
Messina . 
Palermo . 
Syracuse . 
Trapani . 


1263 
1917 
1172 
1246 
1948 
1442 
948 


266,379 

563,457 
312,487 
460,924 

699,151 
341,526 
283,977 


329,449 
703,598 
380,666 
550,895 
796,151 
433,796 
373,569 


28 
63 
41 
97 
76 
32 
20 


262 
371 
317 
440 

403 
296 

373 


9936 


*2 ,927,901 


3,568,124 


357 


Av. 352 



* In 1861, 2,392,414; in 1871, 2,584,099. 

The chief towns in each of these provinces, with their communal 
populations in 1901, are as follow: Caltanissetta (43,023), Castro- 
giovanni (26,081), Piazza Armerina (24,119), Terranova (22,019), 
San Cataldo (18,090); Catania (146,504), Caltagirone (44,527), 
Acireale (35,203), Giarre (26,194), Paterno (22,857), Leonforte 
(21,236), Bronte (20,166), Vizzini (18,013), Agira (17,634), Nicosia 
(15,811),- Grammichele (15,017); Girgenti (24,872), Canicatti 
(24,687), Sciacca (24,645), Licata (22,993), Favara (20,403) ; Messina 
(147,106), Racalmuto (16,028), Palma (14,384), Barcellona (24,133), 
Milazzo (16,214), Mistretta (14,041); Palermo (305,716), Partinico 
(23,668), Monreale (23,556), Termini Imerese (20,633), Bagheria 
(18,329), Corleone (16,350), Cefalu (14,518); Syracuse (31,807), 
Modica (49,951), Ragusa (32,453), Vittoria (32,219), Comiso (25,837), 
Noto (22,284), Lentini (17,100), Avola (16,301), Scicli (16,220), 
Palazzolo Acreide (15,106); Trapani (61,448), Marsala (57,824), 
Alcamo (51,798), Monte S. Giuliano (29,824), Castelvetrano (24,510), 
Castellammare del Golfo (20,665), Mazzara del Vallo (20,044) , Salemi 

(17,159)- . . 

The archiepiscopal sees (the suffragan sees, if any, being placed 
after each in brackets) are Catania (Acireale), Messina (Lipari, 
Nicosia, Patti), Monreale (Caltanissetta, Girgenti), Palermo (Cefalu, 
Mazara, Trapani), Syracuse (Caltagirone, Noto, Piazza Armerina). 

Agriculture. — Sicily, formerly called the granary of Italy, ex- 
ported grain until the end of the 18th century. Now, although the 
island still produces every year some 15 million bushels, the supply 
barely suffices for the consumption of a population of which bread 
is almost the exclusive diet. The falling-off in the exportation of 
cereals is not a consequence of any decadence in Sicilian agriculture, 
but rather of the increase of population, which nearly doubled 
within the 19th century. Two types of agriculture prevail in 
Sicily — the extensive and the intensive. The former covers mainly 
the interior of the island and half the southern coast, while the 
latter is generally adopted on the eastern and northern coasts. 
Large holdings of at least 500 hectares (a hectare equals about 
25 acres) are indispensable to the profitable pursuit of extensive 
agriculture. These holdings are usually called feudi or latifondi. 
Their proprietors alternate the cultivation of wheat with that of 
barley and beans. During the years in which the soil is allowed to 
lie fallow, the grass and weeds which spring up serve as pasture for 
cattle, but the poverty of the pasture is such that at least two 
hectares are required for the maintenance of every animal. This 
poverty is due to the lack of rain, which, though attaining an annual 
average of 29 in. at Palermo, reaches only 21 in. at Syracuse on the 
east coast, and about 19! in. at Caltanissetta, on the central high 
plateau. The system of extensive cultivation proper to the latifondi 
gives an annual average gross return of about 200 lire per hectare 
(£3. 4s- 5d- per acre). 

Intensive agriculture in Sicily is limited to fruit trees and fruit- 
bearing plants, and is not combined with the culture of cereals and 
vegetables, as in central and parts of northern Italy. Originally 
the Sicilian system was perhaps due to climatic difficulties, but 
now it is recognized in most cases to be more rational than com- 
bined culture. Large extents of land along the coasts are therefore 
exclusively cultivated as vineyards, or as olive, orange, and lemon 
groves. Vineyards give an annual gross return of between £11 
and £13 per acre, and orange and lemon groves between £32 and 
£48 per acre. The by-products of the citrus-essences, citrate of 
lime, &c. are also of some importance. Much damage is done by 
the olive fly. Vegetables are grown chiefly in the neighbourhood 
of large cities. Almonds are freely cultivated, and they seem to be 
the only trees susceptible also of cultivation upon the latifondi 
together with grain. A large export trade in almonds is carried on 
with north and central Europe. Hazel nuts are grown in woods 
at a level of more than 1200 ft. above the sea. These also are largely 
exported to central Europe for use in the manufacture of chocolate. 
The locust bean (used for forage), figs, and peaches are widely grown, 
while in certain special zones the pistachio and the manna-ash yield 
rich returns. On the more barren soil the sumach shrub, the leaves 
of which are used for tanning, and the prickly pear grow freely. The 
latter fruit constitutes, with bread, the staple food of the poorest 
part of the rural population for several months in the year. The 
cultivation of cotton, which spread during the American War of 
Secession, is now rare, since it has not been able to withstand the 
competition of more favoured countries. All these branches of 



intensive cultivation yield a higher gross return than 
that of the extensive system. Along the coast landed 
property is as a rule broken up into small holdings, 
usually cultivated by their owners. There is possibility 
of great development of market-gardening. 

Climatic conditions prevent cattle-raising in Sicily 
from being as prosperous an undertaking as in central 
Italy. The total number of bullocks in the island is 
calculated to be less than 200,000; and although the 
ratio of consumption of meat is low in proportion to 
the population, some of the cattle for slaughter have 
to be imported. Sheep and goats, which subsist more 
easily on scanty pasturage, are relatively more 
numerous, the total number being calculated at 
700,000. Yet the wool harvest is scarce, and the pro- 
. duction of butter a negligible quantity, though there 

is abundance of the principal product of Sicilian pasture lands, 
cheese of various kinds, for which there is a lively local demand. 
The Sicilian race of horses would be good but that it is not prolific, 
and has degenerated in consequence of insufficient nourishment and 
overwork. A better breed of horses is being obtained by more care- 
ful selection, and by crossing with Arab and English stallions imported 
by the government. Donkeys and mules of various breeds are good, 
and would be better were they not so often weakened by heavy work 
before attaining full maturity. 

Forests.— The absence of forests, which cover hardly 3% of the 
total area of the island, constitutes a serious obstacle to the pros- 
perity of Sicilian pastoral and agrarian undertakings. The few 
remaining forests are almost all grouped around Etna and upon the 
high zone of the Madonian Mountains, a range which rises 40 m. 
west of Palermo, running parallel to the northern coast almost as 
far as Messina, and of which many peaks reach nearly 6000 ft. above 
the sea. Here they are chiefly composed of oaks and chestnuts. 

In that part of the island which is cultivated intensively some 
100 million gallons of wine are annually produced. Had not the 
phylloxera devastated the vineyards during the last decade of the 
19th century, the production would be considerably higher; 7,700,000 
gallons of olive oil and 2500 million oranges and lemons are also 
produced, besides the other minor products above referred to. The 
zone of the latifondi, or extensive culture, yields, besides wheat, 
nearly 8,000,000 bushels of barley and beans every year. 

Mining. — The most important Sicilian mineral is undoubtedly 
sulphur, which is mined principally in the provinces of Caltanissetta 
and Girgenti, and in minor quantities in those of Palermo and 
Catania. Up to 1896 the sulphur industry was in a state of crisis 
due to the competition of pyrites, to the subdivision of the mines, 
to antiquated methods, and to a series of other causes which oc- 
casioned violent oscillations in and a continual reduction of prices. 
The formation of the Anglo-Italian sulphur syndicate arrested the 
downward tendency of prices and increased the output of sulphur, 
so that the amount exported in 1899 was 424,018 tons, worth 
£1,738,475, whereas some years previously the value of sulphur 
exported had hardly been £800,000. Ninetejen-twentieths of the 
sulphur consumed in the world was formerly drawn from Sicilian 
mines, while some 50,000 persons were employed in the extrac- 
tion, manufacture, transport and trade in the mineral. But the 
development of the United States sulphur industry at the beginning 
of the 20th century created considerable difficulties, including the 
practical loss of the United States market. In 1906, when the con- 
cession to the Anglo-Sicilian Sulphur Company was about to expire, 
the government decreed that it'should be formed into an obligatory 
syndicate for a term of twelve years for the control of all sulphur 
produced in Sicily, and exempted from taxation and legal dues, 
foreign companies established in Italy to exploit industries in which 
sulphur is a principal element. The Bank of Sicily was further 
obliged to make advances to the sulphur industry up to four-fifths 
of the value of the sulphur deposited in the warehouses. The ex- 
ports of sulphur in December 1906 were 17,534 tons, as compared 
with 40,713 tons in 1905; in the year 1904 the total production was 
3,291,710 tons (value about £1,522,229) and the total exports 
508,980 tons, as compared with 470,341 tons in 1905. 

Another Sicilian mineral industry is that of common salt and rock- 
salt. The former is distilled from sea-water near Trapani, and the 
latter obtained in smaller quantities from mines. The two branches 
of the industry yielded in 1899 about 180,000 tons per annum, worth 
£80,000, while in 1906 about 200,000 tons were made at Trapani' 
alone. About half this quantity is exported, principally to Norway. 
Besides salt, the asphalt mining industry may be mentioned. Its 
centre is the province of Syracuse. The value of the annual output 
is about £40,000, and the exports in 1906 amounted to nearly 103,000 
tons. Pumice stone is also exported from Lipari (11,010 tons in 
1904). 

Other Industries. — Deep-sea fisheries give employment to some 
twenty thousand Sicilians, who exercise their calling not only off the 
coasts of their island, but along the north African shore, from 
Morocco to Tripoli. In 1894 (the last year for which accurate 
statistics have been issued) 350 fishing smacks were.in active service, 
giving a catch of 2480 tons of fish. Approximately, the value of the 
annual catch may be reckoned at from £600,000 to £800,000. During 
1904 the coial fisheries employed 98 vessels with 1138 men: the 



SICILY 



23 



profits were about £75,264, the expenses being £64,664. The sponge 
divers brought up sponges valued at £24,630. The estimated hauls 
of tunny fish were 5534 tons, valued at £110,324. 

The majority of the scanty Sicilian industries are directly con- 
nected with various branches of agriculture. Such, for instance, 
is the preparation of the elements of citric acid, which is manu- 
factured at an establishment at Messina. Older and more flourishing 
is the Marsala industry. Marsala wine is a product of the western 
vineyards situated slightly above sea-level. In 1899, wine was 
exported to the value of more than £120,000, while in 1906, 24,080 
pipes of the value of £361 ,200 were shipped. The quantity consumed 
in Italy is far greater than that exported abroad. 

Another flourishing Sicilian industry carried on by a large number 
of small houses is that of preserving vegetables in tins. Artichokes 
and tomato sauce are the principal of these products, of which 
several dozen million tins are annually exported from Sicily to the 
Italian mainland, to Germany and to South America. Manu- 
factories of furniture, carriages, gloves, matches and leather exist 
in large number in the island. They are, as a rule, small in extent, 
and are managed by the owners with the help of five, ten or at most 
twenty workmen. There are several glass works at Palermo, a 
cotton dyeing works at Messina, and a large metal foundry at 
Palermo. Large shipbuilding yards and a yard for the construction 
of trams and railway carriages have been constructed in the latter 
city. There are dry docks both at Palermo and Messina. 

Communications. — Before i860 there was no railway in Sicily. 
The total length of Sicilian railways is now 890 m., all single lines. 
Their construction was rendered very costly by the mountainous 
character of the island. They formed a separate system (the Rete 
Sicula) until in 1906, like the rest of the railways of Italy, they passed 
into the hands of the state, with the exception of the line round 
Mount Etna and the line from Palermo to Corleone. Messina is 
connected with the railway system of the mainland by ferry-boats 
from Villa S. Giovanni and Reggio, on which the through carriages 
are conveyed across the straits. From Messina lines run along the 
northern coast to Palermo, and along the east coast via Catania to 
Syracuse: the latter line is prolonged along the south of the island 
(sometimes approaching, sometimes leaving the coast) via Canicatti 
as far as Aragona Caldare, Girgenti and Porto Empedocle. From 
Catania another line runs westward through the centre of the island 
via S, Caterina Xirbi (with a branch to Canicatti) to Roccapalumba 
(with a branch to Aragona Caldare) and thence northwards to 
Termini, on the line between Messina and Palermo. This is the 
direct route from Catania to Palermo. From Catania begins the 
line round Etna following its south, west and northern slopes, and 
ending at Giarre Riposto on the east coast railway. From Valsavoia 
(14 m. S. of Catania on the line to Syracuse) a branch line runs to 
Caltagirone. From Falermo a line runs southwards to Corleone and 
S. Carlo (whence there are diligences to Sciacca on the south coast) 
and another to Castelvetrano, Marsala and Trapani, going first 
almost as far as the south coast and then running first west and then 
north along the west coast. The only part of the coast of the island 
which has no railways is that portion of the south coast between 
Porto Empedocle and Castelvetrano (Sciacca lies about midway 
between these two points), where a road already exists, and a railway 
is projected, and the precipitous north coast between Palermo and 
Trapani. A steam tramway runs from Messina to the Faro at the 
north-east extremity of the island, and thence along the north coast 
to Barcelona, and another along the east coast from Messina to 
Giampilieri : while the island is fairly well provided with high roads, 
but is very backward in rural communications, there being only 
244 yds. of road per sq. m., as compared with 1480 yds. in north 
Italy. The communications by sea, however, are at least as important 
as those by land, even for passengers. A steamer leaves Naples 
every night for Palermo, and vice versa, the journey (208 m.) 
being done in 11 hours, while the journey by rail (438 m.), including 
the crossing of the Straits of Messina takes 19 j hours; and the 
weekly steamer from Naples to Messina (216 m.) takes 12 hours, 
while the journey by rail and ferry boat (292 m.) takes 14 hours. 
Palermo, Messina and Catania are the most important harbours, 
the former being one of the two headquarters (the other, and the 
main one, is Genoa) of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, and a port 
of call for the steamers from Italy to New York. Emigrants to the 
number of 37,638 left Palermo direct for New York in 1906, and 
no less than 46,770 in 1905, while others embarked at Messina and 
Naples. 

The movement of trade in these three ports may be shown by the 
following table : — 



1900 
1904 
1906 



Tonnage of shipping 

„ goods landed 

„ shipping 

,, goods landed 

shipping 



Palermo. Messina. 1 Catania. 



1,658,848 

398,718 
2,298,054 

445,036 
2,403,8s! 2 



1,683,244 

213,624 

2,265,381 

3I54I4 

2,574,872 



1,245,954 
235.575 

1. 593.678 
309,514 

1,542,520 



L The high proportion of shipping entering Messina is due to its 
position in the Straits. 2 Steamships only. 



Of the other harbours, Porto Empedocle and Licata share with 
Catania most of the sulphur export trade, and the other ports of 
note are Marsala, Trapani, Syracuse (which shares with the road- 
stead of Mazzarelli the asphalt export trade). The total importation 
of coal in 1906 amounted to 519,478 tons, practically all British. 

In 1904, 75,779 Sicilians were registered as seamen, and no 
steamships with a gross tonnage of 145,702 were registered in Sicily. 

Economic, Intellectual, and Moral Conditions. — As a general rule, 
trade and the increase of production have not kept pace with the 
development of the ways of communication. The poverty of the 
Sicilian population is accentuated by the unequal distribution 
of wealth among the different classes of society. A small but 
comparatively wealthy class — composed principally of the owners 
of latifondi — resides habitually in the large cities of the island, 
or even at Naples, Rome or Paris. Yet even if all the wealthy 
landowners resided on their estates, their number would not be 
sufficient to enable them tc play in local public life a part corre- 
sponding to that of the English gentry. On the other hand, the class 
which would elsewhere be called the middle class is in Sicily ex- 
tremely poor. The origin of most of the abuses which vitiate Sicilian 
political life, and of the frequent scandals in the representative local 
administrations, is to be found in the straitened condition of the 
Sicilian middle classes. 

Emigration only attained serious proportions within the last 
decade of the 19th century. In 1897 the permanent emigration 
from the island was 15,994, ln 1 &9&i 21,320, and in 1899, 24,604. 
Since then it has much increased: in 1905 the emigrants numbered 
106,000, and in 1906, 127,000 (3-5% of the population). Of these 
about three-fourths would be adults; but the population has in- 
creased so fast as more than to cover the deficiency — with the dis- 
advantage, however, that in three years 220,000 workers were replaced 
by 320,000 infants. 

The moral and intellectual defects of Sicilian society are in 
part results of the economic difficulties, and in part the effect 
of bad customs introduced or maintained during the long period 
of Sicilian isolation from the rest of Europe. When, in i860, 
Sicily was incorporated in the Italian kingdom, hardly a tenth of 
the population could read and write. Upon the completion of Unity, 
elementary schools were founded everywhere ; but, though education 
was free, the indigence of the peasants in some regions prevented 
them from taking full advantage of the opportunities offered. 
Thus, even now, 60% of the Sicilian conscripts come up for military 
service unable either to read or to write. Secondary and superior 
education is more diffused. The pupils of the secondary schools in 
Sicily number 3-94 per 1000, the maximum being 6-6o in Liguria 
and the minimum 1-65 in Basilicata. 

Brigandage of the classical type has almost disappeared from 
Italy. The true brigands haunt only the most remote and most 
inaccessible mountains. Public security is better in the east than 
in the west portion of the island. Criminal statistics, though slowly 
diminishing, are still high — murders, which are the most frequent 
crimes, having been 27 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1897-1898 and 
25-23 per 100,000 in 1903, as against 2-57 in Lombardy, 2-00 in the 
district of Venetia, 4-50 in Tuscany and 5-24 in Piedmont. Violent 
assaults with infliction of serious wounds are also frequent. This 
readiness to commit bloodshed is largely attributable to the senti- 
ment of the Mafia (a.v.). (G. G. C. ; G. Mo. ; T. As.) 

History 

The geographical position of Sicily led almost as a matter of 
necessity to its historical position, as the meeting-place of the 
nations, the battle-field of contending races and creeds. For 
this reason, too, Sicily was never in historic times (nor, it seems, 
in prehistoric times either) the land of a single nation: her 
history exists mainly in its relation to the history of other lands. 
Lying nearer to the mainland of Europe and nearer to Africa 
than any other of the great Mediterranean islands, Sicily is, 
next to Spain, the connecting-link between those two quarters 
of the world. It stands also as a breakwater between the eastern 
and western divisions of the Mediterranean Sea. In prehistoric 
times those two divisions were two vast lakes, and Sicily is a 
surviving fragment of the land which once united the two 
continents. That Sicily and Africa were once joined we know 
only from modern scientific research ; that Sicily and Italy were 
once joined is handed down in legend. Sicily then, compara- 
tively near to Africa, but much nearer to Europe, has been a 
European land, but one specially open to invasion and settlement 
from Africa. It has been a part of western Europe, but a part 
which has had specially close relations with eastern Europe. 
It has stood at various times in close connexion with Greece, 
Africa and Spain; but its closest connexion has been with 
Italy. Still the history of Sicily should never be looked on as 
simply part of the history of Italy. Lying thus between Europe 



H 



SICILY 



and Africa, Sicily has been the battle-field of Europe and Africa. 
That is to say, it has been.at two separate periods the battle-field 
of Aryan and Semitic man. In the later stage of the strife it 
has been the battle-field of Christendom and Islam. This history 
Sicily shares with Spain to the west of it and with Cyprus to the 
east. And with Spain the island has had several direct points 
of connexion. There was in all likelihood a near kindred between 
the earliest inhabitants of the two lands. In later times Sicily 
was ruled by Spanish kings, both alone and in union with other 
kingdoms. The connexion with Africa has consisted simply 
in the settlement of conquerors from Africa at two periods, 
first Phoenician, then Saracen. On the other hand, Sicily has 
been more than once made the road to African conquest and 
settlement, both by Sicilian princes and by the Roman masters 
of Sicily. The connexion with Greece, the most memorable of 
all, has consisted in the settlement of many colonies from old 
Greece, which gave the island the most brilliant part of its 
history, and which made the greater part practically Greek. 
This Greek element was strengthened at a later time by the long 
connexion of Sicily with the Eastern, the Greek-speaking, division 
of the Roman empire. And the influence of Greece on Sicily 
has been repaid in more than one shape by Sicilian rulers who 
have at various times held influence and dominion in Greece 
and elsewhere beyond the Adriatic. The connexion between 
Sicily and Italy begins with the primitive kindred between some 
of the oldest elements in each. Then came the contemporary 
Greek colonization in both lands. Then came the tendency 
in the dominant powers in southern Italy to make their way 
into Sicily also. Thus the Roman occupation of Sicily ended 
the struggle between Greek and Phoenician. Thus the Norman 
occupation ended the struggle between Greek and Saracen. 
Of this last came the long connexion between Sicily and southern 
Italy under several dynasties. Lastly comes the late absorption 
of Sicily in the modern kingdom of Italy. The result of these 
various forms of Italian influence has been that all the other 
tongues of the island have died out before the advance of a 
peculiar dialect of Italian. In religion again both Islam and the 
Eastern form of Christianity have given way to its Italian form. 
Like the British Isles, Sicily came under a Norman dynasty; 
under Norman rule the intercourse between the two countries 
was extremely close, and the last time that Sicily was the seat 
of a separate power it was under British protection. 

The Phoenician, whether from old Phoenicia or from Carthage, 
came from lands which were mere strips of sea-coast with a 
boundless continent behind them. The Greek of old Hellas 
came from a land of islands, peninsulas and inland seas. So 
did the Greek of Asia, though he had, like the Phoenician, a 
vast continent behind him. In Sicily they all found a strip 
of sea-coast with an inland region behind; but the strip of sea- 
coast was not like the broken coast of Greece and Greek Asia, 
and the inland region was not a boundless continent like Africa 
or Asia. In Sicily therefore the Greek became more continental, 
and the Phoenician became more insular. Neither people 
ever occupied the whole island, nor was either people ever 
able to spread its dominion over the earlier inhabitants very 
far inland. Sicily thus remained a world of its own, with 
interests and disputes of its own, and divided among inhabitants 
of various nations. The history of the Greeks of Sicily is con- 
stantly connected with the history of old Hellas, but it runs 
a separate course of its own. The Phoenician element ran an 
opposite course, as the independent Phoenician settlements 
in Sicily sank into dependencies of Carthage. The entrance 
of the Romans put an end to all practical independence on the 
part of either nation. But Roman ascendancy did not affect 
Greeks and Phoenicians in the same way. Phoenician life 
gradually died out. But Roman ascendancy nowhere crushed 
out Greek life where it already existed, and in some ways it 
strengthened it. Though the Greeks never spread their dominion 
over the island, they made a peaceful conquest of it. This 
process was in no way hindered by the Roman dominion. 

The question now comes, Who were the original inhabitants 
of Sicily? The island itself, StwXta, Sicilia, plainly takes 



its name from the Sicels (ZuceXot, Siculi), a people whom we 
find occupying a great part of the island, chiefly east of the 
river Gela. They appear also in Italy (see Siculi), 
in the toe of the boot, and older history or tradition P'j^ff' 
spoke of them as having in earlier days held a large aatSm 
place in Latium and elsewhere in central Italy. They 
were believed to have crossed the strait into the island about 
300 years before the beginning of the Greek settlements, that is 
to say in the nth century B.C. They found in the island a 
people called Sicans (cf. Odyssey, xxiv. 306), who claimed to be 
oiiTOxOovts {i.e. to have originated in the island itself), but whose 
name, we are told, might pass for a dialectic form of their own, 
did not the ancient writers expressly affirm them to be a wholly 
distinct people, akin to the Iberians. Sicans also appear with 
the Ligurians among the early inhabitants of Italy (Virg. Aen. 
vii. 795, viii. 328, xi. 317, and Servius's note). That the Sicels 
spoke a tongue closely akin to Latin is plain from several Sicel 
words which crept into Sicilian Greek, and from the Siceliot 
system of weights and measures — utterly unlike anything in 
old Greece. When the Greek settlements began, the Sicans, 
we are told, had hardly got beyond the life of villages on hill-tops 
(Dion. Hal. v. 6). Hyccara, on the north coast, is the one 
exception; it was probably a fishing settlement. The more 
advanced Sicels had their hill-forts also, but they had learned 
the advantages of the sea, and they already had settlements 
on the coast when the Greeks came. As we go on, we hear of 
both Sicel and Sican towns; 1 but we may suspect that any 
approach to true city life was owing to Greek influences. Neither 
people grew into any form of national unity. They were there- 
fore partly subdued, partly assimilated, without much effort. 

The investigations of Professor Orsi, director of the museum 
at Syracuse, have thrown much light on the primitive peoples 
of south-eastern Sicily. Of palaeolithic man hardly any traces 
are to be found; but, though western Sicily has been com- 
paratively little explored, and the results hardly published at 
all, in several localities neolithic remains, attributable to the 
Sicani, have been discovered. The later Siculi do not appear 
to be a distinct race (cf. P. Orsi in Notizie degli scavi, 1898, 223), 
and probably both are branches of the Libyco-Iberian stock. 
Whereas other remains attributable to their villages or settle- 
ments are rare, their rock-hewn tombs are found by the thousand 
in the limestone cliffs of south-eastern Sicily. Those of the 
earliest period, the lower limit of which is put about 1500 B.C., 
are aeneolithic, metal being, however, rare and only found in the 
form of small ornaments; pottery with linear decoration is 
abundant. The second period (1500-1000 B.C.) shows a great 
increase in the use of bronze, and the introduction of gold and 
silver, and of imported Mycenaean vases. The chief cemeteries 
of this period have been found on Plemmyrium, the promontory 
south of Syracuse, at Cozzo Pantano, at Thapsus, at Pant.alica 
near Palazzolo, at Cassibile, south of Syracuse, and at Molinello 
near Augusta. The third period (1000-500 B.C.) in its first 
phase (1000-700) shows a continual increase of the introduction 
of objects of Greek origin; the pottery is at first imported 
geometric, and then vases of local imitation appear. Typical 
cemeteries are those of Monte Finocchito near Noto, of Noto 
itself, of Pantalica and of Leontini. In the second phase (700- 
500 B.C.), sometimes called the fourth period, proto-Corinthian 
and Attic black figured vases are sometimes, though rarely, 
found, while local geometric pottery develops considerably. But 
the form of the tombs always remains the same, a small low 
chamber hewn in the rock, with a rectangular opening about 
2 by 25 ft., out of which open other chambers, each with its 
separate doorway; and inhumation is adopted without excep- 
tion, whereas in a Greek necropolis a low percentage of cases of 

1 Leontini, Megara, Naxos, Syracuse, Zancle are all recorded as 
sites where the Sicel gave way to the Greek (in regard to Syracuse 
[q.v.] this has recently been proved to be true), while many other 
towns remained Sicel longer, among them Abacaenum, Agyrium, 
Assorus, Centuripae, Cephaloedium, Engyum, Hadranum, Halaesa, 
Henna, Herbessus, Herbita, Hybla Galeatis, Inessa, Kafe Akte, 
Menaenum, Morgantina. The sites of several of these towns are 
doubtful. 



SICILY 



25 



cremation Is always present. Typical cemeteries of this period 
have been found at Licodia Eubea, Ragusa and Grammichele. 
After the failure of Ducetius to re-establish the Sicel nation- 
ality, Greek civilization triumphed over that of the Sicels 
entirely, and it has not yet been possible to trace the survivals 
of the latter. See Orsi in Romische Mitteilungen, 1898, 305 
sqq., and Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche 
(Rome, April 1903); also Archeologia (Rome, 1904, 167-191). 

In the north-west corner of the island we find a small territory 
occupied by a people who seem to have made much greater 
advances towards civilized life. The Elymi were a people of 
uncertain origin, but they claimed a mixed descent, partly 
Trojan, partly Greek. Thucydides, however, unhesitatingly 
reckons them among barbarians. They had considerable towns, 
as Segesta and Eryx, and the history, as well as the remains, of 
Segesta, shows that Greek influences prevailed among them 
very early, while at Eryx Phoenician influence was stronger. 

But, as we have already seen, the Greeks were not the first 
colonizing people who were drawn to the great island. As in 
Cyprus and in the islands of the Aegean, the Phoenicians 
were before them. And it is from this presence of the highest 
forms of Aryan and of Semitic man that the history of Sicily 
draws its highest interest. Of Phoenician occupation there are 
Early two > or ratner three, marked periods. We must always 

Phoenician remember that Carthage — the new city — was one of 
Mettle- the latest of Phoenician foundations, and that the days 
meats. Q £ t k e Carthaginian dominion show us only the latest 
form of Phoenician fife. Phoenician settlement in Sicily began 
before Carthage became great, perhaps before Carthage came 
into being. A crowd of small settlements from the old Phoenicia, 
settlements for trade rather than for dominion, factories rather 
than colonies, grew up on promontories and small islands all 
round the coast (Thuc. vi. 2). These were unable to withstand 
the Greek settlers, and the Phoenicians of Sicily withdrew step 
by step to form three considerable towns in the north-west corner 
of the island near to the Elymi, on whose alliance they relied, 
and at the shortest distance by sea from Carthage — Motya, 
Solous or Soluntum, and Panormus (see Palermo). 

Our earlier notices of Sicily, of Sicels and Sicans, in the Homeric 
poems and elsewhere, are vague and legendary. Both races 
appear as given to the buying and selling of slaves 
OraeA (q^ x^ 2g^ j xxiv. 21). The intimate connexion be- 

tfOJI< " tween old Hellas and Sicily begins with the foundation 
of the Sicilian Naxos by Chalcidians of Euboea under 
Theocles, which is assigned to 735 B.C. (Thuc. v. 3-5). The site, a 
low promontory on the east coast, immediately below the height 
of Tauromenium, marks an age which had advanced beyond 
the hill-fortress and which thoroughly valued the sea. The next 
year Corinth began her system of settlement in the west: Corcyra, 
the path to Sicily, and Syracuse on the Sicilian coast were 
planted as parts of one enterprise. From this time, for about 
150 years, Greek settlement in the island, with some intervals, 
goes steadily on. Both Ionian and Dorian colonies were planted, 
both from the older Greek lands and from the older Sicilian 
settlements. The east coast, nearest to Greece and richest in 
good harbours, was occupied first. Here, between Naxos and 
Syracuse, arose the Ionian cities of Leontini and Catana (728 
B.C.), and the Dorian Megara Hyblaea (726 B.C.). Settlement on 
the south-western coast began about 688 B.C. with the joint 
Cretan and Rhodian settlement of Gela, and went on in the 
foundation of Selinus (the most distant Greek city on this' side), 
of Camarina, and in 582 B.C. of the Geloan settlement of Acragas 
(Agrigentum, Girgenti), planted on a high hill, a little way from 
the sea, which became the second city of Hellenic Sicily. On 
the north coast the Ionian Himera (founded in 648 B.C.) was 
the only Greek city in Sicily itself, but the Cnidians founded 
Lipara in the Aeolian Islands. At the north-east corner, 
opposite to Italy, and commanding the strait, arose Zancle, a 
city of uncertain date (first quarter of the 7th century B.C.) and 
mixed origin, better known as Messana (Messene, Messina). 

Thus nearly all the east coast of Sicily, a great part of the 
south coast, and a much smaller part of the north, passed into 



the hands of Greek settlers — Siceliots (2twXt«roi), as dis- 
tinguished from the native Sicels. This was one of the greatest 
advances ever made by the Greek people. The Greek element 
began to be predominant in the island. Among the earlier 
inhabitants the Sicels were already becoming adopted Greeks. 
Many of them gradually sank into a not wholly unwilling subjec- 
tion as cultivators of the soil under Greek masters. But there 
were also independent Sicel towns in the interior, and there was 
a strong religious intercommunion between the two races. Sicel 
Henna (Enna, Castrogiovanni) is the special seat of the worship 
of Demeter and her daughter. 

The Phoenicians, now shut up in one corner of the island, 
with Selinus on one side and Himera on the other founded right 
in their teeth, are bitter enemies; but the time of 
their renewed greatness under the headship of Carthage Prosperous 
has not yet come. The 7th century B.C. and the perioA 
early part of the 6th were a time in which the Greek 
cities of Sicily had their full share in the general prosperity 
of the Greek colonies everywhere. For a while they outstripped 
the cities of old Greece. Their political constitutions were 
aristocratic; that is, the franchise was confined to the descend- 
ants of the original settlers, round whom an excluded body 
(Srjfios or plebs) was often growing up. The ancient kingship 
was perhaps kept on or renewed in some of the Siceliot and 
Italiot towns; but it is more certain that civil dissensions led 
very early to the rise of tyrants. The most famous if not the 
first 1 is Phalaris (q.v.) of Acragas (Agrigentum), whose exact 
date is uncertain, whose letters are now cast aside, and whose 
brazen bull has been called in question, but who clearly rose to 
power very soon after the foundation of Acragas. Under his 
rule the city at once sprang to the first place in Sicily, and he 
was the first Siceliot ruler who held dominion over two Greek 
cities, Acragas and Himera. This time of prosperity was also 
a time of intellectual progress. To say nothing of lawgivers 
like Charondas, the line of Siceliot poets began early, and the 
circumstances of the island, the adoption of many of its local 
traditions and beliefs — perhaps a certain intermingling of 
native blood — gave the intellectual life of Sicily a character in 
some things distinct from that of old Hellas. Stesichorus of 
Himera (c. 632-556 B.C.) holds a great place among the lyric 
poets of Greece, and some place in the political history of Sicily 
as the opponent of Phalaris. The architecture and sculpture 
of this age have also left some of their most remarkable monu- 
ments among the Greek cities of Sicily. The remains of the old 
temples of Selinus, with their archaic metopes, attributed to the 
6th century B.C., show us the Doric style in its earlier state. In 
this period, too, begins the fine series of Sicilian coins (see 
Numismatics: Sicily). 

This first period of Sicilian history lasts as long as Sicily remains 
untouched from any non-Hellenic quarter outside, and as long 
as the Greek cities in Sicily remain as a rule independent 
of one another. A change begins in the 6th century ,.™aii/es. 
and is accomplished early in the 5th. The Phoe- 
nician settlements in Sicily become dependent on Carthage, 
whose growing power begins to be dangerous to the Greeks 
of Sicily. Meanwhile the growth of tyrannies in the Greek 
cities was beginning to group several towns together under a 
single master, and thus to increase the greatness of particular 
cities at the expense of their freedom. Thus Thero of Acragas 
(488-472), who bears a good character there, acquired also, 
like Phalaris, the rule of Himera. One such power held dominion 
both in Italy and Sicily. Anaxilaus of Rhegium, by a long and 
strange tale of treachery, occupied Zancle and changed its name 
to Messana. But the greatest of the Siceliot powers, that of 
the Deinomenid dynasty, began at Gela in 505, and was in 485 
translated by Gelo (q.v.) to Syracuse. That city now 
became the centre of a greater dominion over both 
Greeks and Sicels than the island had ever before seen. But 
Gelo, like several later tyrants of Syracuse, takes his place — - 
and it is the redeeming point in the position of all of them — as 

1 Panaetius of Leontini (608 B.C.) is said to have been the earliest 
tyrant in Sicily. 



Ge/o. 



26 



SICILY 



the champion of Hellas against the barbarian. The great double 
invasion of 480 B.C. was planned in concert by the barbarians 
of the East and the West (Diod. xi. 1; schol. on Pind., Pyth. i. 
146; Grote v. 294). While the Persians threatened old Greece, 
Carthage threatened the Greeks of Sicily. There were Siceliots 
who played the part of the Medizers in Greece: Selinus was on 
the side of Carthage, and the coming of Hamilcar was immediately 
brought about by a tyrant of Himera driven out by Thero. But 
the united power of Gelo and Thero, whose daughter Damarete 
Gelo had married, crushed the invaders in the great battle of 
Himera, won, men said, on the same day as Salamis, and the 
victors of both were coupled as the joint deliverers of Hellas 
(Herod, vii. 165-167; Diod. xx. 20-25; Pind. Pyth. i. 147-156; 
Simonides, fr. 42; Polyaenus i. 27). But, while the victory 
of Salamis was followed by a long war with Persia, the peace 
which was now granted to Carthage stayed in force for seventy 
years. Gelo was followed by his brother Hiero (478-467), the 
special subject of the songs of Pindar. Acragas 
meanwhile flourished under Thero; but a war between 
him and Hiero led to slaughter and new settlement at Himera. 
These transplantings from city to city began under Gelo and 
went on under Hiero (q.v.). They made speakers in old Greece 
(Thuc. vi. 17) contrast the permanence of habitation there with 
the constant changes in Sicily. 

None of these tyrannies was long-lived. The power of Thero 
fell to pieces under his son Thrasydaeus. When the power of 
Hiero passed in 467 B.C. to his brother Thrasybulus'the freedom 
of Syracuse was won by a combined movement of Greeks and 
Sicels, and the Greek cities gradually settled down as they had 
been before the tyrannies, only with a change to democracy 
in their constitutions. The mercenaries who had received 
citizenship from the tyrants were settled at Messana. About 
fifty years of great prosperity followed. Art, science, poetry had 
all been encouraged by the tyrants. To these was added the 
special growth of freedom — the art of public speaking, in which 
the Sicilian Greeks became especially proficient, Corax being 
the founder of the rhetorical school of Sicily. Epicharmus 
(540-450), carried as a babe to Sicily, is a link between native 
Siceliots and the strangers invited by Hiero; as the founder of 
the local Sicilian comedy, he ranks among Siceliots. After 
him Sophron of Syracuse gave the Sicilian mimes a place among 
the forms of Greek poetry. But the intellect of free Sicily 
struck out higher paths. Empedocles of Acragas is best known 
from the legends of his miracles and of his death in the fires 
of Aetna; but he was not the less philosopher, poet and physician, 
besides his political career. Gorgias {q.v.) of Leontini had a still 
more direct influence on Greek culture, as father of the technical 
schools of rhetoric throughout Greece. Architecture too ad- 
vanced, and the Doric style gradually lost somewhat of its ancient 
massiveness. The temple at Syracuse, which is now the metro- 
politan church, belongs to the earlier days of this time. It is 
followed by the later temples at Selinus, among them the temple 
of Apollo, which is said to have been the greatest in Sicily, and 
by the wonderful series at Acragas (see Agrigentum) . 

During this time of prosperity there was no dread of 
Carthaginian inroads. Diodorus's account of a war between 
Segesta and Lilybaeum is open to considerable suspicion. We 
have, on the other hand, Pausanias's evidence for the exist- 
ence in his day at Olympia of statues offered by Acragas 
out of spoil won from Motya, assigned to Calamis, an artist of 
this period (Freeman ii. 552), and the evidence of contemporary 
Condition inscriptions (1) for a Selinuntine victory over some un- 
of sicels knownenemy (possibly over Motya also), (2)for dealings 
aad between Athens and Segesta with reference to Halicyae, 

a Sican town. The latter is important as being the 
first appearance of Athens in Sicily. As early as 480 (Freeman 
iii. 8) indeed Themistocles seems to have been looking westward. 
Far more important are our notices of the earlier inhabitants. 
For now comes the great Sicel movement under Ducetius, who, 
between force and persuasion, came nearer towards uniting his 
people into one body than had ever been done before. From 
his native hill-top of Menae, rising above the lake dedicated to 



the Palici, the native deities whom Sicels and Greeks alike 
honoured, he brought down his people to the new city of Palicae 
in the plain. His power grew, and Acragas could withstand 
him only by the help of Syracuse. Alternately victorious and 
defeated, spared by the Syracusans on whose mercy he cast 
himself as a suppliant (451), sent to be safe at Corinth, he came 
back to Sicily only to form greater plans than before. War 
between Acragas and Syracuse, which arose on account of his 
return, enabled him to carry out his schemes, and, with the 
help of another Sicel prince of Herbita, who bore the Greek name 
of Archonides, he founded Kale Akte on the northern coast. 
But his work was cut short by his death in 440; the hope of 
the Sicel people now lay in assimilation to their Hellenic neigh- 
bours. Ducetius's own foundation of Kale Akte lived on, and 
we presently hear of Sicel towns under kings and tyrants, all 
marking an approach to Greek life. Roughly speaking, while 
the Sicels of the plain country on the east coast became subject 
to Syracuse, most of those in other parts of the island remained 
independent. Of the Sicans we hear less; but Hyccara in the 
north-west was an independent Sican town on bad terms with 
Segesta. On the whole, setting aside the impassable barrier 
between Greek and Phoenician, other distinctions of race within 
the island were breaking down through the spread of the Hellenic 
element, but among the Greek cities themselves the distinction 
between the Dorian and the Ionian or Chalcidian settlements 
was still keenly felt. 

Up to this time the Italiot and Siceliot Greeks have formed 
part of the general Greek world, while within that world they 
have formed a world of their own, and Sicily has again 

formed a world of its own within that. Wars and 1 ' ,tel> 

Terence ot 
conquests between Greeks and Greeks, especially on the A tneas , 

part of Syracuse, though not wanting, have been on the 
whole less constant than in old Greece. It is even possible to 
appeal to a local Sicilian patriotism (Thuc. vi. 64, 74). Presently 
this state of Sicilian isolation was broken in upon by the great 
Peloponnesian War. The Siceliot cities were drawn into alliance 
with one side or the other, till the main interest of Greek history 
gathers for a while round the Athenian attack on Syracuse. At 
the very beginning of the war the Lacedaemonians looked for 
help from the Dorian Siceliots. But the first active inter- 
vention came from the other side. Conquest in Sicily was a 
favourite dream at Athens (see Peloponnesian War). But 
it was only in 427 an opportunity for Athenian interference 
was found in a quarrel between Syracuse and Leontini and 
their allies. Leontini craved help from Athens on the ground 
of Ionian kindred. Her envoy was Gorgias; his peculiar style 
of rhetoric was now first heard in old Greece (Diod. xii. 53, 54), 
and his pleadings were successful. For several years from this 
time (427-422) Athens plays a part, chiefly unsuccessful, in 
Sicilian affairs. But the particular events are of little import- 
ance, except as leading the way to the greater events that follow. 
The far more memorable interference of Athens in Sicilian 
affairs in the year 415 was partly in answer to the cry. of the 
exiles of Leontini, partly to a quite distinct appeal from the 
Elymian Segesta. That city, an ally of Athens, asked for 
Athenian help against its Greek neighbour Selinus. In a dispute, 
partly about boundaries, partly about the right of intermarriage 
between the Hellenic and the Hellenizing city, Segesta was hard 
pressed. She vainly asked for help at Acragas — some say at 
Syracuse (Diod. xii. 82) — and even at Carthage. The last 
appeal was to Athens. 

The details of the great Athenian expedition (415-413) belong 
partly to the political history of Athens (q.v.), partly to that 
of Syracuse (q.v.). But its results make it a marked 
epoch in Sicilian history, and the Athenian plans, if ex p" d ^° oa 
successful, would have changed the whole face of the 
West. If the later stages of the struggle were remarkable for the 
vast number of Greek cities engaged on both sides, and for the 
strange inversion of relations among them on which Thucydides 
(vii. 57, 58) comments, the whole war was yet more remarkable 
for the large entrance of the barbarian element into the Athenian 
reckonings. The war was undertaken on behalf of Segesta; 



SICILY 



27 



the Steels gave Athens valuable help; the greater barbarian 
powers out of Sicily also came into play. Some help actually 
came from Etruria. But Carthage was more far-sighted. If 
Syracuse was an object of jealousy, Athens, succeeding to her 
dominion, creating a power too nearly alike to her own, would 
have provoked far greater jealousy. So Athens found no active 
support save at Naxos and Catana, though Acragas, if she would 
not help the invaders, at least gave no help to her own rival. 
But after the Spartan Gylippus came, almost all the other Greek 
cities of Sicily were on the side of Syracuse. The war is instruc- 
tive in many ways. It reminds us of the general conditions of 
Greek seamanship when we find that Corcyra was the meeting- 
place for the allied fleet, and that Syracuse was reached only by 
a coasting voyage along the shores of Greek Italy. We are 
struck also by the low military level of the Sicilian Greeks. The 
Syracusan heavy-armed are as far below those of Athens as those 
of Athens are below those of Sparta. The quasi-continental 
character of Sicily causes Syracuse, with its havens and its 
island, to be looked on, in comparison with Athens, as a land 
power (JitrtLpSiTox, Thuc. vii. 21). That is to say, the Siceliot 
level represents the general Greek level as it stood before the 
wars in which Athens won and defended her dominion. The 
Greeks of Sicily had had no such military practice as the Greeks 
of old Greece; but an able commander could teach both Siceliot 
soldiers and Siceliot seamen to out-manceuvre Athenians. The 
main result of the expedition, as regards Sicily, was to bring the 
island more thoroughly into the thick of Greek affairs. Syracuse, 
threatened with destruction by Athens, was saved by the zeal 
of her metropolis Corinth in stirring up the Peloponnesian rivals 
of Athens to help her, and by the advice of Alcibiades after 
his withdrawal to Sparta. All chance of Athenian dominion in 
Sicily or elsewhere in the west came to an end. Syracuse repaid 
the debt by good service to the Peloponnesian cause, and from 
that time the mutual influence of Sicily and old Greece is 
far stronger than in earlier times. 

But before the war in old Greece was over, seventy years 
after the great victory of Gelo (410), the Greeks of Sicily 
had to undergo barbarian invasion on a vaster scale than 
Phoenician ever. The disputes between Segesta and Selinus 
invasion called in these enemies also. Carthage, after a long 
under period of abstention from intervention in Sicilian 
affairs, and the observance of a wise neutrality during 
the war between Athens and Syracuse, stepped in as the ally of 
Segesta, the enemy of her old ally Selinus. Her leader was 
Hannibal, grandson and avenger of the Hamilcar who had died 
at Himera. In 409, at the head of a vast mercenary host, he 
sailed to Sicily, attacked Selinus (q.v.), and stormed the town 
after a murderous assault of nine days. Thence he went to 
Himera, with the object of avenging his grandfather. By this 
time the other Greek cities were stirred to help, while Sicels 
and Sicans joined Hannibal. At last Himera was stormed, and 
3000 of its citizens were solemnly slaughtered on the spot where 
Hamilcar had died. Hannibal then returned to Carthage after 
an absence of three months only. The Phoenician possessions in 
Sicily now stretched across the island from Himera to Selinus. 
The next victim was Acragas, against which another expedition 
sailed in 406 under Hannibal and Himilco; the town was sacked 
and the walls destroyed. 

Meanwhile the revolutions of Syracuse affected the history 
of Sicily and of the whole Greek world. Dionysius (q.v.) the 
tyrant began his reign of thirty-eight years in the first 
1 y months of 405. Almost at the same moment, the new 
Carthaginian commander, Himilco, attacked Gela and 
Camarina. Dionysius, coming to the help of Gela, was defeated, 
and was charged (no doubt with good ground) with treachery. He 
now made the mass of the people of both towns find shelter at 
Syracuse. But now a peace, no doubt arranged at Gela, was 
formally concluded (Freeman iii. 587). Carthage was confirmed 
in her possession of Selinus, Himera and Acragas, with some 
Sican districts which had opposed her. The people of Gela 
and Camarina were allowed to occupy their unwalled towns as 
tributaries of Carthage. Leontini, latterly a Syracusan fort, as 



well as Messana and all the Sicels, were declared independent, 
while Dionysius was acknowledged as master of Syracuse 
(Diodorus xiii. ir4). No war was ever more grievous to freedom 
and civilization. More than half Sicily was now under barbarian 
dominion; several of its noblest cities had perished, and a 
tyrant was established in the greatest. The 5th century b. c, 
after its central years of freedom and prosperity, ended in far 
deeper darkness than it had begun. The minuter account of 
Dionysius belongs to Syracusan history; but his position, one 
unlike anything that had been before seen in Sicily or elsewhere 
in Hellas, forms an epoch in the history of Europe. His only 
bright side is his championship of Hellas against the Phoenician, 
and this is balanced by his settlements of barbarian mercenaries 
in several Greek cities. Towards the native races his policy 
varied according to momentary interests; but on the whole 
his reign tended to bring the Sicels more and more within the 
Greek pale. His dominion is Italian as well as Sicilian; his 
influence, as an ally of Sparta, is important in old Greece; while, 
as a hirer of mercenaries everywhere, he had wider relations 
than any earlier Greek with the nations of western Europe. He 
further opened new fields for Greek settlement on both sides of 
the Adriatic. In short, under him Sicily became for the first 
time the seat of a great European power, while Syracuse, as its 
head, became the greatest of European cities. His reign was 
unusually long for a Greek tyrant, and his career furnished a 
model for other rulers and invaders of Sicily. With him in 
truth begins that wider range of Greek warfare, policy and 
dominion which the Macedonian kingdoms carry on. 

The reign of Dionysius (405-367) is divided into marked 
periods by four wars with Carthage, in 398-397, 392, 383-378 
and 368. Before the first war his home power was all 
but overthrown; he was besieged in Syracuse itself u h war 
in 403; but he lived through the storm, and extended Carthage. 
his dominion over Naxos, Catana and Leontini. All 
three perished as Greek cities. Catana was the first Siceliot 
city to receive a settlement of Campanian mercenaries, while 
others settled in non-Hellenic Entella. Naxos was settled by 
Sicels; Leontini was again merged in Syracuse. Now begin the 
dealings of Dionysius with Italy, where the Rhegines, kinsmen 
of Naxos and Catana, planned a fruitless attack on him in 
common with Messana. He then sought a wife at Rhegium, 
but was refused with scorn, while Locri gladly gave him Doris. 
The two cities afterwards fared accordingly. In the first war with 
Carthage the Greek cities under Carthaginian dominion or 
dependence helped him; so did Sicans and Sicels, which last 
had among them some stirring leaders; Elymian Segesta clave 
to Carthage. Dionysius took the Phoenician stronghold of 
Motye; but Himilco recovered it, destroyed Messana, founded 
the hill-town of Tauromenium above Naxos for Sicels who had 
joined him, defeated the fleet of Dionysiusoff Catana and besieged 
Syracuse. Between invasion and home discontent, the tyrant 
was all but lost; but the Spartan Pharacidas stood his friend; 
the Carthaginians again suffered from pestilence in the marshes 
of Lysimelia; and after a masterly combined attack by land 
and sea by Dionysius Himilco went away utterly defeated, 
taking with him his Carthaginian troops and forsaking his allies. 
Gela, Camarina, Himera, Selinus, Acragas itself, became subject 
allies of Dionysius. The Carthaginian dominion was cut down 
to what it had been before Hannibal's invasion. Dionysius 
then planted mercenaries at Leontini, conquered some Sicel 
towns, Henna among them, and made alliances with others. He 
restored Messana, peopling it with motley settlers, among whom 
were some of the old Messenians from Peloponnesus. But the 
Spartan masters of the old Messenian land grudged this possible 
beginning of a new Messenian power. Dionysius therefore 
moved his Messenians to a point on the north coast, where 
they founded Tyndaris. He clearly had a special eye to that 
region. He took the Sicel Cephaloedium (Cefalii), and even 
the old Phoenician border-fortress of Solous was betrayed to him. 
He beat back a Rhegine expedition; but his advance was 
checked by a failure to take the new Sicel settlement of Tauro- 
menium. His enemies of all races now declared themselves. 



28 



SICILY 



Many of the Sicels forsook him; Acragas declared herself 
independent; Carthage herself again took the field. 

The Carthaginian war of 392-391 was not very memorable. 
Both sides failed in their chief enterprises, and the main interest 
of the story comes from the glimpses which we get of the Sicel 
states. Most of them joined the Carthaginian leader Mago; 
but he was successfully withstood at Agyrium by Agyris, the 
ally of Dionysius, who is described as a tyrant second in power 
to Dionysius himself. This way of speaking would imply that 
Agyrium had so far advanced in Greek ways as to run the usual 
course of a Greek commonwealth. The two tyrants drove 
Carthage to a peace by which she abandoned all her Sicel allies 
to Dionysius. This time he took Tauromenium and settled 
it with his mercenaries. For new colonists of this kind the 
established communities of all races were making way. Former 
transportations had been movements of Greeks from one Greek 
site to another. Now all races are confounded. 

Dionysius, now free from Phoenician warfare, gave his mind 
to enterprises which raised his power to its greatest height. 
In the years 390-387 he warred against the Italiot cities in alliance 
with their Lucanian enemies. Rhegium, Croton, the whole toe 
of the boot, were conquered. Their lands were given to Locri; 
their citizens were taken to Syracuse, sometimes as slaves, 
sometimes as citizens. The master of the barbarians fell below 
the lowest Hellenic level when he put the brave Rhegine general 
Phyton to a lingering death, and in other cases imitated the 
Carthaginian cruelty of crucifixion. Conqueror of southern 
Italy, he turned his thoughts yet further, and became the first 
ruler of Sicily to stretch forth his hands towards the eastern 
peninsula. In the Adriatic he helped Hellenic extension, desiring 
no doubt to secure the important trade route into central 
Europe. He planted directly and indirectly some settlements 
in Apulia, while Syracusan exiles founded the more famous 
Ancona. He helped the Parians in their settlements of Issa and 
Pharos; he took into his pay Illyrian warriors with Greek arms, 
and helped the Molossian Alcetas to win back part of his kingdom. 
He was even charged with plotting with his Epirot ally to 
plunder Delphi. This even Sparta would not endure; Dionysius 
had to content himself with sending a fleet along the west coast 
of Italy, to carry off the wealth of the great temple of Caere. 

In old Greece men now said that the Greek folk was hemmed 
in between the barbarian Artaxerxes on the one side and 
Dionysius, master and planter of barbarians, on the other. 
These feelings found expression when Dionysius sent his embassy 
to the Olympic games of 384, and when Lysias bade Greece rise 
against both its oppressors. Dionysius vented his wrath on 
those who were nearest to him, banishing many, among them 
his brother Leptines and his earliest friend Philistus, and putting 
many to death. He was also once more stirred up to play the 
part of a Hellenic champion in yet another Punic war. 

In this war (383-378) Dionysius seems for once to have had 
his head turned by a first success. His demand that Carthage 
should altogether withdraw from Sicily was met by a crushing 
defeat. Then came a treaty by which Carthage kept Selinus 
and part of the land of Acragas. The Halycus became the 
boundary. Dionysius had also to pay 1000 talents, which 
caused him to be spoken of as becoming tributary to the bar- 
barians. In the last years of his reign we hear dimly of both 
Syracusan and Carthaginian operations in southern Italy. 
He also gave help to Sparta against Thebes, sending Gaulish' 
and Iberian mercenaries to take part in Greek warfare. His 
last war with Carthage, which began with an invasion of western 
Sicily, and which was going on at his death in 367 B.C., was ended 
by a peace by which the Halycus remained the boundary. 

The tyranny of Dionysius fell, as usual, in the second genera- 
tion; but it was kept up for ten years after his death by the 
energy of Philistus, now minister of his son Dionysius 
Dionyaia tne Younger. It fell with the coming back of the 
o)^ exile Dion in 357. The tyranny had lasted so long 

that it was less easy than at the overthrow of the 
elder tyrants to fall back on an earlier state of things. It had 
been a time of frightful changes throughout Sicily, full of breaking 



up of old landmarks, of confusion of races, and of movements 
of inhabitants. But it also saw the foundation 
of new cities. Besides Tyndaris and Tauromenium, BC "f 
the foundation of Halaca marks another step in 
Sicel progress towards Hellenism, while the Carthaginians 
founded their strong town and fortress of Lilybaeum in place 
of Motya. Among these changes the most marked is the settle- 
ment of Campanian mercenaries in Greek and Sicel towns. 
Yet they too could be brought under Greek influences; they 
were distant kinsfolk of the Sicels, and the forerunners of Rome. 
They mark one stage of migration from Italy into Sicily. 

The reign of Dionysius was less brilliant in the way of art 
and literature than that of Hiero. Yet Dionysius himself 
sought fame as a poet, and his success at Athens shows that his 
compositions did not deserve the full scorn of his enemies. 
The dithyrambic poet Philoxenus, by birth of Cythera, won his 
fame in Sicily, and other authors of lost poems are mentioned 
in various Siceliot cities. One of the greatest losses in all Greek 
history is that'of the writings of Philistus (436-356), the Syracusan 
who had seen the Athenian siege and who died in the warfare 
between Dion and the younger Dionysius. Through the time 
of both tyrants, he was, next to the actual rulers, the first man 
in Sicily; but of his record of his own times we have only what 
filters through- the recasting of Diodorus. But the most remark- 
able intellectual movement in Sicily at this time was the influence 
of the»<Pythagorean philosophy, which still lived on in southern 
Italy/ It led, through Dion, to the several visits of Plato to 
Sicily under both the elder and the younger Dionysius. 

The time following the Dionysian tyranny was at Syracuse a 
time full of the most stirring local and personal interest, under 
her two deliverers Dion and Timoleon. It is less easy timoleon 
to make out the exact effect on the rest of Sicily of 
the three years' career of Dion. Between the death of Dion 
in 354 and the coming of Timoleon in 344 we hear of a time of 
confusion in which Hellenic life seemed likely to die out. The 
cities, Greek and Sicel, were occupied by tyrants. The work of 
Timoleon {q.v.), whose headquarters were first at Tauromenium, 
then at Hadranum, was threefold — the immediate deliverance 
of Syracuse, the restoration of Sicily in general to freedom and 
Greek life, and the defence of the Greek cities against Carthage. 
The great victory of the Crimissus in 339 led to a peace with 
Carthage with the old frontier; but all Greek cities were to be 
free, and Carthage was to give no help to any tyrant. Timoleon 
drove out all the tyrants, and it specially marks the fusion of the 
two races that the people of the Sicel Agyrium were admitted 
to the citizenship of free Syracuse. From some towns he drove 
out the Campanians, and he largely invited Greek settlement, 
especially from the Italiot towns, which were hard pressed by 
the Bruttians. The Corinthian deliverer gave, not only Syracuse, 
but all Greek Sicily, a new lease of life, though a short one. 

We have unluckily no intelligible account of Sicily during 
the twenty years after the death of Timoleon (337-317). His 
deliverance is said to have been followed by great 
immediate prosperity, but wars and dissensions very ^ g> 
soon began again. The Carthaginians played off one 
city and party against another, and Agathocles, 1 following the 
same policy, became in 317, by treachery and massacre, undis- 
puted tyrant of Syracuse, and spread his dominion over many 
other cities. Acragas, strengthened by Syracusan exiles, now 
stands out again as the rival of Syracuse. The Carthaginian 
Hamilcar won many Greek cities to the Punic alliance. 
Agathocles, however, with Syracuse blockaded by a Carthaginian 
fleet, formed the bold idea of carrying the war into Africa. 

For more than three years (310-307) each side carried on 
warfare in the land of the other. Carthage was hard pressed 
by Agathocles, while Syracuse was no less hard pressed by 
Hamilcar. The force with which Agathocles invaded Africa 
was far from being wholly Greek; but it was representatively 
European. Gauls, Samnites, Tyrrhenians, fought for him, while 
mercenary Greeks and Syracusan exiles fought for Carthage. He 
won many battles and towns; he quelled mutinies of his own 
1 See Tillyard, Agathocles (1908). 



SICILY 



29 



troops; by inviting and murdering Ophelias, lord of Cyrene, 
he doubled his army and brought Carthage near to despair. 
Meanwhile Syracuse, all but lost, had driven back Hamilcar, 
and had taken him prisoner in an unsuccessful attack on 
Euryelus, and slain him when he came again with the help of 
the Syracusan exile Deinocrates. Meanwhile Acragas, deeming 
Agathocles and the barbarians alike weakened, proclaimed 
freedom for the Sicilian cities under her own headship. Many 
towns, both Greek and Sicel, joined the confederacy. It has 
now become impossible to distinguish the two races; Henna and 
Herbessus are now the fellows of Camarina and Leontini. But 
the hopes of Acragas perished when Agathocles came back from 
Africa, landed at Selinus, and marched to Syracuse, taking one 
town after another. A new scheme of Sicilian union was taken 
up by Deinocrates, which cut short his dominion. But he now 
relieved Syracuse from the Carthaginian blockade; his mer- 
cenaries gained a victory over Acragas; and he sailed again for 
Africa, where fortune had turned against his son Archagathus, 
as it now did against himself. He left his sons and his army 
to death, bondage or Carthaginian service, and came back to 
Sicily almost alone. Yet he could still gather a force which 
enabled him to seize Segesta, to slay or enslave the whole 
population, and to settle the city with new inhabitants. This 
change amounts to the extinction of one of the elements in the 
old population of Sicily. We hear no more of Elymi; indeed 
Segesta has been practically Greek long before this. Deinocrates 
and Agathocles came to a kind of partnership in 304, and a peace 
with Carthage, with the old boundary, secured Agathocles in 
the possession of Syracuse and eastern Sicily (301). 

At some stage of his African campaigns Agathocles had 
taken the title of king. Earlier tyrants were well pleased to 
be spoken of as kings; but no earlier rulers of Sicily put either 
their heads or their names on the coin. Agathocles now put his 
name, first without, and then with, the kingly title, though 
never his own likeness — Hiero II. was the first to do this. This 
was in imitation of the Macedonian leaders who divided the 
dominion of Alexander. The relations between the eastern 
and western Greek worlds are drawing closer. Agathocles in 
his old age took a wife of the house of Ptolemy; he gave his 
daughter Lanassa to Pyrrhus, and established his power east of 
Hadria, as the first Sicilian ruler of Corcyra. Alike more daring 
and more cruel than any ruler before him, he made the island 
the seat of a greater power than any of them. 

On the death of Agathocles tyrants sprang up in various 

cities. Acragas, under its king Phintias, won back for the 

Period moment somewhat of its old greatness. By a new 

after depopulation of Gela, he founded the youngest of 

Agatho- Siceliot cities, Phintias, by the mouth of the southern 

Himera. And Hellas was cut short by the seizure 

of Messana by the disbanded Campanian mercenaries of 

Agathocles (c. 282), who proclaimed themselves a new people in 

a new city by the name of Mamertines, children of Mamers or 

Mars. Messana became an Italian town — " Mamertina civitas." 

The Campanian occupation of Messana is the first of the 

chain of events which led to the Roman dominion in Sicily. As 

Pyrrhus ^ et ^ ome nas hardly been mentioned in Sicilian story. 

The Mamertine settlement, the war with Pyrrhus, 

bring us on quickly. Pyrrhus (q.v.) came as the champion of 

the western Greeks against all barbarians, whether Romans 

in Italy or Carthaginians in Sicily. His Sicilian war (278-276) 1 

was a mere interlude between the two acts of his war with Rome. 

As son-in-law of Agathocles, he claimed to be specially king 

of Sicily, and he held the Sicilian conquest of Corcyra as the 

dowry of Lanassa. With such a deliverer, deliverance meant 

submission. Pyrrhus is said to have dreamed of kingdoms of 

Sicily and of Italy for his two sons, the grandsons of Agathocles, 

and he himself reigned for two years in Sicily as a king who came 

to be no less hated than the tyrants. Still as Hellenic champion 

in Sicily he has no peer. 

The Greek king, on his way back to fight for Tarentum against 
Rome, had to cut his way through Carthaginians and Mamertines 
1 For the ensuing years cf. Rome: History, II. "The Republic." 



in Roman alliance. His saying that he left Sicily as a wrestling- 
ground for Romans and Carthaginians was the very truth of the 
matter. Very soon came the first war between Rome and 
Carthage (the " First Punic War "). It mattered much, now 
that Sicily was to have a barbarian master, whether that 
master should be the kindred barbarian of Europe or the bar- 
barian of Asia transplanted to the shore of Africa. 

Sicily in truth never had a more hopeful champion than 
Hiero II. of Syracuse. The established rule of Carthage in 
western Sicily was now something that could well be „. .. 
endured alongside of the robber commonwealth at 
Messana. The dominion of the freebooters was spreading. 
Besides the whole north-eastern corner of the island, it reached 
inland to Agyrium and Centoripa. The Mamertines leagued 
with other Campanian freebooters who had forsaken the service 
of Rome to establish themselves at Rhegium. But a new 
Syracusan power was growing up to meet them. Hiero, claiming 
descent from Gelo, pressed the Mamertines hard. He all but 
drove them to the surrender of Messana; he even helped Rome 
to chastise her own rebels at Rhegium. The wrestling-ground 
was thus opened for the two barbarian commonwealths. Car- 
thaginian troops held the Messanian citadel against Hiero, 
while another party in Messana craved the help of the head of 
Italy. Rome, chastiser of the freebooters of Rhegium, saw 
Italian brethren in the freebooters of Messana. 

The exploits of Hiero had already won him the kingly title 
(270) at Syracuse, and he was the representative of Hellenic life 
and independence throughout the island. Partly in this char- 
acter, partly as direct sovereign, he was virtual ruler of a large 
part of eastern Sicily. But he could not aspire to the dominion 
of earlier Syracusan rulers. The advance of Rome after the 
retreat of Pyrrhus kept the new king from all hope of their 
Italian position. And presently the new kingdom exchanged 
independence for safety. When Rome entered Sicily as the 
ally of the Mamertines, Hiero became the ally of Carthage. But 
in the second year of the war (263) he found it needful to change 
sides. His alliance with Rome marks a great epoch in the 
history of the Greek nation. The kingdom of Hiero was the 
first-fruits out of Italy of the system by which alliance with 
Rome grew into subjection to Rome. He was the first of 
Rome's kingly vassals. His only burthen was to give help to 
the Roman side in war; within his kingdom he was free, and 
his dominions flourished as no part of Sicily had flourished 
since the days of Timoleon. 

During the twenty-three years of the First Punic War (264- 
241) the rest of the island suffered greatly. The war for Sicily 
was fought in and round Sicily, and the Sicilian cities 
were taken and retaken by the contending powers PmUs 

(see Punic Wars). The highest calling of the Greek w ar . 

had now, in the western lands, passed to the Roman. 
By the treaty which ended the war in 241 Carthage ceded to 
Rome all her possessions in Sicily. As that part of the island 
which kept a national Greek government became the 
first kingdom dependent on Rome, so the share of BC " 
Carthage became the first Roman province. Messana 
alone remained an Italian ally of Rome on Sicilian soil. 

We have no picture of Sicily in the first period of Roman 
rule. One hundred and seventy years later, several towns 
within the original province enjoyed various degrees of freedom, 
which they had doubtless kept from the beginning. Panormus, 
Segesta, with Centoripa, Halesa and Halikye, once Sicel but now 
Hellenized, kept the position of free cities (liberae et immunes, 
Cic. Verr. iii. 6). The rest paid tithe to the Roman people as 
landlord. The province was ruled by a praetor sent yearly 
from Rome. It formed, as it had even from the Carthaginian 
period, a closed customs district. Within the Roman province 
the new state of things called forth much discontent; but 
Hiero remained the faithful ally of Rome through a long life. 
On his death (216) and the accession of his grandson Hieronymus, 
his dynasty was swept away by the last revolution of Greek 
Syracuse. The result was revolt against Rome, the great sie<ge^ 
and capture of the city, the addition of Hiero's kingdom to/ " 



3° 



SICILY 



Sicily 
Roman. 



Roman province. Two towns only, besides Messana, which 
had taken the Roman side, Tauromenium and Netos, were 
admitted to the full privileges of Roman alliance. Tauromenium 
indeed was more highly favoured than Messana. Rome had a 
right to demand ships of Messana, but not of Tauromenium. 
Some towns were destroyed; the people of Henna were 
massacred. Acragas, again held for Carthage, was for four 
years (214-210) the centre of an active campaign. The story 
of Acragas ended in plunder, slaughter and slavery; three 
years later, the story of Agrigentum began. 

The reign of Hiero was the last time of independent Greek 
culture in Sicily. His time marks the growth of a new form of 
local Sicilian genius. The spread of Hellenic culture among the 
Sicels had in return made a Greek home for many Sicel beliefs, 
traditions and customs. Bucolic poetry is the native growth of 
Sicily; in the hands of Theocritus it grew out of the germs 
supplied by Epicharmus and Sophron into a distinct and finished 
form of the art. The poet, himself of Syracuse, went to and fro 
between the courts of Hiero and Ptolemy Philadelphus; but his 
poetry is essentially Sicilian. So is that of his successors, 
both the Syracusan Moschus and Bion of Smyrna, who came 
to Sicily as to his natural school. 

With the incorporation of the kingdom of Hiero into the 
Roman province independent Sicilian history comes to an 
end for many ages. In one part of the island the 
Roman people stepped into the position of Carthage, in 
another part into that of King Hiero. The allied cities 
kept their several terms of alliance; the free cities kept their 
freedom; elsewhere the land paid to the Roman people, accord- 
ing to the law of Hiero, the tithe which it had paid to Hiero. 
But, as the tithe was let out to publicani, oppression was easy. 
The praetor, after the occupation of Syracuse, dwelled there in 
the palace of Hiero, as in the capital of the island. But, as a 
survival of the earlier state of things, one of his two quaestors 
was quartered at Eryx, the other being in attendance on himself. 
Under the supreme dominion of Rome even the unprivileged 
cities kept their own laws, magistrates and assemblies, provision 
being made for suits between Romans and Sicilians and between 
Sicilians of different cities (Verr. ii. 16). In Latin the one name 
Siculi takes in all the inhabitants of the island; no distinction 
is drawn between Greek and Sicel, or even between Greek and 
Phoenician cities. It is assumed that all Siculi are Greeks ( Verr. 
ii. 3, 29, 49, 52, 65; iii. 37, 40, 73)- Even is? Greek, St/ceXot is 
now sometimes used instead of 'EiKeXubrtu All the persons 
spoken of by Cicero have Greek names save — a most speaking 
exception — Gaius Heius of Mamertina civitas. Inscriptions too 
from Sicel and Phoenician cities are commonly Greek, even when 
they commemorate men with Phoenician names, coupled perhaps 
with Greek surnames. The process of Hellenization which had 
been so long going on had at last made Sicily thoroughly Greek. 
Roman conquest itself, which everywhere carried a Greek 
element with it, would help this result. The corn of the fertile 
island was said even then to feed the Roman people. It was this 
character of Sicily which led to its one frightful piece of local 
history. The wars of Rome, and the systematic piracy 
and kidnapping that followed them, filled the Mediter- 
ranean lands with slaves of all nations. Sicily stood 
out before the rest as the first land to be tilled by slave-gangs, 
on the estates both of rich natives and of Roman settlers. It 
became the granary of Rome and the free population naturally 
degenerated and died out. The slaves were most harshly treated, 
and even encouraged by their masters to rob. The land was 
full of disorder, and the praetors shrank from enforcing the law 
against offenders, many of whom, as Roman knights, might be 
their own judges. Of these causes came the two great slave- 
revolts of the second half of the 2nd centuiy B.C. The first lasted 
from 134 to 132, the time of Tiberius Gracchus and the fall of 
Numantia. Enna and Tauromenium were the headquarters of 
the revolt. The second (the centre of which was Triocala, the 
modern S. Anna, 9 m. N.E. of Sciacca) lasted from 102 to 99, 
the time of the Cimbrian invasion. At other times the power of 
Rome might have quelled the revolt more speedily. 



Slave 
revolts. 



The slave wars were not the only scourge that fell on Sicily. 
The pirates troubled the coast, and all other evils were out- 
done by the three years' government of Verres (73-70 Later 
B.C.). Besides the light which the great impeachment Roman 
throws on the state of the island, his administration rule la 
seems really to have dealt a lasting blow to its Skdfy. 
prosperity. The slave wars had not directly touched the great 
cities; Verres plundered and impoverished everywhere, re- 
moving anything of value, especially works of art, that took his 
fancy, and there is hardly a city that had not to complain of 
what it suffered at his hands. Another blow was the occupation 
of Messana by Sextus Pompeius in 43 B.C. He was master of 
Sicily for seven years, and during this period the corn supply of 
Rome was seriously affected, while Strabo (vi. 2, 4) attributed 
to this war the decayed state of several cities. To undo this 
mischief Augustus planted Roman colonies at Palermo, Syracuse, 
Tauromenium, Thermae, Tyndaris and Catana. The island 
thus received another Italian infusion; but, as elsewhere, Latin 
in no way displaced Greek; it was simply set up alongside of it 
for certain purposes. Roman tastes now came in; Roman 
buildings, especially amphitheatres, arose. The Mamertines 
were Roman citizens, and Netum, Centuripae and Segesta had 
become Latin, perhaps by a grant of Caesar himself, but in any 
case before the concession of Latin rights to the rest of Sicily; 
this was followed by M. Antonius's grant of full citizenship to 
the whole island. But Sicily never became thoroughly Roman; 
no roads were constructed, so that not a single Roman milestone 
has been found in the whole island. In the division of provinces 
between Augustus and the senate, Sicily fell to the latter. Under 
the empire it has practically no history: Few emperors visited 
Sicily; Hadrian was there, as everywhere, in a.d. 126, and 
ascended Etna, and Julian also (CD. 10). In its provincial 
state Sicily fell back more than some other provinces. Ausonius 
could still reckon Catana and fourfold Syracuse (" quadruplices 
Syracusas ") among the noble cities; but Sicily is not, like 
Gaul, rich in relics of later Roman life, and it is now Egypt 
rather than Sicily that feeds Rome. The island has no internal 
history beyond a very characteristic fact, a third revolt of slaves 
and bandits, which was quelled with difficulty in the days of 
Gallienus. External history there could be none in the central 
island, with no frontier open to Germans or Persians. There 
was a single Frankish attack under Probus (276-282). In the 
division of Constantine, when the word " province " had lost its 
meaning, when Italy itself was mapped out into provinces, 
Sicily became one of these last. Along with Africa, Raetia and 
western Illyricum, it became part of the Italian praefecture; 
along with the islands of Sardinia and Corsica, it became part of 
the Italian diocese. It was now ruled by a corrector, afterwards 
by a consular under the authority of the vicar of the Roman 
city (Not. Imp. 14, 5). 

Sicilian history began again when the wandering of the 
nations planted new powers, not on the frontier of the empire, 
but at its heart. The powers between which Sicily 
now passed to and fro were Teutonic powers. The mas < ers . 
earlier stages of Teutonic advance could not touch 
Sicily. Alaric thought of a Sicilian expedition, but a storm 
hindered him. Sicily was to be reached only by a Teutonic 
power which made its way through Gaul, Spain and Africa. The 
Vandal now dwelt at Carthage instead of the Canaanite. Gaiseric 
(429-477) subdued the great islands for which Roman and 
Phoenician had striven. Along with Sardinia, Corsica and 
the Balearic Isles, Sicily was again a possession of a naval power 
at Carthage. Gaiseric made a treaty with Odoacer almost like 
that which ended the First Punic War. He gave up (Victor 
Vitensis i. 4) the island on condition of a tribute, which was 
hardly paid by Theodoric. Sicily was now ruled by a Gothic 
count, and the Gotbs claimed to have treated the land with 
special tenderness (Procopius, Bell. Goth. iii. 16). The island, 
like the rest of Theodoric's dominions, was certainly well looked 
after by the great king and his minister; yet we hear darkly of 
disaffection to Gothic rule (Cass. Var. i. 3). Theodoric gave 
back Lilybaeum to the Vandal king Thrasamund as the dowry 



SICILY 



31 



of his sister Analafrida (Proc. Bell. Vand. i. 8). Yet Lilybaeum 
was a Gothic possession when Belisarius, conqueror of Africa, 
demanded it in vain as part of the Vandal possessions (Proc. 
Bell. Vand. ii. 5; Bell. Goth. i. 3). In the Gothic war Sicily 
was the first land to be recovered for the empire, and that with 
the good will of its people (53 s). Panormus alone was stoutly 
defended by its Gothic garrison. In 550 Totila took some 
fortresses, but the great cities all withstood him, and the Goths 
were driven out the next year. 

Sicily was thus won back to the Roman dominion. Belisarius 
Sicily was Pyrrhus and Marcellus in one. For 430 years 
under the some part of Sicily, for 282 years the whole of it, 
Eastern again remained a Roman province. To the Gothic 
p ' count again succeeded, under Justinian, a Roman 
praetor, in Greek crTpaTrryos. That was the official title; 
we often hear of a patrician of Sicily, but patrician {q.v.) 
was in strictness a personal rank. In the later mapping out of 
the empire into purely military divisions, the theme (de/xa) of 
Sicily took in both the island and the nearest peninsula of the 
mainland, the oldest Italy. The island itself was divided for 
financial purposes, almost as in the older times, into the two 
divisions of Syracuse and Lilybaeum. The revolutions of Italy 
hardly touched a land which looked steadily to the eastern Rome 
as its head. The Lombard and Frankish masters of the peninsula 
never fixed themselves in the island. When the Frank took 
the imperial crown of the west, Sicily still kept its allegiance to 
the Augustus who reigned at Constantinople, and was only 
torn away piecemeal from the empire by the next race of 
conquerors. 

This connexion of Sicily with the eastern division of the 
empire no doubt largely helped to keep up Greek life in the 
Ectfesl- island. This was of course strengthened by union with 
astlcal a power which had already a Greek side, and where the 
relations Greek side soon became dominant. Still the connexion 
w y ' with Italy was close, especially the ecclesiastical 

connexion. Some things tend to make Sicily look less Greek 
than it really was. The great source of our knowledge of 
Sicily in the century which followed the reconquest by Beli- 
sarius is the Letters of Pope Gregory the Great, and they naturally 
show the most Latin side of things. The merely official use of 
Latin was, it must be remembered, common to Sicily with 
Constantinople. Gregory's Letters are largely occupied with the 
affairs of the great Sicilian estates held by the Roman church, 
as by the churches of Milan and Ravenna. But they deal with 
many other matters. Saint Paul's visit to Syracuse naturally 
gave rise to many legends; but the Christian church undoubtedly 
took early root in Sicily. We hear of Manichaeans (CD. 163); 
Jews were plentiful, and Gregory causes compensation to be 
made for the unlawful destruction of synagogues. Many 
Christian catacombs and Byzantine rock-cut villages, churches 
and tombs have been explored of recent years. See the compre- 
hensive work by the late J. Fiihrer and V. Schultze, " Die 
altchristlichen Grabstatte Siziliens " (Berlin, 1907, Jahrbuch 
des K.D. archaologischen Instiluts, ETganzungsheft vii.): and 
several articles by P. Orsi in the Notizie degli scavi, and in 
Byzantinische Zeitschrift (1898, 1; 1899, 613). Of paganism 
we find no trace, save that pagan slaves, doubtless not natives 
of the island, were held by Jews (CD. 127). Herein is a contrast 
between Sicily and Sardinia, where, according to a letter from 
Gregory to the empress Constantina, wife of the emperor 
Maurice (594-395), praying for a lightening of taxation in both 
islands, paganism still lingered (CD. 121). Sicily belonged to 
the Latin patriarchate; but we already (CD. 103) 
see glimmerings of the coming disputes between the 
Eastern and Western Churches. Things were changed when 
Leo the Isaurian confiscated the Sicilian and Calabrian estates 
of the Roman Church (Theoph. i. 631). 

In the 9th, 10th and nth centuries the old drama of Sicily 
was acted again. The island is again disputed between Europe 
and Asia, transplanted to Africa between Greek and Semitic 
dwellers on her own soil. Panormus and Syracuse are again 
the headquarters of races and creeds, of creeds yet more than 



477-829. 



of races. The older religious differences were small compared 
with the strife for life and death between Christendom and 
Islam. Gregory and Mahomet were contemporaries, 
and, though Saracen occupation did not begin in B f r ^ r 
Sicily till more than two centuries after Gregory's inroads. 
death, Saracen inroads began much sooner. In 
655 (Theoph. i. 532) part of Sicily was plundered, and its 
inhabitants carried to Damascus. Then came the strange 
episode of the visit of Constans II. (641-668), the first emperor, 
it would seem, who had set foot in Sicily since Julian. After a 
war with the Lombards, after twelve days' plunder of Rome, 
he came on to Syracuse, where his oppressions led to his murder 
in 668. Sicily now saw for the first time the setting up of a 
tyrant in the later sense. Mezetius, commander of the Eastern 
army of Constans, revolted, but Sicily and Roman Italy kept 
their allegiance to the new emperor Constantine Pogonatus, 
who came in person to destroy him. Then came another Saracen 
inroad from Alexandria, in which Syracuse was sacked (Paul. 
Diac. v. 13). Towards the end of the 8th century, though Sicily 
itself was untouched, its patricians and their forces play a part 
in the affairs of southern Italy as enemies of the Frankish power. 
Charlemagne himself was believed (Theoph. i. 736) to have 
designs on Sicily; but, when it came to Saracen invasion, the 
sympathies of both pope and Caesar lay with the invaded 
Christian land (Mon. Car. 323, 328). 

In 813 a peace for ten years was made between the Saracens 
and the patrician Gregory. A few years after it expired Saraaen 
settlement in the island began. About this time Crete 
was seized by Spanish adventurers. But the first conquest. 
Saracen settlers in Sicily were the African neighbours 
of Sicily, and they were called to the work by a home treason. 
The story has been tricked out with many romantic details 
(Chron. Salem. 60, ap. Pertz, iii. 498; Theoph. Cont. ii. 272; 
George Cedrenus, ii. 97); but it seems plain that Euphemius 
or Euthymius of Syracuse, supported by his own citizens, 
revolted against Michael the Stammerer (820-829), and, when 
defeated by an imperial army, asked help of Ziyadet Allah, the 
Aghlabite prince of Kairawan, and offered to hold the island of 
him. The struggle of 138 years now began. Euphemius, a 
puppet emperor, was led about by his Saracen allies much as 
earlier puppet emperors had been led about by Alaric and 
Ataulf, till he was slain in one of the many sieges. The second 
Semitic conquest of Sicily began in 827 at Mazzara on the old 
border of Greek and Phoenician. The advance of the invaders 
was slow. In two years all that was done was to occupy 
Mazzara and Mineum — the old Menae of Ducetius — strange 
points certainly to begin with, and seemingly to destroy 
Agrigentum, well used to destruction. Attacks on Syracuse 
failed; so did attacks on Henna — Castrum Ennae, 
now changing into Castrum Johannis (perhaps Kaorpo- 
lavvrj), Castrogiovanni. The actual gain was small; but the 
invaders took seizin alike of the coast and of the island. 

A far greater conquest followed when new invaders came from 
Spain and when Theodotus was killed in 830. The next year 
Panormus pased away for ever from Roman, for 230 years from 
Christian, rule. Syracuse was for fifty years, not only, as of old, 
the bulwark of Europe, but the bulwark of Christendom. By 
the conquest of Panormus the Saracens were firmly rooted in 
the island. It became the seat of the amir or lord of Sicily. 
We hear dimly of treasonable dealings with them on the part 
of the stralegos Alexius, son-in-law of the emperor Theophilus; 
but we see more clearly that Saracen advance was largely 
hindered by dissensions between the African and the Spanish 
settlers. In the end the Moslem conquests in Sicily became 
an Aghlabite principality owning at best a formal superiority 
in the princes of Kairawan. With the Saracen occupation 
begins a new division of the island, which becomes convenient 
in tracing the progress of Saracen conquest. This is into three 
valleys, known in later forms of language as Val di Mazzara 
or Mazza in the N.W., Val di Noto in the S.E. and Val 
Demone (a name of uncertain origin) in the N.E. (see Amari, 
Musulmani in Sicilia, i. 465). The first Saracen settlement 



32 



SICILY 



of Val di Mazzara answers roughly to the old Carthaginian 
possessions. From Panormus the amir or lord of Sicily, 
Mahommed ibn Abdallah, sent forth his plunderers throughout 
Sicily and even into southern Italy. There, however, they made 
no lasting settlements. 

The chief work of the next ten years was the conquest of the 
Val di Noto, but the first great advance was made elsewhere. 
In 843 the Saracens won the Mamertine city, Messana, and thus 
stood in the path between Italy and Sicily. Then the work 
of conquest, as described by the Arabic writers, went on, but 
slowly. At last, in 859, the very centre of the island, the strong- 
hold of Henna, was taken, and the main part of Val di Noto 
followed. But the divisions among the Moslems helped the 
Christians; they won back several towns, and beat off all 
attacks on Syracuse and Tauromenium. It is strange that the 
reign of Basil the Macedonian (867), a time of such renewed 
vigour in the empire, was the time of the greatest of all losses 
in Sicily. In Italy the imperial frontier largely advanced; 
in Sicily imperial fleets threatened Panormus. But in 875 the 
accession of Ibrahim ibn Ahmad in Africa changed the face of 
things. The amir in Sicily, Ja'far ibn Ahmad, received strict 
orders to act vigorously against the eastern towns. In 877 
began the only successful Semitic siege of Syracuse. The next 
year the city passed for the first time under the yoke of 
strangers to the fellowship of Europe. 

Thus in fifty-one years the imperial and Christian territory in 
Sicily was cut down to a few points on or near the eastern coast, 
to the Val Demone in short without Messana. But between 
Moslem dissension and Christian valour the struggle had still 
to be waged for eighty-seven years. Henna had been the chief 
centre of Christian resistance a generation earlier; its place 
was now taken by the small fort of Rametta not far from Messina. 
The Moslems of Sicily were busy in civil wars; Arabs fought 
against Berbers, both against the African overlord. In 900 
Panormus had to be won by a son of Ibrahim from Moslem rebels 
provoked by his father's cruelty. But when Ibrahim' himself 
came into Sicily, renewed efforts against the Christians led to the 
first taking of Tauromenium (908), of Rametta and of other 
points. The civil war that followed his death, the endless 
revolutions of Agrigentum, where the weaker side did not scruple 
to call in Christian help, hindered any real Saracen occupation 
of eastern Sicily. The emperors never gave up their claims to 
Sicily or their hopes of recovering it. Besides the struggle with 
the Christians in the island, there was often direct warfare 
between the empire and the Saracens; but such warfare was 
more active in Italy than in Sicily. In 956 a peace or truce was 
made by the emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus. A few 
years later, Otho the Great, the restorer of the Western empire, 
looked to Sicily as a land to be won back for Christendom. 
It had not yet wholly passed away; but the day soon came. 
Strange to say, as Syracuse fell in the reign of Basil the Mace- 
donian, the Saracen occupation was completed in the reign of 
Nikephoros Phokas (Nicephorus Phocas), the deliverer of Crete. 
In the year of his accession (963) Tauromenium was taken, and 
became for a hundred years a Mahommedan possession. Rametta 
was the last stronghold to fall (965). 

Thus in 138 years the Arab did what the Canaanite had never 
done. The whole island was a Semitic, that is a Mahommedan, 
possession. Yet the complete Saracen possession of Sicily 
may seem a thing of a moment. Its first and longest period 
lasted only 73 years. In that time Mahommedan Sicily was 
threatened by a Western emperor; the Arabic writers claim 
Utata. the Saracen army by which Otho II. was beaten back 
quest by in 982 as a Sicilian army. A mightier enemy was 
Battera threatening in the East. Basil II. planned the recovery 
Empire. f gi c iiy j n g 00 d earnest. In 1027 he sent a great army; 
but his death stopped their progress before they reached the 
island. But the great conqueror had left behind him men 
trained in his school, and eleven years later the eagles of the new 
Rome again marched to Sicilian victories. The ravages of 
the Sicilian Saracens in the Greek islands were more frightful 
than ever, and George Maniaces, the first captain of his time, 



was sent to win back the lost land. He too was helped by Saracei* 
dissensions. The amir Abul-afar became a Roman vassal, and', 
like Alaric of old, became magister militum in the /ft , 

Roman army. His brother and rival Abuhafa? brought 
help from Africa; and finally all joined against the Christians. 
Four years of Christian victory (1038-1042) followed. In the 
host of Maniaces were men of all races — Normans, who had 
already begun to show themselves in south Italy, and the 
Varangian guard, the best soldiers of the empire, among whom 
Harold Hardrada himself is said to have held a place. Town 
after town was delivered, first Messana, then Syracuse, then a 
crowd of others. The exact extent of the reconquest is uncertain; 
Byzantine writers claim the deliverance of the whole island; 
but it is certain that the Saracens never lost Panormus. But 
court influence spoiled everything: Maniaces was recalled; 
under his successor Stephen, brother-in-law of the emperor 
Michael, the Saracens won back what they had lost. Messana 
alone held out, for how long a time is uncertain. But a con- 
queror came who had no empresses to thwart him. In 1060 
began the thirty years' work of the first Roger. 

Thus for 263 years the Christian people of some part or other 
of Sicily were in subjection to Moslem masters. But that 
subjection differed widely in different times and places. sktty 
The land was won bit by bit. One town was taken under 
by storm; another submitted on terms harsher or Saracen 
more favourable. The condition of the Christians ru/e- 
varied from that of personal slaves to that of communities 
left free on the payment of tribute. The great mass were in the 
intermediate state usual among the non-Mahommedan subjects 
of a Mahommedan power. The dhimml of Sicily were in 
essentially the same case as the r ayahs of the Turk. While 
the conquest was going on, the towns that remained unconquered 
gained in point of local freedom. They became allies rather 
than subjects of the distant emperor. So did the tributary 
districts, as long as the original terms were kept. But, as ever, 
the condition of the subject race grew worse. After the complete 
conquest of the island, while the mere slaves had turned Mahom- 
medans, there is nothing more heard of tributary districts. At 
the coming of the Normans the whole Christian population 
was in the state of rayahs. Still Christianity and the Greek 
tongue never died out; churches and monasteries received 
and held property; there still are saints and scholars. It 
would be rash to deny that traces of other dialects may not have 
lingered on; but Greek and Arabic were the two written tongues 
of Sicily when the Normans came. The Sicilian Saracens were 
hindered by their internal feuds from ever becoming a great 
power; but they stood high among Mahommedan nations. 
Their advance in civilization is shown by their position 
under the Normans, and above all by their admirable style 
of architecture (see Palermo). They had a literature which 
Norman kings studied and promoted. The Normans in short 
came into the inheritance of the two most civilized nations of 
the time, and allowed them to flourish side by side. 

The most brilliant time for Sicily as a power in the world 
begins with the coming of the Normans. Never before or after 
was the island so united or so independent. Some of 
the old tyrants had ruled out of Sicily; none had 



Norman 
conquest. 



ruled over all Sicily. The Normans held all Sicily as 
the centre of a dominion which stretched far beyond it. The 
conquest was the work of one man, Count Roger of the 
house of Hauteville (see Roger I.). The conquests of the 
Normans in Italy and Sicily form part of one enterprise; but 
they altogether differ in character. In Italy they overthrew the 
Byzantine dominion; their own rule was perhaps not worse, 
but they were not deliverers. In Sicily they were welcomed 
by the Christians as deliverers from infidel bondage. 

As in the Saracen conquest of Sicily, as in the Byzantine 
recovery, so in the Norman conquest, the immediate occasion was 
given by a home traitor. Count Roger had already made 
a plundering attack, when Becumen of Catania, driven 
out by his brother, urged him to serious invasion. Messina was 
taken in ro6o, and became for a while the Norman capital. The 



SICILY 



33 



Christians everywhere welcomed the conqueror. But at Troina 
they presently changed their minds, and joined with the Saracens 
to besiege the count in their citadel. At Catania Becumen was 
set up again as Roger's vassal, and he did good service till he 
was killed. Roger soon began to fix his eye on the Saracen 
capital. Against that city he had Pisan help, as the inscription 
on the Pisan duotno witnesses (cf. Geoff. Mai. ii. 34). But 
Palermo was not taken until 1071, and then only by the 
help of Duke Robert, who kept the prize to himself. Still 
its capture was the turning-point in the struggle. Taormina 
(Tauromenium) was won in 1078. Syracuse, under its amir 
Benarvet, held out stoutly. He retook Catania by the help 
of a Saracen to whom Roger had trusted the city, and whom 
he himself punished. Catania was won back by the count's 
son Jordan. But progress was delayed by Jordan's rebellion 
and by the absence of Roger in his brother's wars. In 
1085 Syracuse was won. Next year followed Girgenti and 
Castrogiovanni, whose chief became a Christian. Noto held 
out till 1090. Then the whole island was won, and Roger 
completed his conquest by a successful expedition to Malta. 

Like the condition of the Greeks under the Saracens, so the 
condition of the Saracens under the Normans differed in different 
Saracens places according to the circumstances of each conquest. 
under The Mahommedan religion was everywhere tolerated, 
Norman i n many places much more. But it would seem that, 
™' e " just as under the Moslem rule, conversions from 

Christianity to Islam were forbidden. On the other hand, 
conversions from Islam to Christianity were not always en- 
couraged; Saracen troops were employed from the beginning, 
and Count Roger seems to have thought them more trustworthy 
when unconverted. At Palermo the capitulation secured to 
the Saracens the full enjoyment of their own laws; Girgenti 
was long mainly Saracen; in Val di Noto the Saracens kept 
towns and castles of their own. On the other hand, at Messina 
there were few or none, and we hear of both Saracen and Greek 
villeins, the latter doubtless abiding as they were in Saracen 
times. But men of both races were trusted and favoured accord- 
ing to their deserts. The ecclesiastical relations between Greeks 
and Latins are harder to trace. At the taking of Palermo the 
Greek bishop was restored; but his successors were Latins, and 
Latin prelates were placed in the bishoprics which Count Roger 
founded. Urban II. visited Sicily to promote the union of the 
church, and he granted to the count those special ecclesiastical 
powers held by the counts and kings of Sicily as hereditary 
legates of the Holy See which grew into the famous Sicilian 
monarchy (Geoff. Mai. iv. 29). But Greek worship went on; at 
Messina it lingered till the 15th century (Pirro, Sicilia sacra, 
i. 420, 431, 440), as it has been since brought back by the 
Albanian colonists. But the Greeks of Sicily have long been 
united Greeks, admitting the authority of the see of Rome. 

In its results the Norman conquest of Sicily was a Latin 

conquest far more thorough than that which had been made 

by the Roman commonwealth. The Norman princes 

Linguistic protected all the races, creeds and tongues of the 

mSicUr island, Greek, Saracen and Jew. But new races came 

to settle alongside of them, all of whom were Latin 

as far as their official speech was concerned. The Normans 

brought the French tongue with them; it remained the 

court speech during the 12th century, and Sicily was thrown 

open to all speakers of French, many of whom came from 

England. There was constant intercourse between the two 

great islands, both ruled by Norman kings, and many natives of 

England filled high places in Sicily. But French was only a 

language of society, not of business or literature. The languages 

of inscriptions and documents are Greek, Arabic and Latin, in 

private writings sometimes Hebrew. The kings understood 

Greek and Arabic, and their deeds and works were commemorated 

in both tongues. Hence comes the fact, at first sight so strange, 

that Greek, Arabic and French have all given way to a dialect 

of Italian. But the cause is not far to seek. The Norman 

conquest opened Sicily to settlers from Italy, above all from 

the Norman possessions in Italy. Under the name of Lombards, 

xxv. 2 



they became an important, in some parts a dominant, element. 
Thus at Messina, where we hear nothing of Saracens, we hear 
much of the disputes between Greeks and Lombards. The 
Lombards had hardly a distinct language to bring with them. 
At the time of the conquest, it was already found out that French 
had become a distinct speech from Latin; Italian hardly was 
such. The Lombard element, during the Norman reign, shows 
itself, not in whole documents or inscriptions, but in occasional 
words and forms, as in some of the mosaics at Monreale. And, 
if any element, Latin or akin to Latin, had lingered on through 
Byzantine and Saracen rule, it would of course be attracted to 
the new Latin element, and would help to strengthen it. It 
was this Lombard element that had the future before it. Greek 
and Arabic were antiquated, or at least isolated, in a land which 
Norman conquest had made part of western Europe and Latin 
Christendom. They could grow only within the island; they 
could gain no strength from outside. Even the French element 
was in some sort isolated, and later events made it more so. But 
the Lombard element was constantly strengthened by settlement 
from outside. In the older Latin conquest, the Latin carried 
Greek with him, and the Greek element absorbed the Latin. 
Latin now held in western Europe the place which Greek had 
held there. Thus, in the face of Italian, both Greek and Arabic 
died out. Step by step, Christian Sicily became Latin in speech 
and in worship. But this was not till the Norman reigns were 
over. Till the end of the 12th century Sicily was the one land 
where men of divers creeds and tongues could live side by side. 

Hence came both the short-lived brilliancy of Sicily and its 
later decay. In Sicily there were many nations all protected 
by the Sicilian king; but there was no Sicilian nation. Greek, 
Saracen, Norman, Lombard and Jew could not be fused into 
one people; it was the boast of Sicily that each kept his laws 
and tongue undisturbed. Such a state of things could live on 
only under an enlightened despotism; the discordant elements 
could not join to work out really free and national institutions. 
Sicily had parliaments, and some constitutional principles 
were well understood. But they were assemblies of barons, 
or at most of barons and citizens; they could only have repre- 
sented the Latin elements, Norman and Lombard, in the island. 
The elder races, Greek and Saracen, stand outside the relations 
between the Latin king and his Latin subjects. Still, as long 
as Greek and Saracen were protected and favoured, so long 
was Sicily the most brilliant of European kingdoms. But its 
greatness had no groundwork of national life; for lack of it 
the most brilliant of kingdoms presently sank below the level 
of other lands. 

Four generations only span the time from the birth of Count 
Roger, about 1030, to the death of the emperor Frederick II. 
in 1250. Roger, great count of Sicily, was, at his 
death in 1101, succeeded by his young son Simon, 
and he in 1105 by the second Roger, the first king. He inherited 
all Sicily, save half Palermo — the other half had been given up — ■ 
and part of Calabria. The rest of Palermo was soon granted; 
the Semitic capital became the abiding head of Sicily. On the 
death of his cousin Duke William of Apulia, Roger gradually 
founded (1127-1140) a great Italian dominion. To the Apulian 
duchy he added (1136) the Norman principality of Capua, 
Naples (1138), the last dependency of the Eastern empire in 
Italy, and (1140) the Abruzzi, an undoubted land of the Western 
empire. He thus formed a dominion which has been divided, 
united and handed over from one prince to another oftener than 
any other state in Europe, but whose frontier has hardly changed 
at all. In 1130 Roger was crowned at Palermo, by authority 
of the antipope Anacletus, taking the strange title of " king of 
Sicily and Italy." This, on his reconciliation with Pope Innocent 
II., he exchanged for " king of Sicily and of the duchy of Apulia 
and of the principality of Capua." By virtue of the old relations 
between the popes and the Normans of Apulia, he held his 
kingdom in fief of the Holy See, a position which on the whole 
strengthened the royal power. But his power, like that of 
Dionysius and Agathqcles, was felt in more distant regions. 
His admiral George of Antioch, Greek by birth and creed, warre-_ 

11 



Roger 1. 



34 



SICILY 



Tancred. 



against the Eastern empire, won Corfu (Korypho; the name of 

Korkyra is forgotten) for a season, and carried off the silk-workers 

from Thebes and Peloponnesus to Sicily. But Manuel Comnenus 

ruled in the East, and, if Roger threatened Constantinople, 

Manuel threatened Sicily. In Africa the work of Agathocles was 

more than renewed; Mahdia and other points were won and kept 

as long as Roger lived. These exploits won him the name of 

the " terror of Greeks and Saracens." To the Greeks, and still 

more to the Saracens, of his own island he was a protector and 

something more. His love for mathematical science, geography, 

&c, in which the Arabs excelled, is noteworthy. 

Roger's son William, surnamed the Bad, was crowned in his 

father's lifetime in 1151. Roger died in n 54, and William's 

,,„.., , sole reign lasted till 1 166. It was a time of domestic re- 

Willlaml. ,...,.„ , , . . , 

and 11. belhons, chiefly against the king s unpopular ministers, 

and it is further marked by the loss of Roger's African 
conquests. After William the Bad came (1166-1189) his son 
William the Good. Unlike as were the two men in themselves, 
in their foreign policy they are hardly to be distinguished. The 
Bad William has a short quarrel with the pope; otherwise 
Bad and Good alike appear as zealous supporters of Alexander 
III. and as enemies of both empires. The Eastern warfare of the 
Good is stained by the frightful sack of Thessalonica; it is 
marked also by the formation of an Eastern state under Sicilian 
supremacy (1186). Corfu, the possession of Agathocles and 
Roger, with DurazzO, Cephalonia and Zante, was granted by 
William to his admiral Margarito with the strange title of king 
of the Epeirots. He founded a dynasty, though not of kings, 
in Cephalonia and Zante. Corfu and Durazzo were to be more 
closely connected with the Sicilian crown. 

The brightest days of Sicily ended with William the Good. 
His marriage with Joanna, daughter of Henry of Anjou and 

England, was childless, and William tried to procure 

the succession of his aunt Constance and her husband, 
King Henry VI. of Germany, son of the emperor Frederick I. 
But the prospect of German rule was unpopular, and on William's 
death the crown passed to Tancred, an illegitimate grandson 
of King Roger, who figures in English histories in the story of 
Richard III.'s crusade. In 1191 Henry, now emperor, asserted 
his claims; but, while Tancred lived, he did little, in Sicily 
nothing, to enforce them. On the death of Tancred (11 94) 
and the accession of his young son William III., the emperor 
came and conquered Sicily and the Italian possessions, with 

an amount of cruelty which outdid any earlier war or 
/ft m revolution. First of four Western emperors who wore 

the Sicilian crown, Henry died in 1197, leaving the 
kingdom to his young son Frederick, heir of the Norman kings 
through his mother. 

The great days of the Norman conquest and the Norman 
reigns have been worthily recorded by contemporary historians. 
For few times have we richer materials. The oldest is Aim6 
or Amato of Monte Cassino, who exists only in an Old-French 
translation. We have also for the Norman conquest the halting 
hexameters of William of Apulia, and for the German conquest 
the lively and partial verses of Peter of Eboli. 1 Of prose writers 
we have Geoffrey Malaterra, Alexander abbot of Telesia, Romuald 
archbishop of Salerno, Falco of Benevento, and above all Hugo 
Falcandus, one of the very foremost of medieval writers. Not 
one of these Latin writers was a native of the island, and we have 
no record from any native Greek. Occasional notices we of 
course have in the Byzantine writers, and Archbishop Eustathius's 
account of the taking of Thessalonica is more than occasional. 
And the close connexion between Sicily and England leads to 
many occasional references to Sicilian matters in English writers. 
The relations between the various races of the islands are most 
instructive. The strong rule of Roger kept all in order. He 
called himself the defender of Christians; others, on account 
of his favour to the Saracens, spoke of him as a pagan. He 
certainly encouraged Saracen art and literature in every shape. 

1 Petri Ansolini de Ebulo de rebus Siculis carmen (republished in 
the new edition of Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, by 
E. Rota, torn, xxxi., Citta di Castello, 1904). 



His court was full of eunuchs, of whom we hear still more under 
William the Bad. Under William the Good the Saracens, 
without any actual oppression, seem to be losing their position. 
Hitherto they had been one element in the land, keeping their 
own civilization alongside of others. By a general outbreak 
on the death of William the Good, the Saracens, especially those 
of Palermo, were driven to take shelter in the mountains, where 
they sank into a wild people, sometimes holding points of the 
island against all rulers, sometimes taking military service under 
them. The Jews too begin to sink into bondmen. Sicily is 
ceasing to be the land of many nations living side by side on 
equal terms. 

The Germans who helped Henry to win the Sicilian crown 
did not become a new element in the island, but only a source 
of confusion during the minority of his son. Frederick 
— presently to be the renowned emperor Frederick II., ^, mi *?"!£ t 
" Fridericus stupor mundi et immutator mirabilis " — w _ 
was crowned at Palermo in n 98; but the child, 
deprived of both parents, was held to be under the protection 
of his lord Pope Innocent III. During his minority the land was 
torn in pieces by turbulent nobles, revolted Saracens, German 
captains seeking settlements, the maritime cities of Italy, and 
professed French deliverers. In 12 10 the emperor Otto IV., 
who had overrun the continental dominions, threatened the 
island. In 121 2, just when Frederick was reaching an age to be 
of use in his own kingdom, he was called away to dispute the 
crown of Germany and Rome with Otto. Eight years more of 
disorder followed; in 1220 the emperor-king came back. He 
brought the Saracens of the mountains back again to a life in 
plains and cities, and presently planted a colony of them > on the 
mainland at Nocera, when they became his most trusty soldiers. 
His necessary absences from Sicily led to revolts. He came back 
in 1233 from his crusade to suppress a revolt of the eastern 
cities, which seem to have been aiming at republican indepen- 
dence. A Saracen revolt in 1243 is said to have been followed 
by a removal of the whole remnant to Nocera. Some, however, 
certainly stayed or came back; but their day was over. 

Under Frederick the Italian or Lombard element finally 
prevailed in Sicily. Of all his kingdoms Sicily was the 
best-beloved. He spoke all its tongues; he protected, 
as far as circumstances would allow, all its races. The 
heretic alone was persecuted; he was the domestic rebel 
Of the church; Saracen and Jew were entitled to the rights 
of foreigners. Yet Frederick, patron of Arabic learning, sus- 
pected even of Moslem belief, failed to check the decline of the 
Saracen element in Sicily. The Greek element had no such 
forces brought against it. It was still a chief tongue of the island, 
in which Frederick's laws were put forth as well as in Latin. 
But it was clearly a declining element. Greek and Saracen were 
both becoming survivals in an island which was but one of the 
many kingdoms of its king. The Italian element advanced at 
the cost of all others. Frederick chose it as the court speech 
of Sicily, and he made it the speech of a new-born literature. 
Sicily, strangely enough, became the cradle of Italian song. 

Two emperors had now held the Sicilian crown. On 
Frederick's death in 1250 the crown passed to his son Conrad, 
not emperor indeed, but king of the Romans. He was 
nominally succeeded by his son Conradin. The real 
ruler under both was Frederick's natural son Manfred. In 1258, 
on a false rumour of the death of Conradin, Manfred was himself 
crowned king of Palermo. He had to found the kingdom afresh. 
Pope Innocent IV. had crossed into Sicily, to take advantage 
of the general discontent. The cities, whose growing liberties 
had been checked by Frederick's legislation, strove for practical, 
if not formal, independence, sometimes for dominion over their 
fellows. The 5th century B.C. seemed to have come back. 
Messina laid waste the lands of Taormina, because Taormina 
would not obey the bidding of Messina. Yet, among these and 
other elements of confusion, Manfred succeeded in setting up 
again the kingly power, first for his kinsmen and then for himself. 
His reign continued that of his father, so far as a mere king 
could continue the reign of such an emperor. The king of Sicily 



SICILY 



35 



was the first potentate of Italy, and came nearer than any prince 
since Louis II. to the union of Italy under Italian rule. He 
sought dominion too beyond the Adriatic: Corfu, Durazzo, and 
a strip of the Albanian coast became Sicilian possessions as the 
dowry of Manfred's Greek wife. But papal enmity was too 
much for him. His overlord claimed to dispose of his crown, 
and hawked it about among the princes of the West. Edmund 
of England bore the Sicilian title for a moment. More came of 
the grant of Urban IV. (1264) to Charles, count of Anjou, and 
through his wife sovereign count of Provence. Charles, 
Aniou* ° crowned by the pope in 1266, marched to take posses- 
sion of his lord's grant. Manfred was defeated and 
slain at Benevento. The whole Sicilian kingdom became the 
spoil of a stranger who was no deliverer to any class of its people. 
The island sank yet lower. Naples, not Palermo, was the head 
of the new power; Sicily was again a province. But a province 
Sicily had no mind to be. In the continental lands Charles 
founded a dynasty; the island he lost after sixteen years. His 
rule was not merely the rule of a stranger king surrounded by 
stranger followers; the degradation of the island was aggravated 
by gross oppression, grosser than in the continental lands. The 
continental lands submitted, with a few slight efforts at resist- 
ance. The final result of the Angevin conquest of Sicily was its 
separation from the mainland. 

Sicilian feeling was first shown in the support given to the 
luckless expedition of Conradin in 1268. Frightful executions 
in the island followed his fall. The rights of the Swabian house 
were now held to pass to Peter (Pedro), king of Aragon, husband 
of Manfred's daughter Constance. The connexion with Spain, 
which has so deeply affected the whole later history of Sicily, 
now begins. Charles held the Greek possessions of Manfred | 
and had designs both on Epeiros and on Constantinople. The 
emperor Michael Palaeologus and Peter of Aragon became allies 
against Charles; the famous John of Procida acted as an agent 
between them; the costs of Charles's eastern warfare caused 
great discontent, especially in an island where some might still 
look to the Greek emperor as a natural deliverer. Peter and 
Michael were doubtless watching the turn of things in Sicily; 
but the tale of a long-hidden conspiracy between them and the 
whole Sicilian people has been set aside by Amari. The actual 
outbreak of 1282, the famous Sicilian Vespers, was stirred up by 
the wrongs of the moment. A gross case of insult offered by a 
Frenchman to a Sicilian woman led to the massacre at Palermo, 
and the like scenes followed elsewhere. The strangers were cut 
off; Sicily was left to its own people. The towns and districts 
left without a ruler by no means designed to throw off the 
authority of the overlord; they sought the good will of Pope 
Martin. But papal interests were on the side of Charles; and 
he went forth with the blessing of the church to win back his 
lost kingdom. 

Angevin oppression had brought together all Sicily in a 
common cause. There was at last a Sicilian nation, a nation 
for a while capable of great deeds. Sicily now stands out as a 
main centre of European politics. But the land has lost its 
character; it is becoming the plaything of powers, instead of 
the meeting-place of nations. The tale, true or false, that 
Frenchmen and Provengals were known from the natives by 
being unable to frame the Italian sound of c shows how 
thoroughly the Lombard tongue had overcome the other tongues 
of the island. In Palermo, once city of threefold speech, a Greek, 
a Saracen, a Norman who spoke his own tongue must have died 
with the strangers. 

Charles was now besieging Messina; Sicily seems to have 
put on some approach to the form of a federal commonwealth. 
Meanwhile Peter of Aragon was watching and pre- 
Aragoa. paring. He now declared himself. To all, except 
the citizens of the great cities, a king would be accept- 
able; Peter was chosen with little opposition in a parliament at 
Palermo, and a struggle of twenty-one years began, of which 
Charles and Peter saw only the first stage. In fact, after Peter 
had helped the Sicilians to relieve Messina, he was very little 
in Sicily; he had to defend his kingdom of Aragon, which Pope 



Frederick. 



Martin had granted to another French Charles. He was repre- 
sented by Queen Constance, and his great admiral Roger de 
Loria kept the war away from Sicily, waging it wholly in Italy, 
and making Charles, the son of King Charles, prisoner. In 1285 
both the rival kings died. Charles had before his death been 
driven to make large legislative concessions to his subjects to 
stop the tendency shown, especially in Naples, to join the 
revolted Sicilians. By Peter's death Aragon and Sicily were 
separated; his eldest son Alphonso took Aragon, and his second 
son James took Sicily, which was to pass to the third j ames 
son Frederick, if James died childless. James was 
crowned, and held his reforming parliament also. With the 
popes no terms could be made. Charles, released in 1288 under 
a deceptive negotiation, was crowned king of Sicily by Honorius 
IV.; but he had much ado to defend his continental dominions 
against James and Roger. In 1291 James succeeded Alphonso 
in the kingdom of Aragon, and left Frederick not king, according 
to the entail, but only his lieutenant in Sicily. 

Frederick was the real restorer of Sicilian independence. He 
had come to the island so young that he felt as a native. He 
defended the land stoutly, even against his brother. 
For James presently played Sicily false. In 1295 he 
was reconciled to the church and released from all French 
claims on Aragon, and he bound himself to restore Sicily to 
Charles. But the Sicilians, with Frederick at their head, dis- 
owned the agreement, and in 1296 Frederick was crowned king. 
He had to defend Sicily against his brother and Roger de Loria, 
who forsook the cause, as did John of Procida. Hitherto the 
war had been waged on the mainland; now it was transferred 
to Sicily. King James besieged Syracuse as admiral of the 
Roman Church; Charles sent his son Robert in 1299 as his 
lieutenant in Sicily, where he gained some successes. But in the 
same year the one great land battle of the war, that of Falconaria, 
was won for Sicily. The war, chiefly marked by another great 
siege of Messina, went on till 1302, when both sides were 
thoroughly weakened and eager for peace. By a treaty, con- 
firmed by Pope Boniface VIII. the next year, Frederick was 
acknowledged as king of Trinacria for life. He was to marry 
the daughter of the king of Sicily, to whom the island kingdom 
was to revert at his death. The terms were never meant to be 
carried out. Frederick again took up the title of king 
of Sicily, and at his death in 1337 he was succeeded 
by his son Peter. There were thus two Sicilian kingdoms and 
two kings of Sicily. The king of the mainland is often spoken 
of for convenience as king of Naples, but that description was 
never borne as a formal title save in the 16th century by Philip, 
king of England and Naples, and in the 19th by Joseph Buona- 
parte and Joachim Murat. The strict distinction was between 
Sicily on this side the Pharos (of Messina) and Sicily beyond it. 

Thus the great island of the Mediterranean again became 
an independent power. And, as far as legislation could make it, 
Sicily became one of the freest countries in Europe. By the 
laws of Frederick parliaments were to be regularly held, and 
without their consent the king could not make war, peace or 
alliance. The treaty of 1302 was not confirmed by parliament, 
and in 1337 parliament called Peter to the crown. But Sicily 
never rose to the greatness of its Greek or its Norman days, 
and its old character had passed away. Of Greeks and Saracens 
we now hear only as a degraded remnant, to be won over, if it 
may be, to the Western Church. The kingdom had no foreign 
possessions; yet faint survivals of the days of Agathocles and 
Roger lingered on. The isle of Gerba off the African coast was 
held for a short time, and traces of the connexion with Greece 
went on in various shapes. If the kings of Sicily on this side the 
Pharos kept Corfu down to 1386, those beyond the Pharos 
became in 13 n overlords of Athens, when that duchy was 
seized by Catalan adventurers, disbanded after the wars of Sicily. 
In 1530 the Sicilian island of Malta became the shelter of the 
Knights of Saint John driven by the Turk from Rhodes, and 
Sicily has received several colonies of Christian Albanians, who 
have replaced Greek and Arabic by yet another tongue. (See 
Naples, Kingdom of.) (E. A. F.; T. As.) 



Peter. 



36 



SICKINGEN— SICULI 



SICKINGEN, FRANZ VON (1481-1523), German knight, one 
of the most notable figures of the first period of the Reformation, 
was born at Ebernburg near Worms. Having fought for the 
emperor Maximilian I. against Venice in 1508, he inherited large 
estates on the Rhine, and increased his wealth and reputation by 
numerous private feuds, in which he usually posed as the friend 
of the oppressed. In 15 13 he took up the quarrel of Balthasar 
Schlor, a citizen who had been driven out of Worms, and attacked 
this city with 7000 men. In spite of the imperial ban, he devas- 
tated its lands, intercepted its commerce, and only desisted 
when his demands were granted. He made war upon Antony, 
duke of Lorraine, and compelled Philip, landgrave of Hesse, 
to pay him 35,000 gulden. In 1518 he interfered in a civil 
conflict in Metz, ostensibly siding with the citizens against the 
governing oligarchy. He led an army of 20,000 men against the 
city, compelled the magistrates to give him 20,000 gold gulden 
and a month's pay for his troops. In 1518 Maximilian released 
him from the ban, and he took part in the war carried on by the 
Swabian League against Ulrich I., duke of Wurttemberg. In the 
contest for the imperial throne upon the death of Maximilian in 
1519, Sickingen accepted bribes from Francis I., king of France, 
but when the election took place he led his troops to Frankfort, 
where their presence assisted to secure the -election of Charles V. 
For this service he was made imperial chamberlain and councillor, 
and in 15 21 he led an expedition into France, which ravaged 
Picardy, but was beaten back from Mezieres and forced to 
retreat. About 151 7 Sickingen became intimate with Ulrich 
von Hutten, and gave his support to Hutten's schemes. In 
1 519 a threat from him freed John Reuchlin from his enemies, 
the Dominicans, and his castles became in Hutten's words a refuge 
for righteousness. Here many of the reformers found shelter, 
and a retreat was offered to Martin Luther. After the failure 
of the French expedition, Sickingen, aided by Hutten, formed, 
or revived, a large scheme to overthrow the spiritual princes 
and to elevate the order of knighthood. He hoped to secure this 
by the help of the towns and peasants, and to make a great 
position for himself. A large army was soon collected, many 
nobles from the upper Rhineland joined the standard, and 
at Landau, in August 1522, Sickingen was formally named 
commander. He declared war against his old enemy, Richard of 
Greiffenklau, archbishop of Trier, and marched against that 
city. Trier was loyal to the archbishop, and the landgrave of 
Hesse and Louis V., count palatine of the Rhine, hastened to his 
assistance. Sickingen, who had not obtained the help he wished 
for, was compelled to fall back on his castle of Landstuhl, near 
Kaiserslautern, collecting much booty on the way. On the 
22nd of October 1522 the council of regency placed him under 
the ban, to which he replied, in the spring of 1523, by plundering 
Kaiserslautern. The rulers of Trier, Hesse and the Palatinate 
decided to press the campaign against him, and having obtained 
help from the Swabian League, marched on Landstuhl. Sickingen 
refused to treat, and during the siege was seriously wounded. 
This attack is notable as one of the first occasions on which 
artillery was used, and by its aid breaches were soon made in an 
otherwise impregnable fortress. On the 6th of May 1523 he was 
forced to capitulate, and on the following day he died. He was 
buried at Landstuhl, and in 1889 a splendid monument was 
raised at Ebernburg to his memory and to that of Hutten. 

His son Franz Conrad was made a baron of the empire {Reichs- 
freiherr) by Maximilian II., and a descendant was raised in 1773 
to the rank of count (Reichsgraf). A branch of the family still 
exists in Austria and Silesia. 

See H. Ulmann, Franz von Sickingen (Leipzig, 1872); F. P. 
Bremer, Sickingens Fehde gegen Trier (Strassburg, 1885); H. Prutz, 
" Franz von Sickingen " in Der neue Plutarch (Leipzig, 1880), and the 
" Flersheimer Chronik " in Hutten's Deutsche Schriften, edited by 
O. Waltz und Szaraatolati (Strassburg, 1891). 

SICKLES, DANIEL EDGAR (1825- ), American soldier 
and diplomatist, was born in New York City on the 20th of 
October 1825. He learned the printer's trade, studied in the 
university of the City of New York (now New York University) , 
was admitted to the bar in 1846, and was a member of the state 
Assembly in 1847. In 1853 he became corporation counsel of 



New York City, but resigned soon afterward to become secretary 
of the U.S. legation in London, under James Buchanan. He 
returned to America in 1855, was a member of the state Senate 
in 1856-1857, and from 1857 to 1861 was a Democratic repre- 
sentative in Congress. In 1859 he was tried on a charge of 
murder, having shot Philip Barton Key, U.S. attorney for the 
District of Columbia, whom Sickles had discovered to have a 
liaison with his wife; but was acquitted after a dramatic trial 
lasting twenty days. At the outbreak of the Civil War Sickles 
was active in raising United States volunteers in New York, and 
was appointed colonel of a regiment. He became a brigadier- 
general of volunteers in September 1 86,1 , led a brigade of the Army 
of the Potomac with credit up to the battle of Antietam, and then 
succeeded to a divisional command. He took part with dis- 
tinction in the battle of Fredericksburg, and in 1863 as a major- 
general commanded the III. army corps. His energy and 
ability were conspicuous in the disastrous battle of Chancellors- 
ville Iq.v.); and at Gettysburg (q.v.) the part played by the III. 
corps in the desperate fighting around the Peach Orchard was one 
of the most noteworthy incidents in the battle. Sickles himself 
lost a leg and his active military career came to an end. He was, 
however, employed to the end of the war, and in 1867 received the 
brevets of brigadier-general U.S.A. and major-general U.S.A. 
for his services at Fredericksburg and Gettysburg respectively. 
General Sickles was one of the few successful volunteer generals 
who served on either side. Soon after the close of the Civil War 
he was sent on a confidential mission to Colombia to secure its 
compliance with a treaty agreement (of 1846) permitting the 
United States to convey troops across the Isthmus of Panama. 
In 1 866- 1 86 7 he commanded the department of the Carolinas. 
In 1866 he was appointed colonel of the 42nd infantry (Veteran 
Reserve Corps), and in 1869 he was retired with the rank of 
major-general. He was minister to Spain from 1869 to 1873, and 
took part in the negotiations growing out of the " Virginius 
Affair " (see Santiago, Cuba). General Sickles was president of 
the New York State Board of Civil Service Commissioners in 
1888-1889, was sheriff of New York in 1890, and was again a 
representative in Congress in 1893- 189 5. 

SICULI, an ancient Sicilian tribe, which in historical times 
occupied the eastern half of the island to which they gave their 
name. It plays a large though rather shadowy part in the early 
traditions of pre-Roman Italy. There is abundant evidence that 
the Siculi once lived in Central Italy east and even north of 
Rome {e.g. Servius ad Aen. vii. 795; Dion. Hal. i. 9. 22;Thucy- 
dides vi. 2). Thence they were dislodged by the Umbro-Safine 
tribes, and finally crossed to Sicily. Archaeologists are not yet 
agreed as to the particular stratum of remains in Italy to which 
the name of the Siculi should be attached (see for instance 
B. Modestov, Introduction a Vhistoire romaine, Paris, 1907, 
pp. 135 sqq.). They were distinct from the Sicani {q.v.; Virg. 
Aen. viii. 328) who inhabited the western half of the island, 
and who according to Thucydides came from Spain, but whom 
Virgil seems to recognize in Italy. Both traditions may be true 
(cf. W. Ridgeway, Who were the Romans? London, 1908, p. 23). 
Of the language of the Siculi we know a very little from glosses 
preserved to us by ancient writers, most of which were collected 
by E. A. Freeman {Sicily, vol. i. App. note iv.), and from an 
inscription upon what is presumably an ornamental earthen- 
ware wine vessel, which has very much the shape of a tea-pot, 
preserved and transcribed by R. S. Conway in the Collection of 
the Grand Duke of Baden at Karlsruhe (Winnefeld, Grossherzogl. 
vereinigte Sammlungen, 1887, 120), which has been discussed by 
R. Thurneysen (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxxv. 214). The inscription 
was found at Centuripa, and the alphabet is Greek of the 5th or 
6th century B.C. We have not enough evidence to make a 
translation possible, despite Thurneysen's valiant effort, but the 
recurrence of the phrase hemiton esti durom in a varied order 
{durom hemiton esti) — presumably a drinking song or proverb, 
" half a cup is sorry cheer,''' though it is possible that the sign 
read as m may really denote some kind of 5 — makes the division 
of these three words quite certain, and renders it highly probable 
that we have to do with an Indo-European language. None of 



SICYON— SIDDONS 



37 



the groups of sounds occurring in the rest of the inscription, 
nor any of the endings of words so far as they may be guessed, 
present any reason for doubting this hypothesis; and the glosses 
already mentioned can one and all be easily connected with Greek 
or Latin words (e.g. poirov, mutuum) ; in fact it would be 
difficult to rebut the contention that they should all be regarded 
as mere borrowings. (R. S. C.) 

The towns of the Siculi, like those of the Sicani, formed no 
political union, but were under independent rulers. They played 
an important part in the history of the island after the arrival of 
the Greeks (see Sicily). Their agricultural pursuits and the 
volcanic nature of the island made them worshippers of the gods 
of the nether world, and they have enriched mythology with 
some distinctly national figures. The most important of these 
were the Palici, protectors of agriculture and sailors, who had a 
lake and temple in the neighbourhood of the river Symaethus, 
the chief seat of the Siceli; Adranus, father of the Palici, a god 
akin to Hephaestus, in whose temple a fire was always kept 
burning; Hybla (or Hyblaea), after whom three towns were 
named, whose sanctuary was at Hybla Gereatis. The connexion 
of Demeter and Kore with Henna (the rape of Proserpine) and of 
Arethusa with Syracuse is due to Greek influence. The chief 
Sicel towns were: Agyrium (San Filippo d' Argird); Centuripa 
(or Centuripae; Centorbi); Henna (Castrogiovanni, a corruption 
of Castrum Hennae through the Arabic Casr-janni) ; Hybla, 
three in number, (a) Hybla Major, called Geleatis or Gereatis, on 
the river Symaethus, probably the Hybla famous for its honey, 
although according to others this was (b) Hybla Minor, on the E. 
coast N. of Syracuse, afterwards the site of the Dorian colony of 
Megara, (c) Hybla Heraea in the S. of the island. 

For authorities see Sicily. 

SICYON, or Secyon (the latter being the older form used by 
the natives), an ancient Greek city situated in northern Pelopon- 
nesus between Corinthia and Achaea. It was built on a low 
triangular plateau about 2 m. from the Corinthian Gulf, at the 
confluence of the Asopus and the Helisson, whose sunken beds 
protected it on E. and W. Between the city and its port lay a 
fertile plain with olive-groves and orchards. Sicyon's primitive 
name Aegialeia indicates that its original population was Ionian ; 
in the Iliad it appears as a dependency of Agamemnon, and its 
early connexion with Argos is further proved by the myth and 
surviving cult of Adrastus. After the Dorian invasion the com- 
munity was divided anew into the ordinary three Dorian tribes 
and an equally privileged tribe of Ionians, besides which a class 
of Kopvvij(j>6poL or Ka.Twva.Ko4>6poi lived on the land as serfs. For 
some centuries Sicyon remained subject to Argos, whence its 
Dorian conquerors had come; as late as 500 B.C. it acknowledged 
a certain suzerainty. But its virtual independence was estab- 
lished in the 7th century, when a line of tyrants arose and initiated 
an anti-Dorian policy. This dynasty, known after its founder 
Orthagoras as the Orthagoridae, exercised a mild rule, and there- 
fore lasted longer than any other succession of Greek tyrants 
(about 665-565 B.C.). Chief of these rulers was the founder's 
grandson Cleisthenes — the uncle of the Athenian legislator of that 
name (see Cleisthenes, 2). Besides reforming the city's con- 
stitution to the advantage of the Ionians and replacing Dorian 
cults by the worship of Dionysus, Cleisthenes gained renown as 
the chief instigator and general of the First Sacred War (590) 
in the interests of the Delphians. From Herodotus' famous 
account of the wooing of Agariste it may be inferred that he 
held intercourse with many commercial centres of Greece and 
south Italy. About this time Sicyon developed the various 
industries for which it was noted in antiquity. As the abode of 
the sculptors Dipoenus and Scyllis it gained pre-eminence in wood- 
carving and bronze work such as is still to be seen in the archaic 
metal facings found at Olympia. Its pottery, which resembled 
the Corinthian ware, was exported with the latter as far as 
Etruria. In Sicyon also the art of painting was supposed to have 
been " invented." After the fall of the tyrants their institutions 
survived till the end of the 6th century, when the Dorian supre- 
macy was re-established, perhaps by the agency of Sparta, and 
the city was enrolled in the Peloponnesian League. Henceforth 



its policy was usually determined either by Sparta or by its 
powerful neighbour Corinth. During the Persian wars Sicyon 
could place 3000 heavy-armed men in the field; its school of 
bronze sculptors still flourished, and produced in Canachus (?.».) 
a master of the late archaic style. In the 5th century it suffered 
like Corinth from the commercial rivalry of Athens in the western 
seas, and was repeatedly harassed by flying squadrons of Athenian 
ships. In the Peloponnesian war Sicyon followed the lead of 
Sparta and Corinth. When these two powers quarrelled after the 
peace of Nicias it remained loyal to the Spartans; but the 
latter thought it prudent to stiffen the oligarchic government 
against a nascent democratic movement. Again in the Corinthian 
war Sicyon sided with Sparta and became its base of operations 
against the allied troops round Corinth. In 369 it was captured 
and garrisoned by the Thebans in their successful attack on the 
Peloponnesian League. On this occasion a powerful citizen 
named Euphron effected a democratic revolution and established 
himself tyrant by popular support. His deposition by the 
Thebans and subsequent murder freed Sicyon for a season, but 
new tyrants arose with the help of Philip II. of Macedon. Never- 
theless during this period Sicyon reached its zenith as a centre 
of art: its school of painting gained fame under Eupompus 
and attracted the great masters Pamphilus and Apelles as 
students; its sculpture was raised to a level hardly surpassed in 
Greece by Lysippus and his pupils. After participating in the 
Lamian war and the campaigns of the Macedonian pretenders the 
city was captured (303) by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who trans- 
planted all the inhabitants to the Acropolis and renamed the site 
Demetrias. In the 3rd century it again passed from tyrant to 
tyrant, until in 251 it was finally liberated and enrolled in the 
Achaean League by Aratus (g.v.). The destruction of Corinth 
(146.) brought Sicyon an acquisition of territory and the presidency 
over the Isthmian games; yet in Cicero's time it had fallen deep 
into debt. Under the empire it was quite obscured by the re- 
stored cities of Corinth and Patrae; in Pausanias' age (a.d. 150) 
it was almost desolate. In Byzantine times it became a bishop's 
seat, and to judge by its later name" Hellas " it served as a refuge 
for the Greeks from the Slavonic immigrants of the 8th century. 

The village of Vasiliko which now occupies the site is quite 
insignificant. On the plateau parts of the ancient fortifications 
are still visible, including the wall between town and Acropolis 
near the southern apex. A little north of this wall are remains 
of a theatre and stadium, traces of aqueducts and foundations 
of buildings. The theatre, which was excavated by the American 
School of Archaeology in 1886-1887, 1891 and 1898, was built in 
the slope towards the Acropolis, probably in the first half of the 
4th century, and measured 400 ft. in diameter; the stage was 
rebuilt in Roman times. The side entrances to the auditorium 
were covered in with vaults of Greek construction; a curious 
feature is a tunnel from below the stage into the middle of the 
auditorium. 

Authorities. — Strabo, pp. 382, 389; Herodotus v. 67-68, vi. 92, 
ix. 28; Thucydides i. 108, in; iv. 70, 101; v. 52, 82; Xenophon, 
Hellenica, iv., vi., vii. ; Diodorus xviii. n, xx. 102; Pausanias 
ii. 5-1 1 ; W. M. Leake, Travels in the Morea (London, 1830), iii. 
PP- 351-381; E. Curtius, Peloponnesos (Gotha, 1851), ii. pp. 
482-505; American Journal of Archaeology, v. (1889) pp. 267-303, 
viii. (1893) pp. 288-400, xx. (1905) pp. 263-276; L. Dyer in the 
Journal of Hellenic Studies (1906), pp. 76-83; for coins, B. V. Head, 
Historia numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 345-346; also Numis- 
matics, section Greek, § " Patrae, Sicyon." (M. O. B. C.) 

SIDDONS, SARAH (1755-1831), English actress, the eldest 
of twelve children of Roger Kemble, was born in the 
" Shoulder of Mutton " public-house, Brecon, Wales, on the 5th 
of July 1755. Through the special care of her mother in sending 
her to the schools in the towns where the company played, 
Sarah Kemble received a remarkably good education, although 
she was accustomed to make her appearance on the stage while 
still a child. She became attached to William Siddons, an 
actor of the company; but this was discountenanced by her 
parents, who wished her to accept the offer of a squire. Siddons 
was dismissed from the company, and she was sent to a situation 
as lady's maid to Mrs Greathead at Guy's Cliff in Warwickshire. 
Here she recited Shakespeare, Milton and Rowe in the servants' 



38 



SIDE— SIDEBOARD 



hall, and occasionally before aristocratic company, and here also 
she began to develop a capacity for sculpture which was sub- 
sequently developed (between 1789 and 1790), and of which 
she provided samples in busts of herself and of her son. The 
necessary consent to her union with Siddons was at last obtained, 
and the marriage took place at Trinity Church, Coventry, on the 
26th of November 1773. It was while playing at Cheltenham 
in the following year that Mrs Siddons met with the earliest 
decided recognition of her powers as an actress, when by her 
representation of Belvidera in Otway's Venice Preserved she 
moved to tears a party of " people of quality " who had come 
to scoff. Her merits were made known by them to Garrick, who 
sent his deputy to Cheltenham to see her as Calista in Rowe's 
Fair Penitent, the result being that she was engaged to appear 
at Drury Lane at a salary of £5 a week. Owing to inex- 
perience as well as other circumstances, her first appearances as 
Portia and in other parts were unfortunate, and when, after 
playing with success in Birmingham, she was about to return to 
town she received a note from the manager of Drury Lane stating 
that her services would not be required. Thus, in her own words, 
" banished from Drury Lane as a worthless candidate for fame 
and fortune," she again in the beginning of 1777 went on " the 
circuit " in the provinces. After a very successful engagement at 
Bath, beginning in 1778 and lasting five years, she again accepted 
an offer from Drury Lane, when her appearance as Isabella in 
Garrick's version of Southerne's Fatal Marriage, on the 10th of 
October 1782, was a triumph, only equalled in the history of the 
English stage by that of Garrick's first night at Drury Lane in 
1 741 and that of Edmund Kean's in 1814. In her earlier years 
it was in scenes of a tender and melting character that she 
exercised the strongest sway over an audience; but in the 
performance of Lady Macbeth, in which she appeared on the 
2nd of February 1785 for the first time in London, it was the 
grandeur of her exhibition of the more terrible passions as related 
to one awful purpose that held them spellbound. In Lady 
Macbeth she found the highest and best scope for her gifts. 
It fitted her as no other character did, and as perhaps it will never 
fit another actress. Her extraordinary and peculiar physical 
endowments — tall and striking figure, brilliant beauty, power- 
fully expressive eyes, and solemn dignity of demeanour — en- 
abled her to confer a weird majesty on the character which in- 
expressibly heightened the tragic awe surrounding her fate. 
After Lady Macbeth she played Desdemona, Rosalind and 
Ophelia, all with great success; but it was in Queen Catherine 
— which she first played on the occasion of her brother John 
Kemble's spectacular revival of Henry VIII. in 1788 — that she 
discovered a part almost as well adapted to her peculiar powers 
as that of Lady Macbeth. As Volumnia in Kemble's version of 
Coriolanus she also secured a triumph. In her early life she had 
attempted comedy, but her gifts in this respect were very limited. 
It was of course inevitable that comparisons should be made 
between her and her only peer, Rachel, who undoubtedly 
excelled her in intensity and the portrayal of fierce passion, but 
was a less finished artist and lacked Mrs Siddons' dignity and 
pathos. Though Mrs Siddons' minute and systematic study 
perhaps gave a certain amount of stiffness to her representations, 
it conferred on them a symmetry and proportion to which 
Rachel never attained. Mrs Siddons formally retired from the 
stage in 181 2, but occasionally appeared on special occasions even 
when advanced in years. Her last appearance was on the 9th of 
June 1819 as Lady Randolph in Home's Douglas, for the benefit 
of Mr and Mrs Charles Kemble. Her most striking impersona- 
tions, besides the roles already mentioned, were those of Zara in 
Congreve's Mourning Bride, Constance in King John, Mrs 
Haller in The Stranger, and Elvira in Pizarro. In private life 
Mrs Siddons enjoyed the friendship and respect of many of the 
most eminent" persons of her time. Horace Walpole at first 
refused to join the fashionable chorus of her praise, but he was 
ultimately won over. Dr Johnson wrote his name on the hem 
of her garment in the famous picture of the actress as the Tragic 
Muse by Reynolds (now in the Dulwich Gallery). " I would not 
lose," he said, " the honour this opportunity afforded to me for 



my name going down to posterity on the hem of your garment." 
Mrs Siddons died in London on the 8th of June 1831, and was 
buried in Paddington churchyard. 

On the 14th of June 1897 Sir Henry Irving unveiled at Pad- 
dington Green a marble statue of her by Chavalliaud, after the 
portrait by Reynolds. There is also a large statue by Chantrey 
in Westminster Abbey. Portraits by Lawrence and Gains- 
borough are in the National Gallery, and a portrait ascribed to 
Gainsborough is in the Garrick Club, London, which also possesses 
two pictures of the actress as Lady Macbeth by George Henry 
Harlow. 

See Thomas Campbell, Life of Mrs Siddons (2 vols., 1834); Fitz- 
gerald, The Kembles ( 3 vols., 1871); Frances Ann Kemble, Records 
of a Girlhood (3 vols., 1878). 

SIDE (mod. Eski Adalia), an ancient city on the Pamphylian 
coast about 12 m. E. of the mouth of the Eurymedon. Possessing 
a good harbour in the days of small craft, it was the most im- 
portant place in Pamphylia. Alexander visited and occupied it, • 
and there the Rhodian fleet defeated that of Antiochus the Great, 
and in the succeeding century the Cilician pirates established 
their chief seat. An inscription found on the site shows it to 
have had a considerable Jewish population in early Byzantine 
times. The great ruins, among the most notable in Asia Minor, 
have been re-occupied by some 200 families of Cretan Moslems. 
They cover a large promontory, fenced from the mainland by a 
ditch and wall which has been repaired in medieval times and is 
singularly perfect. Within this is a maze of structures out of 
which rises the colossal ruin of the theatre, built up on arches 
like a Roman amphitheatre for lack of a convenient hill-side 
to be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion. The auditorium 
is little less perfect than that of Aspendus and very nearly as 
large; but the scena wall has collapsed over stage and proscenium 
in a cataract of loose blocks. The arches now afford shelter and 
stabling for the Cretans. Besides the theatres, three temples, 
an aqueduct and a nymphaeum are noticeable. 

See C. Lanckorouski, Les Villes de la Pamphylie et de la Pisidie, i. 
(1890). - (D. G. H.) 

SIDEBOARD, a high oblong table fitted with drawers, cup- 
boards or pedestals, and used for the exposition or storage of 
articles required in the dining-room. Originally it was what 
its name implies — a side-table, to which the modern dinner- 
wagon very closely approximates. Then two- or three-tiered 
sideboards were in use in the Tudor period, and were perhaps the 
ancestors, or collaterals, of the court-cupboard, which in skeleton 
they much resembled. Early in the 18th century they began to 
be replaced by side-tables properly so called. They were one of 
the many revolutions in furniture produced by the introduction 
of mahogany, and those who could not afford the new and costly 
wood used a cheap substitute stained to resemble it In the 
beginning these tables were entirely of wood and comparatively 
slight, but before long it became the fashion to use a marble slab 
instead of a wooden top, which necessitated a somewhat more 
robust construction; here again there was a field for imitation, 
and marble was sometimes replaced by scagliola. Many of the 
sideboard tables of this period were exceedingly handsome, 
with cabriole legs, claw or claw and bill feet, friezes of acanthus, 
much gadrooning and mask pendants. Many such tables came 
from Chippendale's workshops, but although that great genius 
beautified the type he found, he had no influence upon the 
evolution of the sideboard. That evolution was brought about 
by the growth of domestic needs. Save upon its surface, the side- 
board-table offered no accommodation; it usually lacked even 
a drawer. Even, however, in the period of Chippendale's zenith 
separate " bottle cisterns " and " lavatories " for the convenience 
of the butler in washing the silver as the meals proceeded were, 
sparsely no doubt, in use. By degrees it became customary to 
place a pedestal, which was really a cellarette or a plate- warmer, 
at each end of the sideboard-table. One of them would contain 
ice and accommodation for bottles, the other would be a cistern. 
Sometimes a single pedestal would be surmounted by a wooden 
vase lined with metal and filled with water, and fitted with a 
I tap. To whom is due the brilliant inspiration of attaching the 



SIDGWICK— SIDI-BEL-ABBES 



39 



pedestals to the table and creating a single piece of furniture out 
of three components there is nothing to show with certainty. 
It is most probable that the credit is due to Shearer, who unques- 
tionably did much for the improvement of the sideboard; 
Hepplewhite and the brothers Adam distinguished themselves 
in the same field. The pedestals, when incorporated as an integral 
part of the piece, became cupboards and the vases knife-boxes, 
and, with the drawers, which had been occasionally used much 
earlier, the sideboard, in what appears to be its final form, was 
completed. Pieces exist in which the ends have been cut away 
to receive the pedestals. If Shearer and Hepplewhite laid its 
foundations, it was brought to its full floraison by Sheraton. 
By the use of fine exotic woods, the deft employment of satin 
wood and other inlays, and by the addition of gracefully orna- 
mented brass- work at the back, sometimes surmounted by candles 
to light up the silver, Sheraton produced effects of great elegance. 
But for sheer artistic excellence in the components of what 
presently became the sideboard, the Adams stand unrivalled, 
some of their inlay and brass mounts being almost equal to the 
first work of the great French school. By replacing the straight 
outline with a bombe front, Hepplewhite added still further to 
the grace of the late 18th-century sideboard. No art remains 
long at its apogee, and in less than a quarter of a century the 
sideboard lost its grace, and, influenced by the heavy feeling of 
the Empire manner, grew massive and dull. Since the end of 
the 1 8th century there has indeed been no advance, artistically 
speaking, in this piece of furniture. 

SIDGWICK, HENRY (1838-1900), English philosopher, was 
born at Skipton in Yorkshire, where his father, the Rev. W. 
Sidgwick (d. 1841), was headmaster of the grammar-school, on 
the 31st of May 1838. He was educated at Rugby (where his 
cousin, subsequently his brother-in-law, E. W. Benson— after- 
wards archbishop) — was a master), and at Trinity, Cambridge, 
where his career was a brilliant one. In 1859 he was senior 
classic, 33rd wrangler, chancellor's medallist and Craven scholar. 
In the same year he was elected to a fellowship at Trinity, and 
soon afterwards appointed to a classical lectureship there. This 
post he held for ten years, but in 1869 exchanged his lectureship 
for one in moral philosophy, a subject to which he had been turn- 
ing his attention more and more. In the same year, finding that 
he could no longer declare himself a member of the Church of 
England, he resigned his fellowship. He retained his lectureship, 
and in 1881 was elected an honorary fellow. In 1874 he published 
his Method of Ethics (6th ed. 1901, containing emendations written 
just before his death), which first won him a reputation outside 
his university. In 1875 he was appointed praelector on moral and 
political philosophy at Trinity, in 1883 he was elected Knight- 
bridge professor of moral philosophy, and in 1885, the religious 
test having been removed, his college once more elected him to a 
fellowship on the foundation. Besides his lecturing and literary 
labours, Sidgwick took an active part in the business of the 
university, and in many forms of social and philanthropic work. 
He was a member of the General Board of Studies from its 
foundation in 1882 till 1899; he was also a member of the Council 
of the Senate of the Indian Civil Service Board and the Local 
Examinations and Lectures Syndicate, and chairman of the 
Special Board for Moral Science. He was one of the founders and 
first president of the Society for Psychical Research, and was a 
member of the Metaphysical Society. None of his work is more 
closely identified with his name than the part he took in pro- 
moting the higher education of women. He helped to start the 
higher local examinations for women, and the lectures held at 
Cambridge in preparation for these. It was at his suggestion and 
with his help that Miss Clough opened a house of residence for 
students; and when this had developed into Newnham College, 
and in 1880 the North Hall was added, Mr Sidgwick, who had 
in 1876 married Eleanor Mildred Balfour (sister of A. J. Balfour), 
went with his wife to live there for two years. After Miss Clough's 
death in 1892 Mrs Sidgwick became principal of the college, 
and she and her husband resided there for the rest of his life. 
During this whole period Sidgwick took the deepest interest in 
the welfare of the college. In politics he was a Liberal, and 



became a Liberal Unionist in 1886. Early in 1900 he was forced 
by ill-health to resign his professorship, and he died on the 
28th of August of the same year. 

Though in many ways an excellent teacher he was primarily 
a student, and treated his pupils as fellow-learners. He was 
deeply interested in psychical phenomena, but his energies were 
primarily devoted to the study of religion and philosophy. 
Brought up in the Church of England, he gradually drifted from 
orthodox Christianity, and as early as 1862 he described himself 
as a theist. For the rest of his life, though he regarded Chris- 
tianity as " indispensable and irreplaceable— looking at it from a 
sociological point of view," he found himself unable to return to 
it as a religion. In political economy he was a Utilitarian on 
the lines of Mill and Bentham; his work was the careful investiga- 
tion of first principles and the investigation of ambiguities 
rather than constructive. In philosophy he devoted himself 
to ethics, and especially to the examination of the ultimate . 
intuitive principles of conduct and the problem of free will. 
He gave up the psychological hedonism of Mill, and adopted 
instead a position which may be described as ethical hedonism, 
according to which the criterion of goodness in any given action 
is that it produces the greatest possible amount of pleasure. 
This hedonism, however, is not confined to the self (egoistic), 
but involves a due regard to the pleasure of others, and is, 
therefore, distinguished further as universalistic. Lastly, Sidg- 
wick returns to the principle that no man should act so as to 
destroy his own happiness, and leaves us with a somewhat 
unsatisfactory dualism. 

His chief works are Principles of Political Economy (1883, 3rd ed. 
1901); Scope and Method of Economic Science (1885); Outlines of the 
History of Ethics (1886, 5th ed. 1902), enlarged from his article 
Ethics in the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Elements of Politics (1891, 
2nd ed. 1897), an attempt to supply an adequate treatise on the 
subject starting from the old lines of Bentham and Mill. The 
following were published posthumously: Philosophy; its Scope and 
Relations (1902) ; Lectures on the Ethics of T. H. Green, Mr Herbert 
Spencer and J. Martineau (1902); The Development of European 
Polity (1903) ; Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses (1904) ; Lectures 
on the Philosophy of Kant (1905). 

His younger brother, Arthur Sidgwick, had a brilliant school 
and university career, being second classic at Cambridge in 1863 
and becoming fellow of Trinity; but he devoted himself thence- 
forth mainly to work as a teacher. After being for many years 
a master at Rugby, he became in 1882 fellow and tutor of Corpus, 
Oxford; and from 1894 to 1906 was Reader in Greek in the uni- 
versity. He published a number of admirable classical school- 
books, including Greek Prose (1876) and Greek Verse (1882), 
and texts {Virgil, 1890; Aeschylus, 1880-1903), and was weU 
known as a consummate classical scholar, remarkable for literary 
taste and general culture. In the college life of Corpus he took 
the deepest interest and had the most stimulating influence; 
and he also played an active part in social and political move- 
ments from an advanced Liberal point of view. 

A Memoir of Henry Sidgwick, written by his brother with the 
collaboration of his widow, was published in 1906. 

SIDI-BEL-ABBES, chief town of an arrondissement in the 
department of Oran, Algeria, 48 m. by rail S. of Oran, 1552 ft 
above the sea, on the right bank of the Mekerra. Pop. (1906) ot 
the town, 24,494 (of whom three-fourths are French or Spaniards) ; 
of the commune, 29,088; of the arrondissement, which includes 
17 communes, 98,309. The town, which occupies an important 
strategic position in the plain dominated by the escarpments of 
Mount Tessala, has barrack accommodation for 6000 troops, and 
is the headquarters of the i er regiment etranger, one of the two 
regiments known as the Foreign Legion. It is encircled by a 
crenellated and bastioned wall with a fosse, and has four gates, 
named after Oran, Daia, Mascara and Tlemcen respectively. 
Starting from the gates, two broad streets, shaded by plane trees, 
traverse the town east to west and north to south, the latter 
dividing the civil from the military quarters. There are numerous 
fountains fed by the Mekerra. Sidi-bel-Abbes is also an im- 
portant agricultural centre, wheat, tobacco and alfa being the 
chief articles of trade. There are numerous vineyards and olive- 



4-o 



SIDMOUTH, ist VISCOUNT— SIDNEY, A. 



groves in the vicinity. The town, founded by the French, 
derives its name from the kubba (tomb) of a marabout named 
Sidi-bel- Abbes, near which a redoubt was constructed by General 
Bedeau in 1843. The site of the town, formerly a swamp, has 
been thoroughly drained. The surrounding country is healthy, 
fertile and populous. 

SIDMOUTH, HENRY ADDINGTON, ist Viscount (1757- 
1844), English statesman, son of Dr Anthony Addingtori, 
was born on the 30th of May 1757. Educated at Winchester 
College and Brasenose College, Oxford, he graduated in 1778, 
and took the chancellor's prize for an English essay in 1779. 
Owing to his friendship with William Pitt he turned his attention 
to politics, and after his election as member of parliament for 
Devizes in 1784 gave a silent but steady support to the ministry 
of his friend. By close attention to his parliamentary duties, 
he obtained a wide knowledge of the rules and procedure of the 
House of Commons, and this fact together with his intimacy 
with Pitt, and his general popularity, secured his election as 
Speaker in June 1789. Like his predecessors, Addington con- 
tinued to be a partisan after his acceptance of this office, took 
part at times in debate when the house was in committee; and 
on one occasion his partiality allowed Pitt to disregard the 
authority of the chair. He enjoyed the confidence of George III., 
and in the royal interest tried to induce Pitt to withdraw his 
proposal for a further instalment of relief to Roman Catholics. 
Rather than give way on this question Pitt resigned office early 
in 1801, when both he and the king urged Addington to form 
a government. Addington consented, and after some delay 
caused by the king's illness, and by the reluctance of several 
of. Pitt's followers to serve under him, became first lord of the 
treasury and chancellor of the exchequer in March 1801. The 
new prime minister, who was specially acceptable to George, 
was loyally supported by Pitt; and his first important work, 
the conclusion of the treaty of Amiens in March 1802, made him 
popular in the country. Signs, however, were not wanting that 
the peace would soon be broken, and Pitt, dissatisfied with the 
ministry for ignoring the threatening attitude of Napoleon, and 
making no preparations for a renewal of the war, withdrew his 
support. Addington then took steps to strengthen the forces of 
the crown, and suggested to Pitt that he should join the cabinet 
and that both should serve under a new prime minister. This 
offer was declined, and a similar fate befell Addington's subsequent 
proposal to serve under Pitt. When the struggle with France 
was renewed in May 1803, it became evident that as a war 
minister Addington was not a success; and when Pitt became 
openly hostile, the continued confidence of the king and of a 
majority in the House of Commons was not a sufficient counter- 
poise to the ministry's waning prestige. Although careful and 
industrious, Addington had no brilliant qualities, and his medi- 
ocrity afforded opportunity for attack by his enemies. Owing 
to his father's profession he was called in derision " the doctor," 
and George Canning, who wrote satirical verses at his expense, 
referred to him on one occasion as " happy Britain's guardian 
gander." Without waiting for defeat in the House he resigned 
office in April 1804, and became the leader of the party known 
as the " king's friends." Pitt, who now returned to office, was 
soon reconciled with his old friend; in January 1805 Addington 
was created Viscount Sidmouth, and became lord president of 
the council. He felt aggrieved, however, because his friends 
were not given a larger share of power, and when Pitt complained 
because some of them voted against the ministry, Sidmouth left 
the cabinet in July 1805. In February 1806 he became lord privy 
seal in the ministry of Fox and Grenville, but resigned early in 
1807 when the government proposed to throw open commissions 
in the army and navy to Roman Catholics and Protestant 
dissenters; in 1812 he joined the cabinet of Spencer Perceval as 
lord president of the council, becoming home secretary when the 
ministry was reconstructed by the earl of Liverpool in the follow- 
ing June. The ten years during which he held this office coincided 
with much misery and unrest among the labouring classes, and 
the government policy, for which he was mainly responsible, 
was one of severe repression. In 181 7 the Habeas Corpus Act 



was suspended, and Sidmouth issued a circular to the lords- 
lieutenant declaring that magistrates might apprehend and hold 
to bail persons accused on oath of seditious libels. For this step 
he was severely attacked in parliament, and was accused of 
fomenting rebellion by means of his spies. Although shaken by 
the acquittal of William Hone en a charge of libel the govern- 
ment was supported by parliament; and after the " Manchester 
massacre " in August 1819 the home secretary thanked the 
magistrates and soldiers for their share in quelling the riot. He 
was mainly responsible for the policy embodied in the " Six Acts " 
of 1819. In December 1821 Sidmouth resigned his office, but 
remained a member of the cabinet without official duties until 
1824, when he resigned owing to his disapproval of the recognition 
of the independence of Buenos Aires. Subsequently he took 
very little part in public affairs; but true to his earlier principles 
he spoke against Catholic emancipation in April 1829, and voted 
against the Reform Bill in 1832. He died at his residence in Rich- 
mond Park on the 15th of February 1844, and was buried at 
Mortlake. In 1781 he married Ursula Mary, daughter of Leonard 
Hammond of Cheam, Surrey, who died in 181 1, leaving a son, 
William Leonard, who succeeded his father as Viscount Sidmouth, 
and four daughters. In 1823 he married secondly Marianne, 
daughter of William Scott, Baron Stowell (d. 1836), and widow 
of Thomas Townsend of Honington, Warwickshire. Sidmouth 
suffers by comparison with the great men of his age, but he was 
honest and courageous in his opinions, loyal to his friends, and 
devoted to church and state. 

The 2nd Viscount Sidmouth (1 794-1 864) was a clergyman of 
the Church of England; he was succeeded as 3rd Viscount by his 
son, William Wells Addington (b. 1824). 

See Hon. G. Pellew, Life of Sidmouth (London, 1847); Lord John 
Russell, Life and Times of C. J. Fox (London, 1859-1866); Earl 
Stanhope, Life of Pitt (London, 1861-1862); Sir G. C. Lewis, Essays 
on the Administrations of Great Britain (London, 1864); Spencer 
Walpole, History of England (London, 1878-1886). (A. W. H.*) 

SIDMOUTH, a market town and watering-place in the Honiton 
parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the river Sid 
and the English Channel, 167! m. W. by S. of London, by the 
London & South- Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 
4201. Lying in a hollow, the town is shut in by hills which ter- 
minate in the forelands of Salcombe and High Peak, two sheer cliffs 
of a deep red colour. The shore line curves away, beyond these, 
westward to the Start and eastward to Portland — both visible 
from Sidmouth beach. The restored church of St Nicholas, 
dating from the 13th century, though much altered in the 15th, 
contains a window given by Queen Victoria in 1866 in memory 
of her father, the duke of Kent, who lived at Woolbrook Glen, 
close by, and died there in 1820. An esplanade is built along the 
sea-wall, and the town possesses golf links and other recreation 
grounds. The bathing is good, the climate warm. Formerly of 
some importance, the harbour can no longer be entered by large 
vessels, and goods are transhipped into flat-bottomed lighters 
for conveyance ashore. Fishing is extensively carried on and 
cattle fairs are held. In the 13th century Sidmouth was a borough 
governed by a port-reeve. Tradition tells of an older town 
buried under the sea; and Roman coins and other remains have 
been washed up on the beach. Traces of an ancient camp exist 
on High Peak. 

SIDNEY (or Sydney), ALGERNON (1622-1683), English 
politician, second son of Robert, 2nd earl of Leicester, and of 
Dorothy Percy, daughter of Henry, 9th earl of Northumberland, 
was born at Penshurst, Kent, in 1622. As a boy he showed 
much talent, which was carefully trained under his father's eye 
In 1632 with his elder brother Philip he accompanied his father 
on his mission as ambassador extraordinary to Christian IV. of 
Denmark, whom he saw at Rendsburg. In May 1636 Sidney 
went with his father to Paris, where he became a general favourite, 
and from there to Rome- In October 1641 he was given a troop 
in his father's regiment in Ireland, of which his brother, known 
as Lord Lisle, was in command. In August 1643 the brothers 
returned to England. At Chester their horses were taken by the 
Royalists, whereupon they again put out to sea and landed 
at Liverpool. Here they were detained by the Parliamentary 



SIDNEY, A. 



4-i 



commissioners, and by them sent up to London for safe custody. 
Whether this was intended by Sidney or no, it is certain that 
from this time he ardently attached himself to the Parliamentary 
cause. On the ioth of May 1644 he was made captain of horse in 
Manchester's army, under the Eastern Association. He was 
shortly afterwards made lieutenant-colonel, and charged at the 
head of his regiment at Marston Moor (and July), where he was 
wounded and rescued with difficulty. On the 2nd of April 1645 
he was given the command of a cavalry regiment in Cromwell's 
division of Fairfax's army, was appointed governor of Chichester 
on ioth May, and in December was returned to parliament for 
Cardiff. In July 1646 he went to Ireland, where his brother 
was lord-lieutenant, and was made lieutenant-general of horse 
in that kingdom and governor of Dublin. Leaving London on 
1st of February 1647, Sidney arrived at Cork on the 22nd. He 
was soon (8th April), however, recalled by a resolution of the 
House passed through the interest of Lord Inchiquin. On the 
7th of May he received the thanks of the House of Commons. 
On the 13th of October 1648 he was made lieutenant of Dover 
castle, of which he had previously been appointed governor. He 
was at this time identified with the Independents as opposed to 
the Presbyterian party. He was nominated one of the com- 
missioners to try Charles I., but took no part in the trial, retiring 
to Penshurst until sentence was pronounced. That Sidney 
approved of the trial, though not of the sentence, there can, 
however, be little doubt, for in Copenhagen he publicly and 
vigorously expressed his concurrence. On the 15th of May 1649 
he was a member of the committee for settling the succession 
and for regulating the election of future parliaments. Sidney lost 
the governorship of Dover, however, in March 1651, in conse- 
quence, apparently, of a quarrel with his officers. He then went 
to the Hague, where he quarrelled with Lord Oxford at play, 
and a duel was only prevented by their friends. He returned to 
England in the autumn, and henceforward took an active share 
in parliamentary work. On the 25th of November Sidney was 
elected on the council of state and was evidently greatly con- 
sidered. In the usurpation of Cromwell, however, he utterly re- 
fused all concurrence, nor would he leave his place in parliament 
except by force when Cromwell dispersed it on the 20th of April 
1653. He immediately retired to Penshurst, where he was con- 
cerned chiefly with family affairs. In 1654 he again went to the 
Hague, and there became closely acquainted with De Witt. 
On his return he kept entirely aloof from public affairs, and it is 
to this period that the Essay on Love is ascribed. 

Upon the restoration of the Long Parliament, in May 1659, 
Sidney again took his seat, and was placed on the council of state. 
He showed himself in this office especially anxious that the 
military power should be duly subordinated to the civil. In June 
he was appointed one of three commissioners to mediate for a 
peace between Denmark, supported by Holland, and Sweden. 
He was probably intended to watch the conduct of his colleague, 
Admiral Montagu (afterwards 1st earl of Sandwich), who was in 
command of the Baltic squadron. Of his character we have 
an interesting notice from Whitelocke, who refused to accompany 
him on the ground of his " overruling temper and height." 
Upon the conclusion of the treaty he went to Stockholm as 
plenipotentiary ; and in both capacities he behaved with 
resolution and address. When the restoration of Charles II. took 
place Sidney left Sweden, on the 28th of June 1660, bringing 
with him from the king of Sweden a rich present in testimony 
of the estimation in which he was held. Sidney went first to 
Copenhagen, and then, being doubtful of his reception by the 
English court, settled at Hamburg. From there he wrote a 
celebrated letter vindicating his conduct, which will be found in 
the Somers Tracts. He shortly afterwards left Hamburg, and 
passed through Germany by way of Venice to Rome. His stay 
there, however, was embittered by misunderstandings with his 
father and consequent straits for money. Five shillings a day, 
he says, served him and two men very well for meat, drink and 
firing. He devoted himself to the study of books, birds and trees, 
and speaks of his natural delight in solitude being largely in- 
creased. In 1663 he left Italy, passed through Switzerland, 



where he visited Ludlow, and came to Brussels in September, 
where his portrait was painted by van Egmondt; it is now at 
Penshurst. He had thoughts of joining the imperial service, 
and offered to transport from England a body of the old Common- 
wealth men; but this was refused by the English court. It is 
stated that the enmity against him was so great that now, as on 
other occasions, attempts were made to assassinate him. On the 
breaking out of the Dutch war, Sidney, who was at the Hague, 
urged an invasion of England, and shortly afterwards went to 
Paris, where he offered to raise a rebellion in England on receipt 
of 100,000 crowns. Unable, however, to come to terms with the 
French government, he once more went into retirement in 1666, — 
this time to the south of France. In August 1670 he was again in 
Paris, and Arlington proposed that he should receive a pension 
from Louis; Charles II. agreed, but insisted that Sidney should 
return to Languedoc. In illustration of his austere principles it 
is related that, Louis having taken a fancy to a horse belonging to 
him and insisting on possessing it, Sidney shot the animal, which, 
he said, " was born a free creature, had served a free man, and 
should not be mastered by a king of slaves." His father was now 
very ill, and after much difficulty Sidney obtained leave to come 
to England in the autumn of 1677. Lord Leicester died in 
November; and legal business connected with other portions 
of the succession detained Sidney from returning to France as he 
had intended. He soon became involved in political intrigue, 
joining, in general, the country party, and holding close com- 
munication with Barillon, the French ambassador. In the 
beginning of 1679 he stood for Guildford, and was warmly 
supported by William Penn, with whom he had long been in- 
timate, and to whom he is said (as is now thought, erroneously) 
to have afforded assistance in drawing up the constitution of 
Pennsylvania. He was defeated by court influence, and his 
petition to the House, complaining of an undue return, never 
came to a decision. His Letters to Henry Savile, written at this 
period, are of great interest. He was in Paris, apparently only 
for a short while, in November 1679. Into the prosecution of the 
Popish Plot Sidney threw himself warmly, and was among those 
who looked to Monmouth, rather than to Orange, to take the 
place of James in the succession, though he afterwards dis- 
claimed all interest in such a question. He now stood for 
Bramber (Sussex), again with Penn's support, and a double 
return was made. He is reported on the ioth of August 1679 as 
being elected for Amersham (Buckingham) with Sir Roger Hill. 
When parliament met, however, in October 1680, his election was 
declared void. But now, under the idea that an alliance between 
Charles and Orange would be more hostile to English liberty 
than would the progress of the French arms, he acted with 
Barillon in influencing members of parliament in this sense, and 
is twice mentioned as receiving the sum of 500 guineas from the 
ambassador. Of this there is no actual proof, and it is quite 
possible that Barillon entered sums in his accounts with Louis 
which he never paid away. In any case it is to be remembered 
that Sidney is not charged with receiving money for advocating 
opinions which he did not enthusiastically hold. 

Upon the dissolution of the last of Charles's parliaments 
the king issued a justificatory declaration. This was at once 
answered by a paper entitled A Just and Modest Vindication, 
6*c, the first sketch of which is imputed to Sidney. It was then, 
too, that his most celebrated production, the Discourses con- 
cerning Government, was concluded, in which he upholds the 
doctrine of the mutual compact and traverses the High Tory 
positions from end to end. In especial he vindicates the pro- 
priety of resistance to kingly oppression or misrule, upholds the 
existence of an hereditary nobility interested in their country's 
good as the firmest barrier against such oppression, and main- 
tains the authority- of parliaments. In each point the English 
constitution, which he ardently admires, is, he says, suffering: 
the prerogatives of the crown are disproportionately great; 
the peerage has been degraded by new creations; and parlia- 
ments are slighted. 

For a long while Sidney kept himself aloof from the duke of 
Monmouth, to whom he was introduced by Lord Howard. After 



4 2 



SIDNEY, SIR HENRY 



the death of Shaftesbury, however, in November 1682, he entered 
into the conferences held between Monmouth, Russell, Essex, 
Hampden and others. That treasonable talk went on seems 
certain, but it is probable that matters went no further. The 
watchfulness of the court was, however, aroused, and on the 
discovery of the Rye House Plot, Sidney, who had always been 
regarded in a vague way as dangerous, was arrested while at 
dinner on the 26th of June 1683. His papers were carried off, 
and he was sent at once to the Tower on a charge of high treason. 
For a considerable while no evidence could be found on which 
to establish a charge. Jeffreys, however, was made lord chief- 
justice in September; a jury was packed; and, after consulta- 
tions between the judge and the crown lawyers, Sidney was 
brought to listen to the indictment on the 7th of November. 
The trial began on the 21st of November: Sidney was refused a 
copy of the indictment, in direct violation of law, and he was 
refused the assistance of counsel. Hearsay evidence and the 
testimony of the perjured informer Lord Howard, whom Sidney 
had been instrumental in introducing to his friends, were first 
produced. This being insufficient, partial extracts from papers 
found in Sidney's study, and supposed only to be in his hand- 
writing, in which the lawfulness of resistance to oppression was 
upheld, were next relied on. He was indicted for " conspiring 
and compassing the death of the king.'' Sidney conducted his 
case throughout with great skill; he pointed especially to the 
fact that Lord Howard, whose character he easily tore to shreds, 
was the only witness against him as to treason, whereas the law 
required two, that the treason was not accurately defined, that 
no proof had been given that the papers produced were his, 
and that, even if that were proved, these papers were in no way 
connected with the charge. Against the determination to secure 
a conviction, however, his courage, eloquence, coolness and skill 
were of no avail, and the verdict of " guilty " was given. On 
the 25th of November Sidney presented a petition to the king, 
praying for an audience, which, however, under the influence of 
James and Jeffreys, Charles refused. On the 26th he was brought 
up for judgment, and again insisted on the illegality of his con- 
viction. Upon hearing his sentence he gave vent to his feelings 
in a few noble and beautiful words. Jeffreys having suggested 
that his mind was disordered, he held out his hand and bade the 
chief-justice feel how calm and steady his pulse was. By the 
advice of his friends he presented a second petition, offering, 
if released, to leave the kingdom at once and for ever. The 
supposed necessity, however, of checking the hopes of Mon- 
mouth's partisans caused the king to be inexorable. The last 
days of Sidney's life were spent in drawing up his Apology and 
in discourse with Independent ministers. He was beheaded on 
the morning of the 7th of December 1683. His remains were 
buried at Penshurst. (O. A.) 

SIDNEY, SIR HENRY (1520-1586), lord deputy of Ireland, 
was the eldest son of Sir William Sidney, a prominent politician 
and courtier in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., 
from both of whom he received extensive grants of land, in- 
cluding the manor of Penshurst in Kent, which became the 
principal residence of the family. Henry was brought up at court 
as the companion of Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward 
VI.; and he continued to enjoy the favour of the sovereign 
throughout the reigns of Edward and Mary. In 1556 he went to 
Ireland with the lord deputy, the earl of Sussex, who in the 
previous year had married his sister Frances Sidney; and from 
the first he had a large share in the administration of the country, 
especially in the military measures taken by his brother-in-law 
for bringing the native Irish chieftains into submission to the 
English Crown. In the course of the lord deputy's Ulster 
expedition in 1557 Sidney devastated the island of Rathlin; and 
during the absence of Sussex in England in the following year 
Sidney was charged with the sole responsibility for the govern- 
ment of Ireland, which he conducted with marked ability and 
success. A second absence of the lord deputy from Ireland, 
occasioned by the accession of Queen Elizabeth, threw the chief 
control into Sidney's hands at the outbreak of trouble with Shane 
O'Neill, and he displayed great skill in temporizing with that 



redoubtable chieftain till Sussex reluctantly returned to his 
duties in August 1559. About the same time Sidney resigned 
his office of vice-treasurer of Ireland on being appointed president 
of the Welsh Marches, and for the next few years he resided 
chiefly at Ludlow Castle, with frequent visits to the court in 
London. 
In 1565 Sidney was appointed lord deputy of Ireland in place 
of Sir Nicholas Arnold, who had succeeded the earl of Sussex in 
the previous year. He found the country in a more impoverished 
and more turbulent condition than when he left it, the chief 
disturbing factor being Shane O'Neill in Ulster. With difficulty 
he persuaded Elizabeth to sanction vigorous measures against 
O'Neill; and although the latter successfully avoided a decisive 
encounter, Sidney restored O'Neill's rival Calvagh O'Donnell 
to his rights, and established an English garrison at Derry which 
did something to maintain order. In 1567 Shane was murdered 
by the MacDonnells of Antrim (see O'Neill), and Sidney was 
then free to turn his attention to the south, where with vigour 
and determination he arranged the quarrel between the earls of 
Desmond and Ormonde, and laid his hand heavily on other dis- 
turbers of the peace; then, returning to Ulster, he compelled 
Turlough Luineach O'Neill, Shane's successor in the clan chief- 
tainship, to make submission, and placed garrisons at Belfast 
and Carrickfergus to overawe Tyrone and the Glynns. In the 
autumn of 1567 Sidney went to England, and was absent from 
Ireland for the next ten months. On his return he urged upon 
Cecil the necessity for measures to improve the economic con- 
dition of Ireland, to open up the country by the construction of 
roads and bridges, to replace the Ulster tribal institutions by a 
system of freehold land tenure, and to repress the ceaseless 
disorder prevalent in every part of the island. In pursuance of 
this policy Sidney dealt severely with the unruly Butlers in 
Munster. At Kilkenny large numbers of Sir Edmund Butler's 
followers were hanged, and three of Ormonde's brothers were 
attainted by an act of the Irish parliament in 1570. Enlightened 
steps were taken for the education of the people, and encourage- 
ment was given to Protestant refugees from the Netherlands to 
settle in Ireland. 

Sidney left Ireland in 1 571, aggrieved by the slight appreciation 
of his statesmanship shown by the queen; but he returned thither 
in September 1575 with increased powers and renewed tokens 
of royal approval, to find matters in a worse state than before, 
especially in Antrim, where the MacQuillins of the Route and 
Sorley Boy MacDonnell (q.v.) were the chief fomenters of disorder. 
Having to some extent pacified this northern territory, Sidney 
repaired to the south, where he was equally successful in making 
his authority respected. He left his mark on the administrative 
areas of the island by making shire divisions on the English model. 
At an earlier period he had already in the north combined the 
districts of the Ardes and Clandeboye to form the county of 
Carrickfergus, and had converted the country of the O'Farrells 
into the county of Longford; he now carried out a similar 
policy in Connaught, where the ancient Irish district of Thomond 
became the county Clare, and the counties of Galway, Mayo, 
Sligo and Roscommon were also delimited. He suppressed a 
rebellion headed by the earl of Clanricarde and his sons in 1576, 
and hunted Rory O'More to his death two years later. Meantime 
Sidney's methods of taxation had caused discontent among 
the gentry of the Pale, who carried their grievances to Queen 
Elizabeth. Greatly to Sidney's chagrin the queen censured his 
extravagance, and notwithstanding his distinguished services 
to the crown he was recalled in September 1578, and was coldly 
received by Elizabeth. He lived chiefly at Ludlow Castle for 
the remainder of his life, performing his duties as president of 
the Welsh Marches, and died there on the 5th of May 1586. 

Sir Henry Sidney was the ablest statesman charged with the 
government of Ireland in the 16th century; and the meagre 
recognition which his unrewarded services received was a con- 
spicuous example of the ingratitude of Elizabeth. Sidney 
married in 1551 Mary, eldest daughter of John Dudley, duke of 
Northumberland, by whom he had three sons and four daughters. 
His eldest son was Sir Philip Sidney (q.v.), and his second was 



SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP 



43 



Robert Sidney, ist earl of Leicester (q.v.); his daughter Mary 
married Henry Herbert, 2nd earl of Pembroke, and by reason of 
her association with her brother Philip was one of the most 
celebrated women of her time (see Pembroke, Earls of). 

See Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Henry VIII.- 
Elizabeth; Calendar of the Carew MSS.; J. O'Donovan's edition of 
The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters (7 vols., Dublin, 1851)- 
Holinshed's Chronicles, vol. iii. (6 vols., London, 1807); Richard 
Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors (3 vols., London, 1885) ; Calendar 
of Ancient Records of Dublin, edited by Sir J. T. Gilbert, vois. i. and ii. 
(Dublin, 1889); Sir J. T. Gilbert, History of the Viceroys of Ireland 
(Dublin, 1865); J. A. Froude, History of England (12 vols., London, 
1856-1870). (R. J. M.) 

SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP (1554-1586), English poet, statesman 
and soldier, eldest son of Sir Henry Sidney and his wife Mary 
Dudley, was born at Penshurst on the 30th of November 1554. 
His father, Sir Henry Sidney (1 529-1 586), was three times lord 
deputy of Ireland, and in 1560 became lord president of Wales. 
Philip Sidney's childhood was spent at Penshurst; and before he 
had completed his tenth year he was nominated by his father 
lay rector of Whitford, Flintshire. A deputy was appointed, and 
Philip enjoyed the revenue of the benefice for the rest of his life. 
On the 1 7th of October 1 564 he was entered at Shrewsbury school, 
not far from his father's official residence at Ludlow Castle, on the 
same day with his life-long friend and first biographer, Fulke 
Greville. An affectionate letter of advice from his father and 
mother, written about 1565, was preserved and printed in 1591 
(A Very Godly Letter . . . ). In 1568 Sidney was sent to Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he formed lasting friendships with 
Richard Hakluyt and William Camden. But his chief companion 
was Fulke Greville, who had gone to Broadgates Hall (Pembroke 
College). Sir Henry Sidney was already anxious to arrange 
an advantageous marriage for his son, who was at that time heir 
to his uncle, the earl of Leicester; and Sir William Cecil agreed 
to a betrothal with his daughter Anne. But in 1571 the match 
was broken off, and Anne Cecil married Edward Vere, 17th 
earl of Oxford. In that year Philip left Oxford, and, after some 
months spent chiefly at court, received the queen's leave in 1572 
to travel abroad " for his attaining the knowledge of foreign 
languages." 

He was attached to the suite of the earl of Lincoln, who was 
sent to Paris in that year to negotiate a marriage between Queen 
Elizabeth and the due d'Alencon. He was in the house of Sir 
Francis Walsingham in Paris during the massacre of Saint 
Bartholomew, and the events he witnessed no doubt intensified 
his always militant Protestantism. In charge of Dr Watson, 
dean, and afterwards bishop, of Winchester, he left Paris for 
Lorraine, and in March of the next year had arrived in Frankfort 
on the Main. He lodged there in the house of the learned printer 
Andrew Wechel, among whose guests was also Hubert Languet. 
Fulke Greville describes Philip Sidney when a schoolboy as 
characterized by " such staidness of mind, lovely and familiar 
gravity, which carried grace and reverence far above greater 
years." " Though I lived with him, and knew him from a child," 
he says, " yet I never knew him other than a man." These 
qualities attracted to him the friendship of grave students of 
affairs, and in France he formed close connexions with the 
Huguenot leaders. Languet, who was an ardent supporter of 
the Protestant cause, conceived a great affection for the younger 
man, and travelled in his company to Vienna. In October Sidney 
left for Italy, having first of all entered into a compact with his 
friend to write every week. This arrangement was not strictly 
observed, but the extant letters, more numerous on Languet's 
side than on Sidney's, afford a considerable insight into Sidney's 
moral and political development. Languet's letters abound 
with sensible and affectionate advice on his studies and his 
affairs generally. 

Sidney settled for some time in Venice, and in February 1574 
he sat to Paolo Veronese for a portrait, destined for Languet. 
His friends seem to have feared that his zeal for Protestantism 
might be corrupted by his stay in Italy, and Languet exacted 
from him a promise that he would not go to Rome. In July he 
was seriously ill, and immediately on his recovery started for 



Vienna. From there he accompanied Languet to Poland, where 
he is said to have been asked to become a candidate for the vacant 
crown. On his return to Vienna he fulfilled vague diplomatic 
duties at the imperial court, perfecting himself meanwhile, 
in company with Edward Wotton, in the art of horsemanship 
under John Pietro Pugliano, whose skill and wit he celebrates 
in the opening paragraph of the Defence of Poesie. He addressed 
a letter from Vienna on the state of affairs to Lord Burghley, 
in December 1574. In the spring of 1575 he followed the court 
to Prague, where he received a summons to return home, appar- 
ently because Sir Francis Walsingham, who was now secretary of 
state, feared that Sidney had leanings to Catholicism. 

His sister, Mary Sidney, was now at court, and he had an 
influential patron in his uncle, the earl of Leicester. He accom- 
panied the queen on one of her royal progresses to Kenilworth, and 
afterwards to Chartley Castle, the seat of Walter Devereux, earl 
of Essex. There he met Penelope Devereux, the " Stella " of the 
sonnets, then a child of twelve. Essex went to Ireland in 1576 to 
fill his' office as earl marshal, and in September occurred his 
mysterious death. Philip Sidney was in Ireland with his father at 
the time. Essex on his deathbed had desired a match between. 
Sidney and his daughter Penelope. Sidney was often harassed 
with debt, and seems to have given no serious thought to the 
question for some time, but Edward Waterhouse, an agent of 
Sir Henry Sidney, writing in November 1576, mentions "the 
treaty between Mr Philip and my Lady Penelope " (Sidney 
Papers, i. p. 147). In the spring of 1577 Sidney was sent to con- 
gratulate Louis, the new elector Palatine, and Rudolf II., who 
had become emperor of Germany. He received also general in- 
structions to discuss with various princes the advancement of the 
Protestant cause. ' ' 

After meeting Don John of Austria at Lou vain, March 1577, 
he proceeded to Heidelberg and Prague. He persuaded the 
elector's brother, John Casimir, to consider proposals for a 
league of Protestant princes, and also for a conference among 
the Protestant churches. At Prague he ventured on a harangue 
to the emperor, advocating a general league against Spain and 
Rome. This address naturally produced no effect, but does not 
seem to have been resented as much as might have been expected. 
On the return journey he visited William of Orange, who formed 
a high opinion of Sidney. In April 1577 Mary Sidney married 
Henry Herbert, 2nd earl of Pembroke, and in the summer 
Philip paid the first of many visits to her at her new home at 
Wilton. But later in the year he was at court defending his 
father's interests, particularly against the earl of Ormonde, who 
was doing all he could to prejudice Elizabeth against the lord 
deputy. 

Sidney drew up a detailed defence of his father's Irish govern- 
ment, to be presented to the queen. A rough draft of four of the 
seven sections of this treatise is preserved in the British Museum 
(Cotton MS., Titus B, xii. pp. 557-559), and even in its frag- 
mentary condition it justifies the high estimate formed of it 
by Edward Waterhouse (Sidney Papers, p. 228). Sidney watched 
with interest the development of affairs in the Netherlands, but 
was fully occupied in defending his father's interests at court. He 
came also in close contact with many men of letters. In 1578 he 
met Edmund Spenser, who in the next year dedicated to him 
his Shepherdes Calendar. With Sir Edward Dyer he was a 
member of the Areopagus, a society which sought to introduce 
classical metres into English verse, and many strange experi- 
ments were the result. In 1578 the earl of Leicester entertained 
EHzabeth at Wanstead, Essex, with a masque, The Lady of the 
May, written for the occasion by Philip Sidney. But though 
Sidney enjoyed a high measure of the queen's favour, he was not 
permitted to gratify his desire for active employment. He was 
already more or less involved in the disgrace of his uncle 
Leicester, following on that nobleman's marriage with Lettice, 
countess of Essex, when, in 1579, he had a quarrel on the tennis- 
court at Whitehall with the earl of Oxford. Sidney proposed 
a duel, which was forbidden by Elizabeth. There was more in 
the quarrel than appeared on the surface. Oxford was one of the 
chief supporters of the queen's proposed marriage with Alencon, 



44 



SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP 



now due d'Anjou, and Sidney, in giving the lie to Oxford, 
affronted the leader of the French party. In January 1580 he 
went further in his opposition to the match, addressing to Eliza- 
beth a long letter in which the arguments against the alliance 
were elaborately set forth. This letter (Sidney Papers, pp. 287- 
292), in spite of some judicious compliments, was regarded, 
not unnaturally, by the queen as an intrusion. Sidney was 
compelled to retire from court, and some of his friends feared 
for his personal safety. A letter from Languet shows that he 
had written to Elizabeth at the instigation of " those whom he 
was bound to obey," probably Leicester and Walsingham. 

Sidney retired to Wilton, or the neighbouring village of 
Ivychurch, where he joined his sister in writing a paraphrase 
of the Psalms. Here too he began his Arcadia, for his sister's 
amusement and pleasure. In October 1 580 he addressed a long 
letter of advice, not without affectionate and colloquial inter- 
ruptions, to his brother Robert, then about to start on his con- 
tinental tour. This letter (Sidney Papers, p. 283) was printed in 
Profitable Instructions for Travellers (1633). It seems that a 
promise was exacted from him not to repeat his indiscretions 
in the matter of the French marriage, and he returned to court. 
In view of the silence of contemporary authority, it is hardly 
possible to assign definite dates to the sonnets of Astrophel and 
Stella. Penelope Devereux was married against her will to 
Robert, Lord Rich, in 1581, probably very soon after the letter 
from Penelope's guardian, the earl of Huntingdon, desiring the 
queen's consent. The earlier sonnets are not indicative of over- 
whelming passion, and it is a reasonable assumption that Sidney's 
liking for Penelope only developed into passion when he found 
that she was passing beyond his grasp. Mr A. W. Pollard assigns 
the magnificent sequence beginning with No. 33 — 
" I- might! unhappy word — O me, I might, 
And then would not, or could not, see my blisse," — 

to- the period following on Stella's reappearance at court as Lady 
Rich. It has been argued that the whole tenor of Philip's life 
and character was opposed to an overmastering passion, and 
that there is no ground for attaching biographical value to these 
sonnets, which were merely Petrarchan exercises. That Sidney 
was, like his contemporaries, a careful and imitative student 
of French and Italian sonnets is patent. He himself confesses 
in the first of the series that he " sought fit words to paint the 
blackest face of woe," by " oft turning others' leaves " before he 
obeyed the command of his muse to " look in his heart and write." 
The account of his passion is, however, too circumstantial to be 
lightly regarded as fiction. Mr Pollard sees in the sonnets a 
description of a spiritual struggle between his sense of a high 
political mission and a disturbing passion calculated to lessen his 
efforts in a larger sphere. It seems certain, at any rate, that he 
was not solely preoccupied with scruples against his love for 
Stella because she was already married. He had probably been 
writing sonnets to Stella for a year or more before her marriage, 
and he seems to have continued to address her after his own 
marriage. Thomas Nash defined the general argument epigram- 
matically as " cruel chastity — the prologue Hope, the epilogue 
Despair." But after Stella's final refusal Sidney recovered his 
earlier serenity, and the sonnet placed by Mr Pollard at the 
end of the series — " Leave me, O Love, which readiest but to 
dust " — expresses the triumph of the spirit. 

Meanwhile he prosecuted his duties as a courtier and as member 
for Kent in parliament. On the 15th and 16th of May 1581 
he was one of the four challengers in a tournament arranged in 
honour of the visit of the duke of Anjou. In 1579 Stephen 
Gosson had dedicated to Sidney his School of Abuse, an attack 
on the stage, and incidentally on poetry. Sidney was probably 
moved by this treatise to write his own Apologie for Poetrie, 
dating from about 1581. In 1583 he was knighted in order that 
he might act as proxy for Prince John Casimir, who was to be 
installed as Knight of the Garter, and in the autumn of that year 
he married Frances, daughter of his friend and patron Sir Francis 
Walsingham, a girl of fourteen or fifteen years of age. In 1584 
he met Giordano Bruno at the house of his friend Fulke Greville, 
and two of the philosopher's books are dedicated to him. 



Sidney was employed about this time in the translation from 
the French of his friend Du Plessis Mornay's treatise on the 
Christian religion. He still desired active service and took an 
eager interest in the enterprises of Martin Frobisher, Richard 
Hakluyt and Walter Raleigh. In 1 584 he Was sent to France to 
condole with Henry III. on the death of his brother, the duke of 
Anjou, but the king was at Lyons, and unable to receive the 
embassy. Sidney's interest in the struggle of the Protestant 
princes against Spain never relaxed. He recommended that 
Elizabeth should attack Philip II. in Spain itself. So keen an 
interest did he take in this policy that he was at Plymouth about 
to sail with Francis Drake's fleet in its expedition against the 
Spanish coast (1585) when he was recalled by the queen's orders. 
He was, however, given a command in the Netherlands, where he 
was made governor of Flushing. Arrived at his post, he con- 
stantly urged resolute action on his commander, the earl of 
Leicester, but with small result. In July 1 586 he made a success- 
ful raid on Axel, near Flushing, and in September he joined the 
force of Sir John Norris, who was operating against Zutphen. 
On the 22nd of the month he joined a small force sent out to 
intercept a convoy of provisions. During the fight that ensued 
he was struck in the thigh by a bullet. He succeeded in riding 
back to the camp. The often-told story that he refused a cup 
of water in favour of a dying soldier, with the words, " Thy need 
is greater than mine," is in keeping with his character. He owed 
his death to a quixotic impulse. Sir William Pelham happening 
to set out for the fight without greaves, Sidney also cast off his 
leg-armour, which would have defended him from the fatal wound. 
He died twenty-five days later at Arnheim, on the 17th of October 
1586. The Dutch desired to have the honour of his funeral, but 
the body was taken to England, and, after some delay due to the 
demands of Sidney's creditors, received a public funeral in St 
Paul's Cathedral on the 16th of February 1587. 

Sidney's death was a personal grief to people of all classes. 
Some two hundred elegies were produced in his honour. Of all 
these tributes the most famous is Astrophel, A Pastoral Elegie, 
added to Edmund Spenser's Colin Clout's Come Home Again 
(1595). Spenser wrote the opening poem; other contributors 
are Sidney's sister, the countess of Pembroke, Lodowick Bryskett 
and Matthew Roydon. In the bare enumeration of Sidney's 
achievements there seems little to justify the passionate admira- 
tion he excited. So calm an observer as William of Orange desired 
Fulke Greville to give Elizabeth " his knowledge and opinion of a 
fellow-servant of his, that (as he heard) lived unemployed under 
her. ... If he could judge, her Majesty had one of the ripest and 
greatest counsellors of estate in Sir Philip Sidney, that this day 
lived in Europe " (Fulke Greville, Life of Sidney, ed. 1816, p. 21). 
His fame was due first of all to his strong, radiant and lovable 
character. Shelley placed him in Adonais among the " inheritors 
of unfulfilled renown," as " sublimely mild, a spirit without 
spot." 

Sidney left a daughter Frances (b. 1584), who married Roger 
Manners, earl of Rutland. His widow, who, in spite of the 
strictures of some writers, was evidently sincerely attached to him, 
married in 1590 Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, and, 
after his death in 1601, Richard de Burgh, earl of Clanricarde. 

Sidney's writings were not published during his lifetime. A 
Worke concerning the trewnesse of the Christian Religion, trans- 
lated from the French of Du Plessis Mornay, was completed 
and published by Arthur Golding in 1587. 

The Countesse of Pembroke's Arcadia written by Philippe Sidnei 
(1590), in quarto, is the earliest edition of Sidney's famous 
romance. 1 A folio edition, issued in 1503, is stated to have been 
revised and rearranged by the countess of Pembroke, for whose 
delectation the romance was written. She was charged to destroy 
the work sheet by sheet as it was sent to her. The circumstances 
of its composition partly explain the difference between its 
intricate sentences, full of far-fetched conceits, repetition and 
antithesis, and the simple and dignified phrase of the Apologie for 
Poetrie. The style is a concession to the fashionable taste in 

1 For a bibliography of this and subsequent editions see the fac- 
simile reprint (1891) of this quarto, edited by Dr Oskar Somraer. 



SIDNEY— SIDON 



45 



literature which the countess may reasonably be supposed to 
have shared; but Sidney himself, although he was no friend to 
euphuism, was evidently indulging his own mood in this highly 
decorative prose. The main thread of the story relates how the 
princes Musidorus and Pyrocles, the latter disguised as a woman, 
Zelmane, woo the princesses Pamela and Philoclea, daughters of 
Basilius and Gynaecia, king and queen of Arcady. The shepherds 
and shepherdesses occupy a humble place in the story. Sidney 
used a pastoral setting for a romance of chivalry complicated 
by the elaborate intrigue of Spanish writers. Nor are these 
intrigues of a purely innocent and pastoral nature. Sidney 
described the passion of love under many aspects, and the guilty 
queen Gynaecia is a genuine tragic heroine. The loose frame- 
work of the romance admits of descriptions of tournaments, 
Elizabethan palaces and gardens and numerous fine speeches. 
It also contains some lyrics of much beauty. Charles I. recited 
and copied out shortly before his death Pamela's prayer, which 
is printed in the Eikon Basilike. Milton reproached him in the 
Eikonoklastes with having " borrowed to a Christian use prayers 
offered to a heathen god . . . and that in no serious book, but 
in the vain amatorious poem of Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia." 
Professor Courthope {Hist, of English Poetry, i. 215) points out 
that the tragedy of Sidney's life, the divorce between his ideals 
of a nobly active life and the enforced idleness of a courtier's 
existence, is intimately connected with his position as a pioneer 
in fiction, in which the life represented is tacitly recognized as 
being contrary to the order of existence. Sidney's wide acquaint- 
ance with European literature is reflected in this book, but he 
was especially indebted to the Arcadia of Jacopo Sannazaro, and 
still more to George Montemayor's imitation of Sannazaro, the 
Diana Enamorada. The artistic defects of the Arcadia in no way 
detracted from its popularity. Both Shakespeare and Spenser 
were evidently acquainted with it. John Day's He of Guls, and 
the plots of Beaumont and Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge, and of 
James Shirley's Arcadia, were derived from it. The book had 
more than one supplement. Gervase Markham, Sir William 
Alexander (earl of Stirling) and Richard Beling wrote con- 
tinuations. 

The series of sonnets to Stella were printed in 1 591 as Sir P.S.: 
His Astrophel and Stella, by Thomas Newman, with an intro- 
ductory epistle by T. Nash, and some sonnets by other writers. 
In the same year Newman issued another edition with many 
changes in the text and without Nash's preface. His first 
edition was (probably later) reprinted by Matthew Lownes. 
In 1598 the sonnets were reprinted in the folio edition of Sidney's 
works, entitled from its most considerable item The Couniesse 
of Pembroke's Arcadia, edited by Lady Pembroke, with con- 
siderable additions. The songs are placed in their proper position 
among the sonnets, instead of being grouped at the end, and two 
of the most personal poems (possibly suppressed out of con- 
sideration for Lady Rich in the first instance), which afford the 
best key to the interpretation of the series, appear for the first 
time. Sidney's sonnets adhere more closely to French than to 
Italian models. The octave is generally fairly regular on two 
rhymes, but the sestet usually terminates with a couplet. The 
Apologie for Poetrie was one of the " additions " to the countess 
of Pembroke's Arcadia (1598), where it is entitled " The Defence 
of Poesie." It first appeared separately in 1594 (unique copy 
in the Rowfant Library, reprint 1904, Camb. Univ. Press). 
Sidney takes the word " poetry " in the wide sense of any imagina- 
tive woik, and deals with its various divisions. Apart from the 
subject matter, which is interesting enough, the book has a 
great value for the simple, direct and musical prose in which it is 
written. The Psalmes of David, the paraphrase in which he 
collaborated with his sister, remained in MS. until 1823, when it 
was edited by S. W. Singer. A translation of part of the Divine 
Sepmaine of G. Salluste du Bartas is lost. There are two pastorals 
by Sidney in Davison's Poetical Rhapsody (1602). 

Letters and Memorials of State . . . (1746) is the title of an in- 
valuable collection of letters and documents relating to the Sidney 
family, transcribed from originals at Penshurst and elsewhere by 
Arthur Collins. Fulke Greville's Life of the Renowned Sir Philip 
Sidney is a panegyric dealing chiefly with his public policy. The 



Correspondence of Sir Philip Sidney and Hubert Languet was trans- 
lated from the Latin and published with a memoir by Steuart A. 
Pears (1845). The best biography of Sidney is A Memoir of Sir 
Philip Sidney by H. R. Fox Bourne (1862). A revised life by the 
same author is included in the " Heroes of the Nations " series (1891). 
Critical appreciation is available in J. A. Symonds's Sir Philip 
Sidney (1886), in the " English Men of Letters " series; in J. J. A. 
Jusserand's English Novel in the Time of Shakespeare (1890) ; and in 
modern editions of Sidney's works, among which may be mentioned 
Mr A. W. Pollard's edition (1888) of Astrophel and Stella, Professor 
Arber's reprint (1868) of An Apologie for Poetrie, and Mr Sidney Lee's 
Elizabethan Sonnets (1904) in the re-issue of Professor Arber's English 
Garner, where the sources of Sidney's sonnets are fully discussed. 
See also a collection of Sidneiana printed for the Roxburghe Club in 
1837, a notice by Mrs Humphry Ward in Ward's English Poets, 
L 341 seq., and a dissertation by Dr K. Brunhuber, Sir Philip 
Sidney's Arcadia und ihre Nachldufer (Nurnberg, 1903). A com- 
plete text of Sidney's prose and poetry, edited by Albert Feuillerat, 
is to be included in the Cambridge English Classics. 

SIDNEY, a city and the county-seat of Shelby county, Ohio, 
U.S.A., on the Miami river, about 33 m. S. by W. of Lima. 
Pop. (1890) 4850; (1900) 5688, including 282 foreign-born and 
108 negroes; (1910) 6607. Sidney is served by the Cleveland,/ 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton, and the Western Ohio (electric) railways. The city is 
situated on an elevated tableland, in an agricultural region. 
Sidney has a public library, and a monumental building, a 
memorial, erected in 1875, to the soldiers in the American Civil 
War, and now devoted to various public uses. The river here 
provides some water-power, and the city has various manu- 
factures. Sidney was laid out as the county-seat in 1819, was 
incorporated as a village in 1831 and first chartered as a city 
in 1897. 

SIDON (Phoen. px, Hebrew p'x, Assyr. Sidunnu, Egypt. 
Diduna), formerly the principal city of Phoenicia, now a small 
town of about 15,000 inhabitants, situated on the Syrian coast 
between Beirut and Sur (Tyre). The name, which the Arabs 
now pronounce Saida, has been explained as meaning " fish- 
town " (cf. Hebr. to " to hunt," in Phoen. perhaps " to fish "); 
more likely it is connected with the god Sid, who is known only 
as an element in proper names (see Cooke, North-Sem. Insert. 
p. 91); possibly both town and people were named after him. 
The ancient city extended some 800 yds. inland from the shore 
over ground which is now covered by fruit-gardens. From a 
series of inscriptions, all giving the same text, discovered at 
Bostan esh-Shekh, a little way to the N. of Saida, we learn that 
the ancient city was divided into three divisions at least, one of 
which was called " Sidon by the sea," and another " Sidon on the 
plain " (?) (see N.-Sem. Inscrr. App. i.). In front of the flat 
promontory to which the modern Sidon is confined there stretches 
northwards and southwards a rocky peninsula; at the northern 
extremity of this begins a series of small rocks enclosing the 
harbour, which is a very bad one. The port was formerly pro- 
tected on the north by the Qal'at el-Bahr (" Sea Castle ";, a 
building of the 13th century, situated on an island still connected 
with the mainland by a bridge. On the S. side of the town lay 
the so-called Egyptian harbour, which was filled up in the 17th 
century in order to keep out the Turks. The wall by which 
Sidon is at present surrounded is pierced by two gates; at the 
southern angle, upon a heap of rubbish, stand the remains of the 
citadel. The streets are very narrow, and the buildings of any 
interest few; most prominent are some large caravanserais 
belonging to the period of Sidon's modern prosperity, and the 
large mosque, formerly a church of the knights of St John. 
The inhabitants support themselves mainly on the produce of 
their luxuriant gardens; but the increasing trade of Beirut 
has withdrawn the bulk of the commerce from Sidon. In earlier 
days Phoenicia produced excellent wine, that of Sidon being 
specially esteemed; it is mentioned in an Aramaic papyrus from 
Egypt (4th century B.C., N.S.I, p. 213). One of the chief in- 
dustries of Sidon used to be the manufacture of glass from the 
fine sand of the river Belus. To the S.E. of the town lies the 
Phoenician necropolis, which has been to a great extent investi- 
gated. The principal finds are sarcophagi, and next to these 
I sculptures and paintings. It was here that the superb Greek 



+6 



SIEBENGEBIRGE— SIEDLCE 



sarcophagi, which are now in the Imperial Museum at Constanti- 
nople, were found, and the sarcophagi of the two Sidonian kings 
Eshmunazar (Louvre) and Tabnith (Imperial Museum, Con- 
stantinople) , both of them with important Phoenician inscriptions. 

The ancient history of Sidon is discussed in the article 
Phoenicia. In a.d. 325 a bishop of Sidon attended the Council 
of Nicaea. In 637-638 the town was taken by the Arabs. 
During the Crusades it was alternately in the possession of the 
Franks and the Mahommedans, but finally fell into the hands of 
the latter in 129 1. As the residence of the Druse Amir Fakhr 
ud-Din, it rose to some prosperity about the beginning of the 
1 7 th century, but towards the close of the 18th its commerce again 
passed away and has never returned. The biblical references to 
Sidon are Gen. x. 15 (the people), xlix. 13; Is. xxiii. 1-14; 
Ezek. xxvii. 8 ; Acts xxvii. 3. Sidon is nearly always mentioned 
along with Tyre — Jer. xxvii. 3, xlvii. 4; Ezra iii. 7; Joel iii. 4; 
Mark iii. 8 and Luke vi. 17; Mark vii. 24, 31, and Matt. xv. 21; 
Matt. xi. 21 and Luke x. 13 f.; Acts xii. 20. In the Old Testa- 
ment, as frequently in Greek literature, " Sidonians " is used 
not in a local but in an ethnic sense, and means " Phoenicians," 
hence the name of Sidon was familiar to the Greeks earlier than 
that of Tyre, though the latter was the more important city 
(ed. Meyer, Encycl. Bibl. col. 4505). 

See Robinson, Bibl. Res. ii. 478 ff . ; Prutz, Aus Phonicien (1876), 
98 ff. ; Pietschmann, Gesch. d. Phohi'zier (1889), 53-58; Hamdy Bey 
and T. Reinach, Necropole royale a Sidon (1892-1896) ; A. Socin in 
Baedeker, Pal. u. Syrien. (G. A. C.*) 

SIEBENGEBIRGE (" The Seven Hills "), a cluster of hills in 
Germany, on the Rhine, 6 m. above Bonn. They are of volcanic 
origin, and form the north-western spurs of the Westerwald. 
In no part of the Rhine valley is the scenery more attractive ; 
crag and forest, deep dells and gentle vine-clad slopes, ruined 
castles and extensive views over the broad Rhine and the plain 
beyond combine to render the Siebengebirge the most favourite 
tourist resort on the whole Rhine. The hills are as follows: 
the steep Drachenfels (1067 ft.), abutting on the Rhine and 
surmounted by the ruins of an old castle; immediately behind it, 
and connected by a narrow ridge, the Wolkenburg (ro76 ft.); 
lying apart, and to the N. of these, the Petersberg (1096 ft.), 
with a pilgrimage chapel of St Peter; then, to the S. of these 
three, a chain of four — viz. the Olberg (1522 ft.), the highest of 
the range; the Lowenburg (1506 ft.); the Lohrberg (1444 ft.), 
and, farthest away, the Nonnenstromberg (1107 ft.). At the 
foot of the Drachenfels, on the north side, lies the little town 
of Konigswinter, whence a mountain railway ascends to the 
summit, and a similar railway runs up the Petersberg. The 
ruins which crown almost every hill are those of strongholds of 
the archbishops of Cologne and mostly date from the 12th century. 

See von Dechen, Geognostischer Fiihrer in das Siebengebirge 
(Bonn, 1861); von Sttlrtz, Fiihrer durch das Siebengebirge (Bonn, 
1893); Laspeyres, Das Siebengebirge am Rhein (Bonn, 1901). 

SIEBOLD, CARL THEODOR ERNST VON (1804-1885), 
German physiologist and zoologist, the son of a physician and a 
descendant of what Lorenz Oken called the " Asclepiad family 
of Siebolds," was born at Wurzburg on the 16th of February 
1804. Educated in medicine and science chiefly at the university 
of Berlin, he became successively professor of zoology, physiology 
and comparative anatomy in Konigsberg, Erlangen, Freiburg, 
Breslau and Munich. In conjunction with F. H. Stannius he 
published (1845-1848) a Manual of Comparative Anatomy, and 
along with R. A. Kolliker he founded in 1848 a journal which 
soon took a leading place in biological literature, Zeitschrift filr 
wissenschaflliche Zoologie. He was also a laborious and successful 
helminthologist and entomologist, in both capacities contributing 
many valuable papers to his journal, which he continued to 
edit until his death at Munich on the 7th of April 1885. In these 
ways, without being a man of marked genius, but rather an 
industrious and critical observer, he came to fill a peculiarly 
distinguished position in science, and was long reckoned, what 
his biographer justly calls him, the Nestor of German zoology. 

See Ehlers, Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool. (1885). 

SIEBOLD, PHILIPP FRANZ VON (1796-1866), scientific 
explorer of Japan, elder brother of the physiologist, was born 



at Wurzburg, Germany, on the 17th of February r7o6. He 
studied medicine and natural science at Wurzburg, and obtained 
his doctor's diploma in 1820. In 1822 he entered the service 
of the king of the Netherlands as medical officer to the East 
Indian Army. On his arrival at Batavia he was attached to a 
new mission to Japan, sent by the Dutch with a view to improve 
their trading relations with that country. Siebold was well 
equipped with scientific apparatus, and he remained in Japan 
for six years, with headquarters at the Dutch settlement on the 
little island of Deshima. His medical qualifications enabled him 
to find favour with the Japanese, and he gathered a vast amount 
of information concerning a country then very little known, 
especially concerning its natural history and ethnography. He 
had comparatively free access to the interior, and his reputation 
spreading far and wide brought him visitors from all parts of 
the country. His valuable stores of information were enriched 
by trained natives whom he sent to collect for him in the interior. 
In 1824 he published De historiae naturalis in Japonia statu 
and in 1832 his splendid Fauna Japonica. His knowledge of the 
language enabled him also in 1826 to issue from Batavia his 
Epitome linguae Japonicae. In Deshima he also laid the founda- 
tion of his Catalogus librorum Japonicorum and Isagoge in 
hibliothecam Japonicam, published after his return to Europe, 
as was his Bibliotheca Japonica, which, with the co-operation of 
J. Hoffmann, appeared at Leiden in 1833. During the visit 
which he was permitted to make to Yedo (Tokio), Siebold made 
the best of the rare opportunity; his zeal, indeed, outran his 
discretion, since, for obtaining a native map of the country, he 
was thrown into prison and compelled to quit Japan on the 1st of 
January 1830. On his return to Holland he was raised to the 
rank of major, and in 1842 to that of colonel. After his arrival 
in Europe he began to give to the world the fruits of his researches 
and observations in Japan. His Nippon; Archiv zur Beschrei- 
bung von Japan und dessen Neben- und Schutz-Liindern was issued 
in five quarto volumes of text, with six folio volumes of atlas and 
engravings. He also issued many fragmentary papers on various 
aspects of Japan. In 1854 he published at Leiden Urkundliche 
Darstellung der Bestrebungen Niederlands und Russlands zur 
Eroffnung Japans. In 1859 Siebold undertook a -second journey 
to Japan, and was invited by the emperor to his court. In 1861 
he obtained permission from the Dutch government to enter the 
Japanese service as negotiator between Japan and the powers of 
Europe, and in the same year his eldest son was made interpreter 
to the English embassy at Yedo. Siebold was, however, soon 
obliged by various intrigues to retire from his post, and ultimately 
from Japan. Returning by Java to Europe in 1862, he set up his 
ethnographical collections, which were ultimately secured by 
the government of Bavaria and removed to Munich. He con- 
tinued to publish papers on various Japanese subjects, and 
received honours from many of the learned societies of Europe. 
He died at Munich on the 18th of October 1866. 

See biography by Moritz Wagner, in Allgemeine Zeitung, 13th to 
1 6th of November 1866. 

SIEDLCE (Russian Syedlets), a government of Russian Poland, 
between the Vistula and the Bug, having the governments of 
Warsaw on the W., Lomza on the N., Grodno and Volhynia on 
the E., Lublin on the S., and Radom on the S.W. Its area is 
5533 sq. m. The surface is mostly flat, only a few hilly tracts 
appearing in the middle, around Biala, and in the east on the 
banks of the Bug. Extensive marshes occur in the north and in 
the south-east. Cretaceous, Jurassic and Tertiary strata cover 
the surface, and are overlain by widely spread Glacial deposits. 
The valley of the Vistula is mostly wide, with several terraces 
covered with sand-dunes or peat-bogs. Siedlce is drained by the 
Vistula, which borders it for 50 m. on the west; by the Bug, which 
is navigable from Opalin in Volhynia and flows for 170 m. on 
the east and north-east borders; by the Wieprz, a tributary 
of the Vistula, which is also navigable, and flows for 25 m. along 
the southern boundary; and by the Liwiec, a tributary of the 
Bug, which is navigable for some 30 m. below Wegrow. Of 
the total area only 5-2% is unproductive; 48-1% is under 
crops and 17-2 under meadows and pasture land. The estimated 



SIEDLCE— SIEMENS 



47 



population in 1906 was 907,700. The inhabitants consist of 
Little Russians (40%), Poles (43%), Jews (155%) and Germans 
(i|%). The government is divided into nine districts, the chief 
towns of which are the capital Siedlce, Biala, Konstantinow, 
Garwolin, Lukow, Radzyn, Sokolow, Wegrow, Wlodawa, The 
main occupation is agriculture, the principal crops being rye, 
wheat, oats, barley and potatoes. The area under forests 
amounts to 19-6% of the total. Live-stock breeding is second 
in importance to agriculture. Manufactures and trade are in- 
significant. 

SIEDLCE, a town of Russia, capital of the government of 
the same name, 56 m. E.S.E. of the city of Warsaw, on the Brest- 
Litovsk railway. It is a Roman Catholic episcopal see. The 
Oginskis, to whom it belonged, have embellished it with a palace 
and gardens; but it is nothing more than a large village. Pop. 
23,714 (1897), two-thirds Jews. 

SIEGBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine 
Province, on the river Sieg, 16 m. by rail S.E. of Cologne by the 
railway to Giessen. Pop. (1905) 14,878. It has a royal shell 
factory, calico-printing mills, lignite mines, stone quarries and 
pottery and tobacco factories. The parish church, dating from 
the 13th century, possesses several richly decorated reliquaries 
of the 1 2th to 15th centuries. The buildings of the Benedictine 
abbey, founded in 1066, are now used as a prison. The town, 
which was founded in the nth century, attained the height of 
its prosperity in the isth and 16th centuries owing to its pottery 
wares. Siegburg pitchers (Siegburger Kriige) were widely famed. 
Their shape was often fantastic and they are now eagerly sought 
by collectors. 

See R. Heinekamp, Siegburgs Vergangenheit und Gegenwart 
(Siegburg, 1897) ; and Renard, Die Kunsldenkmaler des Siegkreises 
(Diisseldorf, 1907). 

SIEGE (0. Fr. sege, siege, mod. siige, seat, ultimately from 
sedere, to sit, cf. Class. Lat. obsidium, a siege), the " sitting down " 
of an army or military force before a fortified place for the purpose 
of taking it, either by direct military operations or by starving 
it into submission (see Fortification and Siegecraft). A 
special form of coin is known as a " siege-piece." These are 
coins that were struck during a siege of a town when the ordinary 
mints were closed or their issues were not available. Such coins 
were commonly of special shape to distinguish them from the 
normal coinage, and were naturally of rough workmanship. 
A common shape for the siege pieces which were issued during the 
Great Rebellion was the lozenge. A noteworthy example is a 
shilling siege-piece struck at Newark in 1645 ( see Token Money). 

SIEGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Westphalia, situated 63 m. E. of Cologne by rail, on the Sieg, 
a tributary entering the Rhine opposite Bonn. Pop. (1905) 
25,201. The town contains two palaces of the former princes 
of Nassau-Siegen, a technical and a mining school. The sur- 
rounding district, to which it gives its name, abounds in iron- 
mines, and iron founding and smelting are the most important 
branches of industry in and near the town. Large tanneries 
and leather works, and factories for cloth, paper and machinery, 
are among the other industrial establishments. 

Siegen was the capital of an early principality belonging to the 
house of Nassau; and from 1606 onwards it gave name to the 
junior branch of Nassau-Siegen. Napoleon incorporated Siegen 
in the grand-duchy of Berg in 1806; and in 181 5 the congress of 
Vienna assigned it to Prussia, under whose rule it has nearly 
quintupled its population. Rubens is said to have been born here 

in 1577. 

See Cuno, Geschichte der Stadt Siegen (Dillenburg, 1873). 

SIEMENS, ERNST WERNER VON (1816-1892), German 
electrician, was born on the 13th of December 1816 at Lenthe 
in Hanover. After attending the gymnasium at Liibeck, he 
entered the Prussian army as a volunteer, and for three years was 
a pupil in the Military Academy at Berlin. In 1838 he received 
a commission as lieutenant in the artillery, and six years later 
he was appointed to the responsible post of superintendent of the 
artillery workshops. In 1848 he had the task of protecting the 
port of Kiel against the Danish fleet, and as commandant of 



Friedrichsort built the fortifications for the defence of Eckern- 
forde harbour. In the same year he was entrusted with the 
laying of the first telegraph line in Germany, that between 
Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main, and with that work his military 
career came to an end. Thenceforward he devoted his energies 
to furthering the interests of the newly founded firm of Siemens 
and Halske, which under his guidance became one of the most 
important electrical undertakings in the world, with branches 
in different countries that gave it an international influence; in 
the London house he was associated with Sir William Siemens, 
one of his younger brothers. Although he had a decided pre- 
dilection for pure research, his scientific work was naturally 
determined to a large extent by the demands of his business, and, 
as he said when he was admitted to the Berlin Academy of 
Sciences in 1874, the filling up of scientific voids presented itself 
to him as a technical necessity. Considering that his entrance 
into commercial life was almost synchronous with the introduc- 
tion of electric telegraphy into Germany, it is not surprising that 
many of his inventions and discoveries relate to telegraphic 
apparatus. In 1847, when he was a member of the committee 
appointed to consider the adoption of the electric telegraph 
by the government, he suggested the use of gutta-percha as 
a material for insulating metallic conductors. Then he in- 
vestigated the electrostatic charges of telegraph conductors and 
their laws, and established methods for testing underground 
and submarine cables and for locating faults in their insula- 
tion; further, he carried out observations and experiments on 
electrostatic induction and the retardation it produced in the 
speed of the current. He also devised apparatus for duplex and 
diplex telegraphy, and automatic recorders. In a somewhat less 
specialized sphere, he was an early advocate of the desirability of 
establishing some easily reproducible basis for the measurement 
of electrical resistance, and suggested that the unit should be 
taken as the resistance of a column of pure mercury one metre 
high and one square millimetre in cross-section, at a temperature 
of o° C. Another task to which he devoted much time was the 
construction of a selenium photometer, depending on the property 
possessed by that substance of changing its electrical resistance 
according to the intensity of the light falling upon it. He also 
claimed to have been, in 1866, the discoverer of the principle of 
self -excitation in dynamo-electric machines, in which the residual 
magnetism of the iron of the electro-magnets is utilized for 
excitation, without the aid of permanent steel magnets or of a 
separate exciting current. In another branch of science he wrote 
several papers on meteorological subjects, discussing among other 
things the causation of the winds and the forces which produce, 
maintain and retard the motions of the air. In 1886 he devoted 
half a million marks to the foundation of the Physikalisch- 
Technische Reichsanstalt at Charlottenburg, and in 1888 he 
was ennobled. He died at Berlin on the 6th of December 1892. 
His scientific memoirs and addresses were collected »and pub- 
lished in an English translation in 1892, and three years later a 
second volume appeared, containing his technical papers. 

SIEMENS, SIR WILLIAM [Karl Wilhelm] (1823-1883), 
British inventor, engineer and natural philosopher, was born 
at Lenthe in Hanover on the 4th of April 1823. After being 
educated in the polytechnic school of Magdeburg and the uni- 
versity of Gottingen, he visited England at the age of nineteen, 
in the hope of introducing a process in electroplating invented 
by himself and his brother Werner. The invention was adopted 
by Messrs Elkington, and Siemens returned to Germany to enter 
as a pupil the engineering works of Count Stolberg at Magdeburg. 
In 1844 he was again in England with another invention, the 
" chronometric " or differential governor for steam engines. 
Finding that British patent laws afforded the inventor a pro- 
tection which was then wanting in Germany, he thenceforth made 
England his home; but it was not till 1859 that he formally 
became a naturalized British subject. After some years spent 
in active invention and experiment at mechanical works near 
Birmingham, he went into practice as an engineer in 1851. 
He laboured mainly in two distinct fields, the applications 
of heat and the applications of electricity, and was characterized 



48 



SIENA.. 



in a very rare degree by a combination of scientific comprehension 
with practical instinct. In both fields he played a part which 
would have been great in either alone; and, in addition to this, 
he produced from time to time miscellaneous inventions and 
scientific papers sufficient in themselves to have established a 
reputation. His position was recognized by his election in 1862 
to the Royal Society, and later to the presidency of the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers, the Society of Telegraph Engineers, 
the Iron and Steel Institute, and the British Association; by 
honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford, Glasgow, 
Dublin and Wtirzburg; and by knighthood (in 1883). He died 
in London on the 19th of November 1883. 

In the application of heat Siemens's work began just after J. P. 
Joule's experiments had placed the doctrine of the conservation of 
energy on a sure basis. Wnile Rankine, Clausius and Lord Kelvin 
were developing the dynamical theory of heat as a matter of physical 
and engineering theory, Siemens, in the light of the new ideas, made 
a bold attempt to improve the efficiency of the steam engine as a 
converter of heat into mechanical work. Taking up the regenerator 
— a device invented by Robert Stirling twenty years before, the im- 
portance of which had meanwhile been ignored — he applied it to the 
steam engine in the form of a regenerative condenser with some 
success in 1847, and in 1855 engines constructed on Siemens's plan 
were worked at the Paris exhibition. Later he also attempted to 
apply the regenerator to internal combustion or gas engines. In 
1856 he introduced the regenerative furnace, the idea of his brother 
Friedrich (1826- 1904), with whom he associated himself in directing 
its applications. In an ordinary furnace a very large part of the heat 
of combustion is lost by being carried off in the hot gases which pass 
up the chimney. In the regenerative furnace the hot gases pass 
through a regenerator, or chamber stacked with loose bricks, which 
absorb the heat. When the bricks are well heated the hot gases are 
diverted so to pass through another similar chamber, while the air 
necessary for combustion, before it enters the furnace, is made to 
traverse the heated chamber, taking up as it goes the heat which has 
been stored in the bricks. After a suitable interval the air currents 
are again reversed. The process is repeated periodically, with the 
result that the products of combustion escape only after being 
cooled , the heat which they take from the furnace being in great part 
carried back in the heated air. But another invention was required 
before the regenerative furnace could be thoroughly successful. 
This was the use of gaseous fuel, produced by the crude distillation 
and incomplete combustion of coal in a distinct furnace or gas-pro- 
ducer. From this the gaseous fuel passes by a flue to the regenerative 
furnace, and it, as well as the entering air, is heated by the regenerative 
method, four brick-stacked chambers being used instead of two. 
The complete invention was applied at Chance's glass-works in 
Birmingham in 1861, and furnished the subject of Faraday's farewell 
lecture to the Royal Institution. It was soon applied to many 
industrial processes, but it found its greatest development a few years 
later at the hands of Siemens himself in the manufacture of steel. 
To produce steel directly from the ore, or by melting together 
wrought-iron scrap with cast-iron upon the open hearth, had been 
in his mind from the first, but it was not till 1867, after two years of 
experiment in " sample steel works " erected by himself for the 
purpose, that he achieved success. The product is a mild steel of 
exceptionally trustworthy quality, the use of which for boiler-plates 
has done much to make possible the high steam-pressures that are 
now common, and has consequently contributed, indirectly, to that 
improvement in the thermodynamic efficiency of heat engines which 
Siemens had so much at heart. Just before his death he was again 
at work upon the same subject, his plan being to use gaseous fuel 
from a Siemens producer in place of solid fuel beneath the boiler, and 
to apply the regenerative principle to boiler furnaces. His faith in 
gaseous fuel led him to anticipate that it would in time supersede 
solid coal for domestic and industrial purposes, cheap gas being 
supplied either from special works or direct from the pit; and among 
his last inventions was a house grate to burn gas along with coke, 
which he regarded as a possible cure for city smoke. 

In electricity Siemens's name is closely associated with the growth 
of land and submarine telegraphs, the invention and development 
of the dynamo, and the application of electricity to lighting and to 
locomotion. In i860, with his brother Werner, he invented the 
earliest form of what is now known as the Siemens armature; and in 
1867 he communicated a paper to the Royal Society " On the Con- 
version of Dynamical into Electrical Force without the aid of Per- 
manent Magnetism," in which he announced the invention by 
Werner Siemens of the dynamo-electric machine, an invention which 
was also reached independently and almost simultaneously by Sir 
Charles Wheatstone and by S. A. Varley. The Siemens-Alteneck or 
multiple-coil armature followed in 1873. While engaged in con- 
structing a trans-Atlantic cable for the Direct United States Tele- 
graph Company, Siemens designed the very original and successful 
ship " Faraday," by which that and other cables were laid. One of 
the last of his works was the Portrush and Bushmills electric tram- 
way, in the north of Ireland, opened in 1883, where the water-power 



of the river Bush drives a Siemens dynamo, from which the electric 
energy is conducted to another dynajno serving as a motor on the 
car. In the Siemens electric furnace the' intensely hot atmosphere 
of the electric arc between carbon points 'is ! 'employed to melt re- 
fractory metals. Another of the uses to whiCh-he turned electricity 
was to employ light from arc lamps as a substitute for sunlight in 
hastening the growth and fructification of plants. Among his 
miscellaneous inventions were the differential governor already 
alluded to, and a highly scientific modification of it, described to the 
Royal Society in 1866; a water-meter which acts on the principle of 
counting the number of turns made by a small reaction turbine 
through which the supply of water flows; an electric thermometer 
and pyrometer, in which temperature is determined by its effect on 
the electrical conductivity of metals; an attraction meter for de- 
termining very slight variations in the intensity of a gravity; and 
the bathometer, by which he applied this idea to the problem of 
finding the depth of the sea without a sounding line. In a paper 
read before the Royal Society in 1882, " On the Conservation of Solar 
Energy," he suggested a bold but unsatisfactory theory of the sun's 
heat, in which he sought to trace on a cosmic scale an action similar 
to that of the regenerative furnace. His fame, however, does not 
rest on his contributions to pure science, valuable as some of these 
were. His strength lay in his grasp of scientific principles, in his 
skill to perceive where and how they could be applied to practical 
affairs, in his zealous and instant pursuit of thought with action, 
and in the indomitable persistence with which he clung to any basis of 
effort that seemed to him theoretically sound. 

Siemens's writings consist for the most part of lectures and papers 
scattered through the scientific journals and the publications of the 
Royal Society, the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers, the Iron and Steel Institute, the British 
Association, &c. A biography by Dr William Pole was published in 
1888. (J.. A. E.) 

SIENA, a city and archiepiscopal see of Tuscany, Italy, 
capital of the province of Siena, 59 m. by rail S. of Florence and 
31 m. direct. Pop. (1901) 25,539 (town); 40,423 (commune). 
The area of the city within the walls is about 2\ sq. m., and the 
height above sea-level 1115 ft. The plan, spreading from the 
centre over three hills, closely resembles that of Perugia. The 
city possesses a university, founded in 1203 and limited to the 
faculties of law and medicine. Among the other public institu- 
tions the following are the more important: the town library, 
first opened to students in the 17th century; the Archivio, a 
record office, instituted in 1858, containing a valuable and 
splendidly arranged collection of documents; the Fine Arts 
Institution, founded in 1816; and the natural history museum 
of the Royal Academy of the Physiocritics, inaugurated in the 
same year. There are also many flourishing charities, including 
an excellent hospital and a school for the deaf and dumb. The 
chief industries are weaving and agriculture. 

The public festivals of Siena known as the " Palio delle Con- 
trade " have a European celebrity. They are held in the public 
square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza 
di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on 
the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date 
from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of 
victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, 
as shown by seals and medals, having been " Sena vet us civitas 
Virginis"). In the 15th and 16th centuries the celebrations 
consisted of bull-fights. At the close of the 16th century these 
were replaced by races with mounted buffaloes, and since 
1650 by (ridden) horses. Siena is divided into seventeen 
contrade (wards), each with a distinct appellation and a 
chapel and flag of its own; and every year ten of these 
contrade, chosen by lot, send each one horse to compete for 
the prize palio or banner. The aspect of Siena during these 
meetings is very characteristic, and the whole festivity bears 
a medieval stamp in harmony with the architecture and history 
of the town. 

Among the noblest fruits of Sienese art are the public buildings 
adorning the city. The cathedral, one of the finest examples 
of Italian Gothic architecture, obviously influenced in plan by 
the abbey of S. Galgano (infra), built in black and white marble, 
was begun in the early years of the 13th century, but interrupted 
by the plague of 1248 and wars at home and abroad, and in 1317 
its walls were extended to the baptistery of San Giovanni; 
a further enlargement was begun in 1339 but never carried out, 
and a few ruined walls and arches alone remain to show the 



SIENA 



49 



magnificence of the uncompleted design, which would have 
produced one of the largest churches in the world. 

The splendid west front, of tricuspidal form, enriched with a 
multitude of columns, statues and inlaid marbles, is said to have been 
begun by Giovanni Pisano, but really dates from after 1370; it 
was finished in 1380, and closely resembles that of Orvieto, which is 
earlier in date (begun in 1310). Both fagades have been recently 
restored, and the effect of them not altogether improved by modern 
mosaics. The fine Romanesque campanile belongs to the first half 
of the 14th century. Conspicuous among the art treasures of the 
interior is the well-known octagonal pulpit by Niccola Pisano, dating 
from 1 266-1 268. It rests on columns supported by lions, and is 
finely sculptured. Numerous statues and bas-reliefs by Renaissance 
artists adorn the various altars and chapels. The cathedral pave- 
ment is almost unique. It is inlaid with designs in colour and black 
and white, representing Biblical and legendary subjects, and is 
supposed to have been begun by Duccio della Buoninsegna. _ But the 
finest portions beneath the domes, with scenes from the history of 
Abraham, Moses and Elijah, are by Domenico Beccafumi and are 
executed with marvellous boldness and effect. The choir stalls also 
deserve mention: the older ones (remains of the original choir) are 
in tarsia work; the others, dating from the 16th century, are carved 
from Riccio's designs. The Piccolomini Library, adjoining the 
duomo, was founded by Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini (afterwards 
Pius III.) in honour of his uncle, Pius II. Here are Pinturicchio's 
famous frescoes of scenes from the life of the latter pontiff, and the 
collection of choir books (supported on sculptured desks) with 
splendid illuminations by Sienese and other artists. The church of 
San. Giovanni, the ancient baptistery, beneath the cathedral is ap- 
proached by an outer flight of marble steps built in 1451. It has a 
beautiful but incomplete fagade designed by Giovanni di Mino del 
Pellicciaio in 1382, and a marvellous font with bas-reliefs by Dona- 
tello, Ghiberti. Jacopo della Quercia and other 15th-century sculptors. 
The Opera del Duomo contains Duccio's famous Madonna, painted 
for the cathedral in 1 308-131 1, and other works of art. 

Among the other churches are S. Maria di Provenzano, a vast 
baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594); 
Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Cruci- 
fixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by 
Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a 
St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?) ; the beautiful church of the Servites 
05th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by 
Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; 
San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and 
now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio 
Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which 
perished in the great fire of 1655 ; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century 
building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's 
splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da 
Siena, 1 28 1 , and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro. This church crowns the 
Fontebranda hill above the famous fountain of that name im- 
mortalized by Dante, and in a steep lane below stands the house of 
St_ Catherine, now converted into a church and oratory, and main- 
tained at the expense of the inhabitants of the Contrada dell' Oca. 
It contains some good pictures by Pacchia and other works of art, 
but is chiefly visited for its historic interest and as a striking memorial 
of the characteristic piety of the Sienese. The Accademia di Belle 
Arti contains a good collection of pictures of the Sienese school, 
illustrating its development. 

The communal palace in the Piazza del Campo was begun in 1288 
and finished in 1309. It is built of brick, is a fine specimen of Pointed 
Gothic, and was designed by Agostino and Agnolo. The light and 
elegant tower (Torre del Mangla) soaring from one side of the palace 
was begun in 1338 and finished after 1348, and the chapel standing 
at its foot, raised at the expense of the Opera del Duomo as a public 
thank-offering after the plague of 1348, begun in 1352 and com- 
pleted in 1376. This grand old palace has other attractions besides 
the beauty of its architecture, for its interior is lined with works of art. 
The atrium has a fresco by Bartolo di Fredi and the two ground-floor 
halls contain a Coronation of the Virgin by Sano di Pietro and a 
splendid Resurrection by Sodoma. In the Sala dei Nove or della 
Pace above are the noble allegorical frescoes of Ambrogio Lorenzetti 
representing the effects of just and unjust government; the Sala 
delle Balestre or del Mappamondo is painted by Simone di Martino 
(Memmi) and others, the Cappella della Signoria by Taddeo di 
Bartolo, and the Sala del Consiatorio by Beccafumi. Another hall, 
the Sala di Balia, has frescoes by Spinello Aretino (1408) with scenes 
from the life of Pope Alexander III., while yet another has been 
painted by local artists with episodes in recent Italian history. An 
interesting exhibition of Sienese art, including many objects from 
neighbouring towns and villages, was held here in 1904. The former 
hall of the grand council, built in 1327, was converted into the chief 
theatre of Siena by Riccio in 1560, and, after being twice burnt, was 
rebuilt m I7 53 from Bibbiena'i designs. Another Sienese theatre 
that of the Rozzi, in Piazza Sfvi Pellegrino, designed by A. Doveri and 
erected in 1816, although modern, has an historic interest as the work 
of an academy dating nom the 16th century, called the Congrega 
de Rozzi, that played an important part in the history of the Italian 
coouc stage. 



The city is adorned by many other noble edifices both public 
and private, among which the following palaces may be mentioned — 
Tolomei (1205); Buonsignori, formerly Tegliacci, an elegant 14th- 
century construction, restored in 1848; Grottanelli, formerly Pecci 
and anciently the residence of the captain of war, recently restored 
in its original style; Sansedoni; Marsilii; Piccolomini, now be- 
longing to the Government and containing the state archives ; ' 
Piccolomini delle Papesse, like the other Piccolomini mansion, 
designed by Bernardo Rossellino, and now the Banca d' Italia; 
the enormous block of the Monte de' Paschi, a bank of considerable 
wealth and antiquity, enlarged and partly rebuilt in the original style 
between 1877 and 1881, the old Dogana and Salimbeni palaces; the 
Palazzo Spannochi, a fine early Renaissance building by Giuliano da 
Maiano (now the post office) ; the Loggia di Mercanzia (15th century), 
now a club, imitating the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, with sculp- 
tures of the 15th century; the Loggia del Papa, erected by Pius II.; 
and other fine buildings. We may also mention the two celebrated 
fountains, Fonte Gaia and Fontebranda; the former, in the Piazza 
del Campo, by Jacopo della Quercia (1409-1419), but freely restored 
in 1868, the much-damaged original reliefs being now in the Opera 
del Duomo; the Fonte Nuova, near Porta Ovile, by Camaino di 
Crescentino also deserves notice (1298). Thanks to all these archi- 
tectural treasures, the narrow Sienese streets with their many wind- 
ings and steep ascents are full of picturesque charm, and, together 
with the collections of excellent paintings, foster the local pride of the 
inhabitants and preserve their taste and feeling for art. The medieval 
walls and gates are still in the main preserved. The ruined Cistercian 
abbey of S. Galgano, founded in 1201, with its fine church (1240- 
1268) is interesting and imposing. It lies some 20 m. south-west of 
Siena. 

History. — Siena was probably founded by the Etruscans 
(a few tombs of that period have been found outside Porta 
Camollia), and then, falling under the Roman rule, became a 
colony in the reign of Augustus, or a little earlier, and was 
distinguished by the name of Saena Julia. It has the same arms 
as Rome — the she-wolf and twins. But its real importance dates 
from the middle ages. Few memorials of the Roman era 2 or of 
the first centuries of Christianity have been preserved (except 
the legend of St Ansanus), and none at all of the interval pre- 
ceding the Lombard period. We have documentary evidence 
that in the 7th century in the reign* of Rotaris (or Rotari), there 
was a bishop of Siena named Mauro. Attempts to trace earlier 
bishops as far back as the 5th century have yielded only vague 
and contradictory results. Under the Lombards the civil 
government was in the hands of a gaslaldo, under the Carolingians 
of a count, whose authority, by slow degrees and a course of 
events similar to what took place in other Italian communes, 
gave way to that of the bishop, whose power in turn gradually 
diminished and was superseded by that of the consuls and the 
commonwealth. 

We have written evidence of the consular government of 
Siena from 1125 to 1212; the number of consuls varied from 
three to twelve. This government, formed of gentiluomini 
or nobles, did not remain unchanged throughout the whole period, 
but was gradually forced to accept the participation of the 
popolani or lower classes, whose efforts to rise to power were 
continuous and determined. Thus in n 37 they obtained a third 
part of the government by the reconstitution of the general 
council with 100 nobles and 50 popolani. In 1199 the institution 
of a foreign podesta (a form of government which became per- 
manent in 1 212) gave a severe blow to the consular magistracy, 
which was soon extinguished; and in 1233 the people again rose 
against the nobles in the hope of ousting them entirely from 
office. 

The strife was largely economic, the people desiring to 
deprive the nobles of the immunity of taxation which they had 
enjoyed. The attempt was not completely successful; but the 
government was now equally divided between the two estates by 
the creation of a supreme magistracy of twenty-four citizens — 
twelve nobles and twelve popolani. During the rule of the nobles 
and the mixed rule of nobles and popolani the commune of 
Siena was enlarged by fortunate acquisitions of neighbouring 
lands and by the submission of feudal lords, such as the Scialenghi, 
Aldobrandeschi, Pannocchie'schi, Visconti di Campiglia, &c. 

1 In these are especially interesting the painted covers of the books 
of the bicchiema and gabella, or revenue and tax offices. 

2 There are, however, remains of baths some 2 J m. to the east; see 
P. Piccolomini in Bullettino Senese de storia patria, vi. (1899). 



5 o SIENA 

Before long the reciprocal need of fresh territory and frontier 
disputes, especially concerning Poggibonsi and Montepulciano, 
led to an outbreak of hostilities between Florence and Siena. 
Thereupon, to spite the rival republic, the Sienese took the 
Ghibelline side, and the German emperors, beginning with 
Frederick Barbarossa, rewarded their fidelity by the grant of 
various privileges. 

During the 12th and 13th centuries there were continued 
disturbances, petty wars, and hasty reconciliations between 
Florence and Siena, until in 1 254-1 255 a more binding peace and 
alliance was concluded. But this treaty, in spite of its apparent 
stability, led in a few years to a fiercer struggle; for in 1258 the 
Florentines complained that Siena had infringed its terms by giv- 
ing refuge to the Ghibellines they had expelled, and on the refusal 
of the Sienese to yield to these just remonstrances both states 
made extensive preparations for war. Siena applied to Manfred, 
obtained from him a strong body of German horse, under the 
command of Count Giordano, and likewise sought the aid of its 
Ghibelline allies. Florence equipped a powerful citizen army, 
of which the original registers are still preserved in the volume 
entitled // Libro di Montaperti in the Florence archives. This 
army, led by the podesta. of Florence and twelve burgher captains, 
set forth gaily on its march towards the enemy's territories in the 
middle of April 1260, and during its first campaign, ending on 
the 1 8th of May, won an insignificant victory at Santa Petronilla, 
outside the walls of Siena. But in a second and more important 
campaign, in which the militia of the other Guelf towns of 
Tuscany took part, the Florentines were signally defeated at 
Montaperti on the 4th of September 1260. This defeat crushed 
the power of Florence for many years, reduced the city to desola- 
tion, and apparently annihilated the Florentine Guelfs. But 
the battle of Benevento (1266) and the establishment of the 
dynasty of Charles of Anjou on the Neapolitan throne put an 
end to the Ghibelline predominance in Tuscany. Ghibelline 
Siena soon felt the effects of the change in the defeat of its army 
at Colle di Valdelsa (1269) by the united forces of the Guelf 
exiles, Florentines and French, and the death in that battle of 
her powerful citizen Provenzano Salvani (mentioned by Dante), 
who had been the leading spirit of the government at the time 
of the victory of Montaperti. For some time Siena remained 
faithful to the Ghibelline cause; nevertheless Guelf and demo- 
cratic sentiments began to make head. The Ghibellines were 
on several occasions expelled from the city, and, even when a 
temporary reconciliation of the two parties allowed them to 
return, they failed to regain their former influence. 

Meanwhile the popular party acquired increasing power in 
the state. Exasperated by the tyranny of the Salimbeni and 
other patrician families allied to the Ghibellines, it decreed in 
1277 the exclusion of all nobles from the supreme magistracy 
(consisting since 1270 of thirty-six instead of twenty- four 
members) , and insisted that this council should be formed solely 
of Guelf traders and men of the middle class. This constitution 
was confirmed in 1280 by the reduction of the supreme magistracy 
to fifteen members, all of the humbler classes, and was definitively 
sanctioned in 1285 (and 1287) by the institution of the magistracy 
of nine. This council of nine, composed only of burghers, 
carried on the government for about seventy years, and its rule 
was sagacious and peaceful. The territories of the state were 
enlarged; a friendly alliance was maintained with Florence; 
trade flourished; in 1321 the university was founded, or rather 
revived, by the introduction of Bolognese scholars; the principal 
buildings now adorning the town were begun; and the charitable 
institutions, which are the pride of modern Siena, increased and 
prospered. But meanwhile the exclusiveness of the single 
class of citizens from whose ranks the chief magistrates were 
drawn had converted the government into a close oligarchy 
and excited the hatred of every other class. Nobles, judges, 
notaries and populace rose in frequent revolt, while the nine 
defended their state (1 295-1309) by a strong body of citizen 
militia divided into terzieri (sections) and contrade (wards), 
and violently repressed these attempts. But in 1355 the arrival 
of Charles IV. in Siena gave fresh courage to the malcontents, 



who, backed by the imperial authority, overthrew the government 
of the nine and substituted a magistracy of twelve drawn from 
the lowest class. These new rulers were to some extent under 
the influence of the nobles who had fomented the rebellion, but 
the latter were again soon excluded from all share in the govern- 
ment. 

This was the beginning of a determined struggle for supre- 
macy, carried on for many years, between the different classes of 
citizens, locally termed ordini or monti — the lower classes striving 
to grasp the reins of government, the higher classes already in 
office striving to keep all power in their own hands, or to divide it 
in proportion to the relative strength of each monte. As this 
struggle is of too complex a nature to be described in detail, we 
must limit ourselves to a summary of its leading episodes. 

The twelve who replaced the council of nine (as these had 
previously replaced the council of the nobles) consisted — both 
as individuals and as a party — of ignorant, incapable, turbulent 
men, who could neither rule the state with firmness nor confer 
prosperity on the republic. They speedily broke with the nobles, 
for whose manoeuvres they had at first been useful tools, and 
then split into two factions, one siding with the Tolomei, the 
other, the more restless and violent, with the Salimbeni and the 
noveschi (partisans of the nine), who, having still some influence 
in the city, probably fomented these dissensions, and, as we shall 
see later on, skilfully availed themselves of every chance likely 
to restore them to power. In 1368 the adversaries of the twelve 
succeeded in driving them by force from the public palace, and 
substituting a government of thirteen — ten nobles and three 
noveschi. 

This government lasted only twenty-two days, from the 
2nd to the 24th September, and was easily overturned by the 
dominant faction of the dodicini (partisans of the twelve), aided 
by the Salimbeni and the populace, and favoured by the emperor 
Charles IV. The nobles were worsted, being driven from the 
city as well as from power; but the absolute rule of the twelve 
was brought to an end, and right of participation in the govern- 
ment was extended to another class of citizens. For, on the 
expulsion of the thirteen from the palace, a council of 124 
plebeians created a new magistracy of twelve difensori (defenders), 
no longer drawn exclusively from the order of the twelve, but 
composed of five of the popolo minuto, or lowest populace (now 
first admitted to the government), four of the twelve, and three of 
the nine. But it was of short duration, for the dodicini were 
ill satisfied with their share, and in December of the same year 
(1368) joined with the popolo minuto in an attempt to expel the 
three noveschi from the palace. But the new popular order, 
which had already asserted its predominance in the council of 
the riformatori, now drove out the dodicini, and for five days 
(nth to 1 6th December) kept the government in its own hands. 
Then, however, moved by fear of the emperor, who had passed 
through Siena two months before on his way to Rome, and who 
was about to halt there on his return, it tried to conciliate its 
foes by creating a fresh council of 150 riformatori, who replaced 
the twelve defenders by a new supreme magistracy of fifteen, 
consisting of eight popolani, four dodicini, and three noveschi, 
entitled respectively " people of the greater number," " people 
of the middle number," and " people of the less number. " 
From this renewal dates the formation of the new order or monte 
dei riformatori, the title henceforth bestowed on all citizens, of 
both the less and the greater people, who had reformed the 
government and begun to participate in it in 1368. The turbulent 
action of the twelve and the Salimbeni, being dissatisfied with 
these changes, speedily rose against the new government. This 
time they were actively aided by Charles IV., who, having 
returned from Rome, sent his militia, commanded by the 
imperial vicar Malatesta da Rimini, to attack the public palace. 
But the Sienese people, being called to arms by the council of 
fifteen, made a most determined resistance, routed the imperial 
troops, captured the standard, and confined the emperor in the 
Salimbeni palace. Thereupon Charles came to terms with the 
government, granted it an imperial patent, and left the city, 
consoled for his humiliation by the gift of a large sum of money. 



SIENA 



5* 



In spite of its wide basis and great energy, the monte dei 
riformatori, the heart of the new government, could-not satisfac- 
torily cope with the attacks of adverse factions and treacherous 
allies. So, the better to repress them, it created in 1369 a chief 
of the police, with the title of esecutore, and a numerous associa- 
tion of popolani — the company or casata grande of the people — 
as bulwarks against the nobles, who had been recalled from 
banishment, and who, though fettered by strict regulations, were 
now eligible for offices of the state. But the appetite for power 
of the " less people " and the dregs of the populace was whetted 
rather than satisfied by the installation of the riformatori in 
the principal posts of authority. Among the wool-carders — men 
of the lowest class, dwelling in the precipitous lanes about the 
Porta Ovile — there was an association styling itself the "company 
of the worm." During the famine of 1371 this company rose 
in revolt, sacked the houses of the rich, invaded the public palace, 
drove from the council of fifteen the four members of the twelve 
and the three of the nine, and replaced them by seven tatter- 
demalions. Then, having withdrawn to its own quarter, it was 
suddenly attacked by the infuriated citizens (noveschi and 
dodicini), who broke into houses and workshops and put numbers 
of the inhabitants to the sword without regard for age or sex. 
Thereupon the popular rulers avenged these misdeeds by many 
summary executions in the piazza. These disorders were only 
checked by fresh changes in the council of fifteen. It was now 
formed of twelve of the greater people and three noveschi, to 
the total exclusion of the dodicini, who, on account of their grow- 
ing turbulence, were likewise banished from the city. 

Meanwhile the government had also to contend with difficulties 
outside the walls. The neighbouring lords attacked and ravaged 
the municipal territories; grave injuries were inflicted by the 
mercenary bands, especially by the Bretons and Gascons. The 
rival claims to the Neapolitan kingdom of Carlo di Durazzo and 
Louis of Anjou caused fresh disturbances in Tuscany. The 
Sienese government conceived hopes of gaining possession of the 
city of Arezzo, which was first occupied by Durazzo's men, 
and then by Enguerrand de Coucy for Louis of Anjou; but 
while the Sienese were nourishing dreams of conquest the French 
general unexpectedly sold the city to the Florentines, whose 
negotiations had been conducted with marvellous ability and 
despatch (1384). The gathering exasperation of the Sienese, 
and notably of the middle class, against their rulers was brought 
to a climax by this cruel disappointment. Their discontent had 
been gradually swelled by various acts of home and foreign 
policy during the sixteen years' rule of the riformatori, nor had 
the concessions granted to the partisans of the twelve and the 
latter 's recall and renewed eligibility to office availed to conciliate 
them. At last the revolt broke out and gained the upper hand, 
in March 1385. The riformatori were ousted from power and 
expelled the city, and the trade of Siena suffered no little injury 
by the exile of so many artisan families. The fifteen were 
replaced by a new supreme magistracy of ten priors, chosen in 
the following proportions — four of the twelve, four of the nine, 
and two of the people proper, or people of the greater number, 
but to the exclusion of all who had shared in the government or 
sat in council under the riformatori. Thus began a new order or 
monte del popolo, composed of families of the same class as the 
riformatori, but having had no part in the government during 
the latter's rule. But, though now admitted to power through 
the burgher reaction, as a concession to democratic ideas, and to 
cause a split among the greater people, they enjoyed very limited 
privileges. 1 

In 1387 fresh quarrels with Florence on the subject of Monte- 
pulciano led fo an open war, that was further aggravated by 
the interference in Tuscan affairs of the ambitious duke of Milan, 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti. With him the Sienese concluded an 
alliance in 1389 and ten years later accepted his suzerainty and 
resigned the liberties of their state. But in 1402 the death of 

1 The following are the ordini or monti that held power in Siena 
for any considerable time — gentiluomini, from the origin of the re- 
public; nove, from about 1285; dodici, f rom 1 355 ; riformatori, from 
1368; popolo, from 1385. 



Gian Galeazzo lightened their yoke. In that year the first plot 
against the Viscontian rule, hatched by the twelve and the 
Salimbeni and fomented by the Florentines, was violently re- 
pressed, and caused the twelve to be again driven from office; 
but in the following year a special balia, created in consequence 
of that riot, annulled the ducal suzerainty and restored the 
liberties of Siena. During the interval the supreme magistracy 
had assumed a more popular form. By the partial readmission 
of the riformatori and exclusion of the twelve, the permanent 
balia was now composed of nine priors (three of the nine, three 
of the people, and three of iheriformatori) and of a captain of the 
people to be chosen from each of the three monti in turn. On 
nth April peace was made with the Florentines and Siena en- 
joyed several years of tranquil prosperity. 

But the great Western schism then agitating the Christian 
world again brought disturbance to Siena. In consequence of the 
decisions of the council of Pisa, Florence and Siena had declared 
against Gregory XII. (1409); Ladislaus of Naples, therefore, as 
a supporter of the pope, seized the opportunity to make incursions 
on Sienese territory, laying it waste and threatening the city. 
The Sienese maintained a vigorous resistance till the death of 
this monarch in 1414 freed them from his attacks. In 143 1 
a fresh war with Florence broke out, caused by the latter's 
attempt upon Lucca, and continued in consequence of the 
Florentines' alliance with Venice and Pope Eugenius IV., and 
that of the Sienese with the duke of Milan and Sigismund, king 
of the Romans. This monarch halted at Siena on his way to 
Rome to be crowned, and received a most princely welcome. 
In 1433 the opposing leagues signed a treaty of peace, and, 
although it was disadvantageous to the Sienese and temptations to 
break it were frequently urged upon them, they faithfully adhered 
to its terms. During this period of comparative tranquillity 
Siena was honoured by the visit of Pope Eugenius IV. (1443) and 
by that of the emperor Frederick III., who came there to receive 
his bride, Eleanor of Portugal, from the hands of Bishop Aeneas 
Sylvius Piccolomini, his secretary and historian (1452). This 
meeting is recorded by the memorial column still to be seen outside 
the Camollia gate. In 1453 hostilities against Florence were 
again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese 
territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with 
Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battle- 
ground. Peace was once more patched up with Florence in 1454. 
Siena was next at war for several years with Aldobrandino 
Orsini, count of Pitigliano, and with Jacopo Piccinini, and 
suffered many disasters from the treachery of its generals. About 
the same time the republic was exposed to still graver danger by 
the conspiracy of some of its leading citizens to seize the reins of 
power and place the city under the suzerainty of Alphonso, 
as it had once been under that of the duke of Milan. But the 
plot came to light; its chief ringleaders were beheaded, and 
many others sent into exile (1456); and the death of Alphonso 
at last ended all danger from that source. During those critical 
times the government of the state was strengthened by a new 
executive magistracy called the balia, which from 1455 began 
to act independently of the priors or consistory. Until then 
it had been merely a provisional committee annexed to the latter. 
But henceforward the balia had supreme jurisdiction in all affairs 
of the state, although always, down to the fall of the republic, 
nominally preserving the character of a magistracy extraordinary. 
The election of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini to the papal chair 
in 1458 caused the utmost joy to the Sienese; and in compliment 
to their illustrious fellow-citizen they granted the request of the 
nobles and readmitted them to a share in the government. 
But this concession, grudgingly made, only remained in force 
for a few years, and on the death of the pope (1464) was revoked 
altogether, save in the case of members of the Piccolomini house, 
who were decreed to be popolani and were allowed to retain all 
their privileges. Meanwhile fresh discords were brewing among 
the plebeians at the head of affairs. 

The conspiracy of the Pazzi in 1478 led to a war in which 
Florence and Milan were opposed to the pope and the king of 
Naples, and which was put an end to by the peace of 13th 



52 



SIENA 



March 1480. Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was 
fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came 
to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his 
grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and 
the recall of the exiled rebels in 14 56. The noveschi (to whose order 
most of the rebels belonged) favoured his pretensions, but the 
riformatori were against him. Many of the people sided with the 
noveschi, rose in revolt on 22nd June 1480 and, aided by the 
duke's soldiery, reorganized the government to their own advant- 
age. Dividing the power between their two orders of the nine and 
the people, they excluded the riformatori and replaced them by 
a new and heterogeneous order styled the aggregati, composed 
of nobles, exiles of 1456 and citizens of other orders who had 
never before been in office. But this violent and perilous upset 
of the internal liberties of the republic did not last long. A decree 
issued by the Neapolitan king (1482) depriving the Sienese of 
certain territories in favour of Florence entirely alienated their 
affections from that monarch. Meanwhile the monte oi the nine, 
the chief promoters of the revolution of 1480, were exposed to the 
growing hatred and envy of their former allies, the monte del 
popolo, who, conscious of their superior strength and numbers, 
now sought to crush the noveschi and rise to power in their 
stead. This change cf affairs was accomplished by a series of 
riots between 7th June 1482 and 20th February 1483. The 
monte del popolo seized the lion's share of the government; the 
riformatori were recalled, the aggregati abolished and the 
noveschi condemned to perpetual banishment from the govern- 
ment and the city. But " in perpetuo " was an empty form of 
words in those turbulent Italian republics. The noveschi, being 
" fat burghers " with powerful connexions, abilities and tradi- 
tions, gained increased strength and influence in exile; and five 
years later, on 22nd July 1487, they returned triumphantly 
to Siena, dispersed the few adherents of the popolo who offered 
resistance, murdered the captain of the people, reorganized the 
state, and placed it under the protection of the Virgin Mary. 
And, their own predominance being assured by their numerical 
strength and influence, they accorded equal shares of power to the 
other monti. 

Among the returned exiles was Pandolfo Petrucci, chief of the 
noveschi and soon to be at the head of the government. During 
the domination of this man (who, like Lorenzo de' Medici, was 
surnamed " the M a g n ifi cen t ") Siena enjoyed many years of 
splendour and prosperity. We use the term " domination " 
rather than " signory " inasmuch as, strictly speaking, Petrucci 
was never lord of the state, and left its established form of govern- 
ment intact; but he exercised despotic authority in virtue of his 
strength of character and the continued increase of his personal 
power. He based his foreign policy on alliance with Florence and 
France, and directed the internal affairs of the state by means of 
the council {collegia) of the balia, which, although occasionally 
reorganized for the purpose of conciliating rival factions, was 
always subject to his will. He likewise added to his power by 
assuming the captainship of the city guard (1495) , and later by the 
purchase from the impoverished commune of several outlying 
castles (1507). Nor did he shrink from' deeds of bloodshed and 
revenge; the assassination of his father-in-law, Niccolo Borghesi 
(1500), is an indelible blot upon his name. He successfully 
withstood all opposition within the state, until he was at last 
worsted in his struggle with Cesare Borgia, who caused his ex- 
pulsion from Siena in 1502. But through the friendly mediation 
of the Florentines and the French king he was recalled from 
banishment on 29th March 1503. He maintained his power 
until his death at the age of sixty on 21st May 1512, and 
was interred with princely ceremonials at the public expense. 
The predominance of his family in Siena did not last long after 
his decease. Pandolfo had not the qualities required to found 
a dynasty such as that of the Medici. He lacked the lofty 
intellect of a Cosimo or a Lorenzo, and the atmosphere of liberty- 
loving Siena with its ever-changing factions was in no way suited 
to his purpose. His eldest son, Borghese Petrucci , was incapable, 
haughty and exceedingly corrupt; he only remained three years 
at the head of affairs and fled ignominiously in 1515. Through 



the favour of Leo X., he was succeeded by his cousin Raffaello 
Petrucci, previously governor of St Angelo and afterwards a- 
cardinal. 

This Petrucci was a bitter enemy to Pandolfo's children. 
He caused Borghese and a younger son named Fabio to be 
proclaimed as rebels, while a third son, Cardinal Alphonso, 
was strangled by order of Leo X. in 1518. He was a tyrannical 
ruler, and died suddenly in 1522. In the following year Clement 
VII. insisted on the recall of Fabio Petrucci; but two years later 
a fresh popular outbreak drove him from Siena for ever. The 
city then placed itself under the protection of the emperor 
Charles V., created a magistracy of " ten conservators of the 
liberties of the state" (December 1524), united the different 
monti in one named the " monte of the reigning nobles," and, 
rejoicing to be rid of the last of the Petrucci, dated their public 
books, ab instaurata libertate year I., II., and so on. 

The so-called free government subject to the empire lasted 
for twenty-seven years; and the desired protection of Spain 
weighed more and more heavily until it became a tyranny. 
The imperial legates and the captains of the Spanish guard in 
Siena crushed both government and people by continual ex- 
tortions and by undue interference with the functions of the 
balia. Charles V. passed through Siena in 1535, and, as in all 
the other cities of enslaved Italy, was received with the greatest 
pomp; but he left neither peace nor liberty behind him. From 
1527 to 1545 the city was torn by faction fights and violent revolts 
against the noveschi, and was the scene of frequent bloodshed, 
while the quarrelsomeness and bad government of the Sienese 
gave great dissatisfaction in Tuscany. The balia was recon- 
stituted several times by the imperial agents — in 1530 by Don 
Lopez di Soria and Alphonso Piccolomini, duke of Amalfi, in 
1 540 by Granvella (or Granvelle) and in 1 548 by Don Diego di 
Mendoza; but government was carried on as badly as before, and 
there was increased hatred of the Spanish rule. When in 154.0 
Don Diego announced the emperor's purpose of erecting a 
fortress in Siena to keep the citizens in order, the general hatred 
found vent in indignant remonstrance. The historian Orlando 
Malavolti and other special envoys were sent to the emperor 
in 1550 with a petition signed by more than a thousand citizens 
praying him to spare them so terrible a danger; but their mission 
failed: they returned unheard. Meanwhile Don Diego had laid _ 
the foundation of the citadel and was carrying on the work 
with activity. Thereupon certain Sienese citizens in Rome, 
headed by Aeneas Piccolomini (a kinsman of Pius II.), entered 
into negotiations with the agents of the French king and, having 
with their help collected men and money, marched on Siena and 
forced their way in by the new gate (now Porta Romana) on 
26th July 1552. The townspeople, encouraged and reinforced 
by this aid from without, at once rose in revolt, and, attacking 
the Spanish troops, disarmed them and drove them to take 
refuge in the citadel (28th July). And finally by an agreement 
with Cosimo de' Medici, duke of Florence, the Spaniards were sent 
away on the 5th August 1552 and the Sienese took possession 
of their fortress. 

The government was now reconstituted under the protection 
of the French agents; the balia was abolished, its very name 
having been rendered odious by the tyranny of Spain, and was 
replaced by a similar magistracy styled capitani del popolo e 
reggimento. Siena exulted in her recovered freedom; but her 
sunshine was soon clouded. First, the emperor's wrath was 
stirred by the influence of France in the counsels of the republic; 
then Cosimo, who was no less jealous of the French, conceived 
the design of annexing Siena to his own dominions. The first 
hostilities of the imperial forces in Val di Chiana (1552-1553) did 
little damage; but when Cosimo took the field with an army 
commanded by the marquis of Marignano the ruin of Siena 
was at hand. On 26th January Marignano captured the 
forts of Porta Camollia (which the whole population of Siena, 
including the women, had helped to construct) and invested the 
city. On the 2nd of August of the same year, at Marciano in 
Val di Chiana, he won a complete victory over the Sienese and 
French troops under Piero Strozzi, the Florentine exile and 



SIENA 



53 



marshal of France. Meanwhile Siena was vigorously besieged, 
and its inhabitants, sacrificing everything for their beloved city, 
maintained a most heroic defence. A glorious record of their 
sufferings is to be found in the Diary of Sozzini, the Sienese 
historian, and in the Commentaries of Blaise de Monluc, the 
French representative in Siena. But in April 1555 the town 
was reduced to extremity and was forced to capitulate to the 
emperor and the duke. On 21st April the Spanish troops 
entered the gates; thereupon many patriots abandoned the city 
and, taking refuge at Montalcino, maintained there a shadowy 
form of republic until 1559. 

Cosimo I. de' Medici being granted the investiture of the 
Sienese state by the patent of Philip II. of Spain, dated 3rd 
July 1557, took formal possession of the city on the 19th of 
the same month. A lieutenant-general was appointed as repre- 
sentative of his authority; the council of the balia was recon- 
stituted with twenty members chosen by the duke; the con- 
sistory and the general council were left in existence but deprived 
of their political autonomy. Thus Siena was annexed to the 
Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral 
part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany. Nevertheless it retained 
a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the 
general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French 
domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences 
between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government. 
In 1859. Siena was the first Tuscan city that voted for annexation 
to Piedmont and the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II., this 
decision (voted 26th June) being the initial step towards the 
unity of Italy. 

Literary History. — The literary history of Siena, while recording 
no gifts to the world equal to those bequeathed by Florence, and 
without the power and originality by which the latter became the 
centre of Italian culture, can nevertheless boast of some illustrious 
names. Of these a brief summary, beginning with the department 
of general literature and passing on to history and science, is sub- 
joined. Many of them are also dealt with in separate articles, to 
which the reader is referred. 

As early as the 13th century the vulgar tongue was already well 
established at Siena, being used in public documents, commercial 
records and private correspondence. The poets flourishing at that 
period were Folcacchiero, Cecco Angiolieri — a humorist of a very 
high order — and Bindo Bonichi, who belonged also to the following 
century. The chief glory of the 14th century was St Catherine 
Benincasa. The year of her death (1380) was that of the birth of St 
Bernardino Albizzeschi (S Bernardino of Siena), a popular preacher 
whose sermons in the vulgar tongue are models of style and diction. 
To the 15th century belongs Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), 
humanist, historian and political writer. In the 16th century we 
find another Piccolomini (Alexander), bishop of Patras, author of 
a curious dialogue, Delia bella creanza delle donne; another bishop, 
ClaudioTolomei, diplomatist, poet and philologist, who revived the 
use of ancient Latin metres ; and Luca Contile, a writer of narratives, 
plays and poems. Prose fiction had two representatives in this 
century — Scipione Bargagli, a writer of some merit, and Pietro 
Fortini, whose productions were trivia! and indecent. In the 17th 
century we find Ludovico Sergardi (Quinto Settano), a Latinist and 
satirical writer of much talent and culture; but the most original 
and brilliant figure in Sienese literature is that of Girolamo Gigli 
(1660-1722), author of the Gazzettino, La Sorellina di Don Pilone, II 
Vocabolario cateriniano and the Diario ecclesiastico. As humorist, 
scholar and philologist, Gigli would take a high place in the literature 
of any land. His resolute opposition to all hypocrisy — whether 
religious or literary — exposed him to merciless persecution from the 
Jesuits and the Delia Cruscan Academy. 

In the domain of history we have first the old Sienese chronicles, 
which down to the 14th century are so confused that it is almost 
impossible to disentangle truth from fiction or even to decide the 
personality of the various authors. Three 14th-century chronicles, 
attributed to Andrea Dei, AgnolodiTura, called II Grasso, and Neri 
diDonati, are published in Muratori (vol.xv.). To the 15th century 
belongs the chronicle of Allegretto Allegretti, also in Muratori (vol. 
xxiii.) ; and during the same period flourished Sigismondo Tizio (a 
priest of Siena, though born at Castiglione Aretino), whose volumin- 
ous history written in Latin and never printed (now among the MSS. 
of the Chig^i Library in Rome), though devoid of literary merit, con- 
tains much valuable material. The best Sienese historians belong to 
the 1 6th century . They are Orlando Malavolti (151 5-1 596) , a man of 
noble birth, the most trustworthy of all; Antonio Bellarmati; 
Alessandro Sozzini di Girolamo, the sympathetic author of the Diario 
dell' ultima guerra senese; and Giugurta Tommasi, of whose tedious 
history ten books, down to 1354, have been published, the rest being 
still in manuscript. Together with these historians we must mention 



the learned scholars Celso Cittadini (d. 1627), Ulberto Benvoglienti 
(d. 1733), one of Muratori's correspondents, and Gio. Antonio Picci 
(d. 1768), author of histories o'f Pandolfo Petrucci and the bishopric 
of Siena. In the same category may be classed the librarian C. F. 
Carpellini (d. 1872), author of several monographs on the origin of 
Siena and the constitution of the republic, and Scipione Borghesi 
(d. 1877), who has left a precious store of historical, biographical and 
bibliographical studies and documents. 

In theology and philosophy the most distinguished names are: 
Bernardino Ochino and Lelio and Fausto Soccini (16th century) ; 
in jurisprudence, three Soccini: Mariano senior, Bartolommeo and 
Marianojunior (15th and 16th centuries) ; and in political economy, 
Sallustio Bandini (1677-1760), author of the Discorso sulla Ma- 
remma. In physical science the names most worthy of mention are 
those of the botanist Pier Antonio Mattioli (1501-1572), of Pirro 
Maria Gabrielli (1643-1705), founder of the academy of the Physio- 
critics, and of the anatomist Paolo Mascagni (d. 1825). 

Art. — Lanzi happily designates Sienese painting as " Lieta scuola 
fra lieto popolo " (" the blithe school of a blithe people"). The 
special characteristics of its masters are freshness of colour, vivacity 
of expression and distinct originality. The Sienese school of painting 
owes its origin to the influence of Byzantine art ; but it improved 
that art, impressed it with a special stamp and was for long inde- 
pendent of all other influences. Consequently Sienese art seemed 
almost stationary amid the general progress and development of 
the other Italian schools, and preserved its medieval character 
down to the end of the 15th century, when the influence of the Um- 
brian and— to a slighter degree— of the Florentine schools began to 
penetrate into Siena, followed a little later by that of the Lombard. 
In the 13th century we find Guido (da Siena), painter of the well- 
known Madonna in the church of S Domenico in Siena. The 14th 
century gives us Ugolino, Duccio di Buoninsegna, Simone di Martino 
(or Memmi) , Lippo Memmi, Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Andrea 
di Vanni (painter and statesman), Bartolo di Fredi and Taddeo di 
Bartolo. In the 15th century we have Domenico di Bartolo, Sano di 
Pietro, Giovanni di Paolo, Stefano di Giovanni (II Sassetta) and 
Matteo and Benvenuto di Giovanni Bartoli, who fell, however, behind 
their contemporaries elsewhere, and made indeed but little progress. 
The 1 6th century boasts the names of Bernardino Fungai, Guidoccio 
Cossarelli, Giacomo Pacchiarotto, Girolamo del Pacchia and especi- 
ally Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1537), who while especially celebrated 
for his frescoes and studies in perspective and chiaroscuro was also 
an architect of considerable attainments (see Rome) ; Giovanni 
Antonio Bazzi, otherwise known as II Sodoma (1477-1549), who, 
born at Vercelli in Piedmont, and trained at Milan in the school of 
Leonardo da Vinci, came to Siena in 1504 and there produced some of 
his finest works, while his influence on the art of the place was con- 
siderable; Domenico Beccafumi, otherwise known as Micharino 
(1486-1550), noted for the Michelangelesque daring of his designs; 
and Francesco Vanni. 

There may also be mentioned many sculptors and architects, such 
as Lorenzo Maitani, architect of Orvieto cathedral (end of 13th 
century) ; Camaino di Crescentino ; Tino di Camaino, sculptor of the 
monument to Henry VII. in the Campo Santo of Pisa; Agostino 
and Agnolo, who in 1330 carved the fine tomb of Bishop Guido 
Tarlati in the cathedral of Arezzo; Lando di Pietro (14th century), 
architect, entrusted by the Sienese commune with the proposed en- 
largement of the cathedral (1339), and perhaps author of the famous 
Gothic reliquary containing the head of S Galgano in the Chiesa del 
Santuccio, which, however, is more usually attributed to Ugolino di 
Vieri, author of the tabernacle in the cathedral at Orvieto; Giacopo 
(or Jacopo) della Querela, whose lovely fountain, the Fonte Gaia, in 
the Piazza del Campo has been recently restored ; Lorenzo di Pietro 
(II Vecchietta), a pupil of Della Quercia and an excellent artist in 
marble and bronze; Francesco d'Antonio, a skilful goldsmith of the 
16th century; Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1502), painter, 
sculptor, military engineer and writer on art; Giacomo Cozzarelli 
(15th century); and Lorenzo Mariano, surnamed II Marrina (16th 
century). Wood-carving also flourished here in the 15th and 16th 
centuries, and so also did the ceramic art, though few of its products 
are preserved. According to the well-known law, however, the 
Renaissance, made for the people of the plains, never fully took root 
in Siena, as in other parts of Tuscany, and the loss of its independ- 
ence and power in 1555 led to a suspension of building activity, which 
to the taste of the present day is most fortunate, inasmuch as the 
baroque of the 17th and the false classicism of the 18th centdries 
have had hardly any effect here ; and few towns of Italy are so un- 
spoilt by restoration or the addition of incongruous modern buildings, 
or preserve so many characteristics and so much of the real spirit 
(manifested to-day in the grave and pleasing courtesy of the inhabi- 
tants) of the middle ages, which its narrow and picturesque streets 
seem to retain. Siena is indeed unsurpassed for its examples of 13th 
and 14th century Italian Gothic, whether in stone or in brick. 

See VV. Heywood, Our Lady of August and the Palio (Siena, 1899) 
and other works ; R. H. Hobart Cust, The Pavement Masters of Siena 
(London, 1901) ; Langton Douglas, History of Siena (London, 1902); 
E. G. Gardner, The Story of Siena (London, 1902) ; St Catherine of Siena 
(London, 1908) ; W. Heywood and L. Olcott, Guide to Siena (Siena, 
1603) ; A. Jahn Rusconi, Siena (Bergamo, 1904). (C. Pa. ; T. As.) 



54 



SIENETJO— SIERRA LEONE 



SIENETJO, one of the Shangalla tribes living in south-west 
Abyssinia near the Sudan frontier, who claim to be a remnant 
of the primitive population. They are apparently a Hamitic 
people, and their skin is of a yellowish tint. Their women 
never intermarry with the Negroes or Arabs. Sienet jo villages 
are usually built on hilltops. They are an industrious people, 
skilful jewellers, weavers and smiths. 

SIENKIEWICZ, HENRYK (1846- ), Polish novelist, was 
born in 1846 at Wola Okrzeska near Lukow, in the province of 
Siedlce, Russian Poland. He studied philosophy at Warsaw 
University. His first work, a humorous novel entitled A Prophet 
in his own Country, appeared in 1872. In 1876 Sienkiewicz 
visited America, and under the pseudonym of " Litwos, " con- 
tributed an account of his travels to the Gazeta Polska, a Warsaw 
newspaper. Thenceforward his talent as a writer of historical 
novels won rapid recognition, and his best-known romance, 
Quo Vadis? a study of Roman society under Nero, has been 
translated into more than thirty languages. Originally pub- 
lished in 1895, Quo Vadis? was first translated into English in 
1S96, and dramatized versions of it have been produced in 
England, the United States, France and Germany. Remarkable 
powers of realistic description, and a strong religious feeling 
which at times borders upon mysticism, characterize the best 
work of Sienkiewicz. Hardly inferior to Quo Vadis? in popu- 
larity, and superior in literary merit, is the trilogy of novels 
describing 17th-century society in Poland during the wars with 
the Cossacks, Turks and Swedes. This trilogy comprises Ogniem 
i mieczcm (" With Fire and Sword, " London, 1890, 1892 and 
1895), Potop (" The Deluge, " Boston, Mass., 1891) and Pan 
Woxodjowski (" Pan Michael," London, 1893). Among other 
very successful novels and collections of tales which have been 
translated into English are Bez Dogmatu (" Without Dogma, " 
London, 1893; Toronto, i&gg),Janko muzykant: nowele (" Yanko 
the Musician and other Stories," Boston, Mass., 1893), Krzyzacy 
(" The Knight of the Cross, " numerous British and American 
versions), Hania (" Hania, " London, 1897) and Ta Trzecia 
(" The Third Woman, " New York, 1898). Sienkiewicz lived 
much in Cracow and Warsaw, and for a time edited the Warsaw 
newspaper Slowo; he also travelled in England, France, Italy, 
Spain, Greece, Africa and the East, and published a description 
of his journeys in Africa. In 1905 he received the Nobel prize for 
literature. 

A German edition of his collected works was published at Graz 
(1906, &c), and his biography was written in Polish by P. Chmiel- 
owski (Lemberg, 1901) and J. Nowinski (Warsaw, 1901). 

SIERADZ, a town of Russian Poland, in the government of 
Kalisz, situated on theWarta, no m. S.W. of the city of Warsaw. 
Pop. (1897) 7019. It is one of the oldest towns of Poland, 
founded prior to the introduction of Christianity, and was 
formerly known as Syra orSyraz. The annals mention it in n 39. 
Several seims, or diets, of Poland were held there during the 13th 
to 15th centuries, andit was a wealthy town until nearly destroyed 
by a fire in 1447. The old castle, which suffered much in the 
Swedish war of 1702-1711, was destroyed by the Germans in 
1800. There are two churches, dating from the 12th and 14th 
centuries respectively. 

SIERO, a town of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo, on 
the river Nora, and on the Oviedo-Trifiesto railway. Pop. (1900) 
22,503. Siero is in the centre of a fertile agricultural district, in 
which live-stock is extensively reared. There are coal mines in 
the neighbourhood, and the local industries include tanning and 
manufactures of soap, coarse linen and cloths. 

SIERRA LEONE, a British colony and protectorate on the 
west coast of Africa. It is bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. and 
E. by French Guinea and S. by Liberia. The coast-line, 
following the indentations, is about 400 m. in length, extending 
from 9° 2' N. to 6° 55' N. It includes the peninsula of Sierra 
Leone — 23 m. long with an average breadth of 14 m. — Sherbro 
Island, Bance, Banana, Turtle, Plantain and other minor islands, 
also Turner's Peninsula, a narrow strip of land southward of 
Sherbro Island, extending in a S.E. direction about 60 m. Except 
in the Sierra Leone peninsula, Sherbro Island and Turner's 



Peninsula, the colony proper does not extend inland to a greater 
depth than half a mile. The protectorate, which adjoins the 
colony to the north and east, extends from 7 N. to io° N. and 
from io c 40' W. to 13 W., and has an area of rather more 
than 30,000 sq. m., being about the size of Ireland. (For 
map, see French West Africa.) The population of the 
colony proper at the 1901 census was 76,655. The popula- 
tion of the protectorate is estimated at from 1,000,000 to 
1,500,000. 

Physical Features. — Sierra Leone is a well-watered, well-wooded 
and generally hilly country. The coast-line is deeply indented in its 
northern portion. Here the sea has greatly eroded the normal 
regular, harbourless line of the west coast of Africa, forming bold 
capes and numerous inlets or estuaries. The Sierra Leone peninsula 
is the most striking result of this marine action. North of it are the 
Sierra Leone and Scarcies estuaries; to the south is Yawry Bay. 
Then in 7° 30' N. Sherbro Island is reached. This is succeeded by 
Turner's Peninsula (in reality an island). The seaward faces of these 
islands are perfectly regular and indicate the original continental 
coast-line. They have been detached from the mainland partly by 
a marine inlet, partly by the lagoon-like creeks formed by the rivers. 
In the Sierra Leone peninsula the hills come down to the sea, else- 
where a low coast plain extends inland 30 to 50 m. The plateau 
which forms the greater part of the protectorate has an altitude 
varying from 800 to 3000 ft. On the north-east border by the Niger 
sources are mountains exceeding 5000 ft. The most fertile parts of 
the protectorate are Sherbro and Mendiland in the south-west. In 
the north-west the district between the Great Scarcies and the Rokell 
rivers is flat and is named Bullom (low land). In the south-east 
bordering Liberia is a belt of densely forested hilly country extending 
50 m. S. to N. and very sparsely inhabited. 

The hydrography of the country is comparatively simple. Six 
large rivers — 300 to 500 m. long — rise in the Futa Jallon highlands 
in or beyond the northern frontier of the protectorate and in whole or 
in part traverse the country with a general S.W. course; the Great 
and Little Scarcies in the north, the Rokell and Jong in the centre 
and the Great Bum and Sulima in the south. These rivers are navi- 
gable for short distances, but in general rapids or cataracts mark their 
middle courses. The Great Scarcies, the Rio dos Carceres of the 
Portuguese, rises not far from the sources of the Senegal. Between 
9 go' and 9 15' N. it forms the boundary between the protectorate 
and French Guinea ; below that point it is wholly in British territory. 
The Little Scarcies enters Sierra Leone near Yomaia, in the most 
northerly part of the protectorate. Known in its upper course as the 
Kabba, it flows through wild rocky country, its banks in places being 
900 ft. high. After piercing the hills it runs parallel with the Great 
Scarcies. In their lower reaches the two rivers — both large streams — 
traverse a level plain, separated by no obstacles. The mouth of the 
Little Scarcies is 20 m. S. of that of the Great Scarcies. South of the 
estuary of the Scarcies the deep inlet known as the Sierra Leone 
river forms a perfectly safe and commodious harbour accessible to the 
largest vessels. At its entrance on the southern shore lies Freetown. 
Into the estuary flows, besides smaller streams, the Rokell, known 
in its upper course as the Seli. The broad estuary which separates 
Sherbro Island from the mainland, and is popularly called the 
Sherbro river, receives the Bagru from the N.W. and the Jong river, 
whose headstream, known as the Taia, Pampana and Sanden, flows 
for a considerable distance east of and parallel to the Rokell. The 
sources of the Taia, and those of the Great Bum, are near to those of 
the Niger, the watershed between the coast streams and the Niger 
basin here forming the frontier. The main upper branch of the Great 
Bum (or Sewa) river is called the Bague or Bagbe (white river). It 
flows east of and more directly south than the Taia. In its lower 
course the Bum passes through the Mendi country and enters the 
network of lagoons and creeks separated from the ocean by the long 
low tract of Turner's Peninsula. The main lagoon waterway goes by 
the name of the Bum-Kittam river, and to the north opens into the 
Sherbro estuary. Southward it widens out and forms Lake Kasse 
(20 m. long), before reaching the ocean just north of the estuary of 
the Sulima. The Wanje or upper Kittam joins this creek, and is 
also connected with Lake Mabessi, a sheet of water adjacent to Lake 
Kasse. The Sulima or Moa is a magnificent stream and flows through 
a very fertile country. One of its headstreams, the Meli, rises in 
French Guinea in 10 30' W. 9° 17' N. and flows for some distance 
parallel to the infant Niger, but in the opposite direction. It joins 
the Moa within Sierra Leone. The main upper stream of the Moa 
separates French Guinea and Liberia and enters British territory in 
10° 40' W. 8° 20' N. Only the lower course is known as the Sulima. 
Between 7 40' and 7 20' are lacustrine reaches. Six miles S. of the 
mouth of the Sulima the Mano or Bewa river enters the sea. It 
rises in Liberia, and below 7° 30' N. forms the frontier between that 
republic and the protectorate. 

The Sierra Leone peninsula, the site of the oldest British settle- 
ment, lies between the estuary of the same name and Yawry Bay to 
the south. It is traversed on its seaward face by hills attaining a 
height of 1700 ft. in the Sugar Loaf, and nearly as much in Mount 
Herton farther south. The hills consist of a kind of granite and of 



SIERRA LEONE 



55 



beds of red sandstone, the disintegration of which has given a dark- 
coloured ferruginous soil of moderate fertility. Sugar Loaf is 
timbered to the top, and the peninsula is verdant with abundant 
vegetation. 

Climate. —'Win coast lands are unhealthy and have earned for Sierra 
Leone the unenviable reputation of being " the white man's grave." 
The mean annual temperature is above 8o°, the rainfall, which varies 
a great deal, is from 150 to 180 or more inches per annum. In 1896 
no fewer than 203 in. were recorded. In 1894 , a " dry " year, only 
144 in. of rain fell. In no other part of West Africa is the rainfall so 
heavy. December, January, February and March are practically 
rainless; the rains, beginning in April or May, reach their maximum 
in July, August and September, and rapidly diminish in October 
and November. During the dry season, when the climate is very 
much like that of the West Indies, there occur terrible tornadoes 
and long periods of the harmattan — a north-east wind, dry and 
desiccating, and carrying with it from the Sahara clouds of fine dust, 
which sailors designate " smokes." The dangers of the climate are 
much less in the interior; 40 or 50 m. inland the country is tolerable 
for Europeans. 

Flora.. — The characteristic tree of the coast districts is the oil- 
palm. Other palm trees found are the date, bamboo, palmyra, coco 
and dom. The coast-line, the creeks and the lower courses of the 
rivers are lined with mangroves. Large areas are covered with 
brushwood, among which are scattered baobab, shea-butter, bread 
fruit, corkwood and silk-cotton trees. The forests contain valuable 
timber trees such as African oak or teak (Oldfieldia Africana), rose- 
wood, ebony, tamarind, camwood, odum — whose wood resists the 
attacks of termites — and the tolmgah or brimstone tree. The 
frankincense tree (Daniellia thtirifera) reaches from 50 to 150 ft., the 
negro pepper (Xylopia Aethiopica) grows to about 60 ft., the fruit 
being used by the natives as pepper. There are also found the black 
pepper plant (Piper Clusii), a climbing plant abundant in the moun- 
tain districts; the grains of paradise or melegueta pepper plant 
(Amomum Melegueta) and other Amomums whose fruits are prized. 
Of the Apocynaceae the rubber plants are the most important. 
Both Landolphia florida and Landolphia owaricnsis are found. Of 
several fibre-yielding plants the so-called aloes of the orders Amaryl- 
lidaceae and Liliaceae are common. The kola (Cola acuminata) and 
the bitter kola (Garcinia cola), the last having a fruit about the size 
of an apple, with a flavour like that of green coffee, are common. 
Of dye-yielding shrubs and plants camwood and indigo may be 
mentioned; of those whence gum is obtained the copal, acacia and 
African tragacanth (Slerculia tragacantha). Besides the oil-palm, oil 
is obtained from many trees and shrubs, such as the benni oil plant. 
Of fruit trees there are among others the blood-plum (Haematostaphis 
Barteri) with deep crimson fruit in grape-like clusters, and the Sierra 
Leone peach (Sarcocephalus esculentus). The coffee and cotton plants 
are indigenous ; of grasses there are various kinds of millet, including 
Paspalum exile, the so-called hungry rice or Sierra Leone millet. 
Ferns are abundant in the marshes. Bright coloured flowers are 
somewhat rare. 

Fauna. — The wild animals include the elephant, still found in large 
numbers, the leopard, panther, chimpanzee, grey monkeys, antelope 
of various kinds, the buffalo, wild hog, bush goat, bush pig, sloth, 
civet and squirrel. The hippopotamus, manatee, crocodile and 
beaver are found in the rivers, and both land and fresh-water tortoises 
are common. Serpents, especially the boa-constrictor, are numerous. 
Chameleons, lizards and iguanas abound, as do frogs and toads. 
Wild birds are not very common ; among them are the hawk, parrot, 
owl, woodpecker, kingfisher, green pigeon, African magpie, the 
honey-sucker and canary. There are also wild duck, geese and other 
water fowl, hawk's bill, laggerheads and partridges. Mosquitoes, 
termites, bees, ants, centipedes, millipedes, locusts, grasshoppers, 
butterflies, dragonflies, sandflies and spiders are found in immen.se 
numbers. Turtle are common on the southern coast-line, sand and 
mangrove oysters are plentiful. Fish abound; among the common 
kinds are the bunga (a sort of herring), skate, grey mullet and tarpon. 
Sharks infest the estuaries. 

Inhabitants. — Sierra Leone is inhabited by various negro 
tribes, the chief being the Timni, the Sulima, the Susu and the 
Mendi. From the Mendi district many curious steatite figures 
which had been buried have been recovered and are exhibited 
in the British Museum. They show considerable skill in carving. 
Of semi-negro races the Fula inhabit the region of the Scarries. 
Freetown is peopled by descendants of nearly every negro tribe, 
and a distinct type known as the Sierra Leoni has been evolved; 
their language is pidgin English. Since 1900 a considerable 
number of Syrians have settled in the country as traders. Most 
of the negroes are pagans and each tribe has its secret societies 
and fetishes. These are very powerful and are employed often 
for beneficent purposes, such as the regulation of agriculture 
and the palm-oil industry. There are many Christian converts 
(chiefly Anglicans and Wesleyans) and Mahommedans. In the 
protectorate are some Mahommedan tribes, as for instance the 



Susu. The majority of the Sierra Leonis are nominally Christian. 
The European population numbers about 500. 

Towns. — Besides Freetown (q.v.) the capital (pop., 1901, 
34,463), the most important towns for European trade are Bonthe, 
the port of Sherbro, Port Lokko, at the head of the navigable 
waters of a stream emptying itself into the Sierra Leone estuary, 
and Songo Town, 30 m. S.E. of Freetown, with which it is con- 
nected by railway. In the interior are many populous centres. 
The most noted is Falaba, about 190 m. N.E. of Freetown on the 
Fala river, a tributary of the Little Scarcies. It lies about 1600 ft. 
above the sea. Falaba was founded towards the end of the 18th 
century by the Sulima who revolted from the Mahommedan Fula, 
and its warlike inhabitants soon attained supremacy over the 
neighbouring villages and country. Like many of the native 
towns it is surrounded by a loopholed wall, with flank defences lor 
the gates. The town is the meeting-place of many trade routes, 
including some to the middle Niger. Kambia on the Great 
Scarcies is a place of some importance. It can be reached by 
boat from the sea. On the railway running S.E. from Freetown 
are Rotifunk, Mano, and Bo, towns which have increased greatly 
in importance since the building of the railway. 

Agriculture and Trade. — Agriculture is in a backward condition, 
but is being developed. The wealth of the country consists, however, 
chiefly in its indigenous trees of economic value — the oil-palm, the 
kola-nut tree and various kinds of rubber plants, chiefly the Land- 
olphia owariensis. The crops cultivated are rice, of an excellent 
quality, cassava, maize and ginger. The cultivation of coffee and of 
native tobacco has been practically abandoned as unremunerative. 
The sugar cane is grown in small quantities. The ginger is grown 
mainly in the colony proper. Minor products are benni seeds, pepper 
and piassava. The oil-palm and kola-nut tree are especially abundant 
in the Sherbro district and its hinterland, the Mendi country. The 
palms, though never planted, are in practically unlimited numbers. 
The nuts are gathered twice a year. Formerly groundnuts were 
largely cultivated, but this industry has been superseded by exports 
from India. Its place has been taken to some extent by the extrac- 
tion of rubber. 

The cotton plant grows freely throughout the protectorate and the 
cloth manufactured is of a superior kind. Exotic varieties of cotton 
do not thrive. Experiments were made during 1903-1906 to intro- 
duce the cultivation of Egyptian and American varieties, but they did 
not succeed. Cattle are numerous but of a poor breed; horses do 
not thrive. The chief export is palm kernels, the amount of palm oil 
exported being comparatively slight. Next to palm products the 
most valuable articles exported are kola-nuts — which go largely to 
neighbouring French colonies — rubber and ginger. The imports are 
chiefly textiles, food and spirits. Nearly three-fourths of the imports 
come from Great Britian, which, however, takes no more than some 
35% of the exports. About 10% of the exports go to other British 
West African colonies. Germany, which has but a small share of the 
import trade, takes about 45 % of the exports. The value of the 
trade increased in the ten years 1 896-1 905 from £943,000 to 
£1,265,000. In 1908 the imports were valued at £813,700, the ex- 
ports at £736,700. 

The development of commerce with the rich regions north and 
east of the protectorate has been hindered by the diversion of trade 
to the French port of Konakry, which in 19 10 was placed in railway 
communication with the upper Niger. Moreover, the main trade 
road from Konakry to the middle Niger skirts the N.E. frontier of the 
protectorate for some distance. Sierra Leone is thus forced to look 
to its economic development within the bounds of the protectorate. 
Communications. — Internal communication is rendered difficult 
by the denseness of the " bush " or forest country. The rivers, 
however, afford a means of bringing country produce to the seaports. 
A railway, state owned and the first built in British West Africa, 
runs S.E. from Freetown through the fertile districts of Mendiland 
to the Liberian frontier. Begun in 1896, the line reached Bo (136 m.) 
in the oil-palm district in 1903, and was completed to Baiima, 15 m. 
from the Liberian frontier — total length 221 m. — in 1905. The 
gauge throughout is 2 ft. 6 in. The line cost about £4300 per mile, 
a total of nearly £1,000,000. Tramways and " feeder roads " have 
been built to connect various places with the railway; one such 
road goes from railhead to Kailahun in Liberia. 

Telegraphic communication with Europe was established in 1886. 
Steamers run at regular intervals between Freetown and Liverpool, 
Hamburg, Havre and Marseilles. In the ten years 1899-1908 the. 
tonnage of shipping entered and cleared rose from 1,181,000 to 
2,046,000. 

Administration, Revenue, &c- — The country is administered as a 
crown colony, the governor being assisted by an executive and a 
legislative council ; on the last-named a minority of nominated un- 
official members have seats. The law of the colony is the common 
law of England modified by local ordinances. There is a denomina- 
tional system of primary and higher education. The schools an 



56 



SIERRA LEONE 



inspected by government and receive grants in aid. In 1907 there 
were 75 assisted elementary schools with nearly 8000 scholars. 
Furah Bay College is affiliated to Durham University. There is a 
Wesleyan Theological College; a government school (established 
1906) at Bo for the sons of chiefs, and the Thomas Agricultural 
Academy at Mabang (founded in 1909 by a bequest of £60,000 from 
S. B. Thomas, a Sierra Leonian). Since 1901 the government has 
provided separate schools for Mahommedans. Revenue is largely 
derived from customs, especially from the duties levied on spirits. 
In the protectorate a house tax is imposed. In 1899-1908 revenue 
increased from £168,000 to £321,000, and the expenditure from 
£145,000 to £341,000. In 1906 there was a public debt of £1,279,000. 

Freetown is the headquarters of the British army in West Africa, 
and a force of infantry, engineers and artillery is maintained there. 
The colony itself provides a battalion of the West African Frontier 
Force, a body responsible to the Colonial Office. 

The protectorate is divided for administrative purposes into 
districts, each under a European commissioner. Throughout the 
protectorate native law is administered by native courts, subject 
to certain modifications. Native courts may not deal with murder, 
witchcraft, cannibalism or slavery. These cases are tried by the 
district commissioners or referred to the supreme court at Freetown. 
The tribal system of government is maintained, and the authority 
of the chiefs has been strengthened by the British. Domestic slavery 
is not interfered with. 

History. — Sierra Leone (in the original Portuguese form 
Sierra Leona) was known to its native inhabitants as Romarong, 
or the Mountain, and received the current designation from the 
Portuguese discoverer Pedro deSintra (i462),eitheronaccount of 
the " lion-like " thunder on its hill-tops, or to a fancied resem- 
blance of the mountains to the form of a lion. Here, as elsewhere 
along the coast, the Portuguese had "factories"; and though 
none existed when the British took possession, some of the natives 
called themselves Portuguese and claimed descent from colonists 
of that nation. An English fort was built on Bance Island in the 
Sierra Leone estuary towards the close of the 17th century, but 
was soon afterwards abandoned, though for a long period the 
estuary was the haunt of slavers and pirates. English traders 
were established on Bance and the Banana islands as long as 
the slave trade was legal. The existing colony has not, however, 
grown out of their establishments, but owes its birth to the 
philanthropists who sought to alleviate the lot of those negroes 
who were victims of the traffic in human beings. In 1786 Dr 
Henry Smeathman, who had lived for four years on the west 
coast, proposed a scheme for founding on the peninsula a colony 
for negroes discharged from the army and navy at the close of the 
American War of Independence, as well as for numbers of run- 
away slaves who had found an asylum in London. In 1787 the 
settlement was begun with 400 negroes and 60 Europeans, the 
whites being mostly women of abandoned character. In the 
year following, 1788. Nembana, a Timni chief, sold a strip of land 
to Captain John Taylor, R.N., for the use of the " free community 
of settlers, their heirs and successors, lately arrived from England, 
and under the protection of the British government." Owing 
mainly to the utter shiftlessness of the settlers and the great 
mortality among them, but partly to an attack by a body of 
natives, this first attempt proved a complete failure. In 1791 
Alexander Falconbridge (formerly a surgeon on board slave 
ships) collected the surviving fugitives and laid out a new settle- 
ment (Granville's Town) ; and the promoters of the enterprise — 
Granville Sharp, William Wilberforce, Sir Richard Carr Glyn, 
&c. — hitherto known as the St George's Bay Company, obtained 
a charter of incorporation as the Sierra Leone Company, with 
Henry Thornton as chairman. In 1792 John Clarkson, a lieu- 
tenant in the British navy and brother to Thomas Clarkson the 
slave trade abolitionist, brought to the colony 1100 negroes 
from Nova Scotia. In 1794 the settlement, which had been 
again transferred to its original site and named Freetown, was 
plundered by the French. The governor at the time was Zachary 
Macaulay, father of Thomas Babington, Lord Macaulay. In 
1807, when the inhabitants of the colony numbered 187 1, the 
company, which had encountered many difficulties, transferred 
its rights to the crown. The slave trade having in the same year 
been declared illegal by the British parliament, slaves captured 
by British vessels in the neighbouring seas were brought to 
Freetown, and thus the population of the colony grew. Its 



development was hampered by the frequent changes in the 
governorship. Sydney Smith's jest that Sierra Leone had always 
two governors, one just arrived in the colony, and the other just 
arrived in England, is but a slight exaggeration. In. twenty-two 
years (1 792-1814) there were seventeen changes in the governor- 
ship. After that date changes, although not quite so rapid, were 
still frequent. Several of the governors, like Zachary Macaulay, 
Colonel Dixon Denham, the explorer, and Sir Samuel Rowe, 
were men of distinction. Colonel Denham, after administering 
the colony for five weeks, died at Freetown of fever on the 9th 
of June 1828. Sir Charles M Carthy was, however, governor 
for ten years (1814-1824), an unprecedented period, during 
which he did much for the development of the country. Sir 
Charles fell in battle with the Ashanti on the 21st of January 
1824. Whilst the governors found great difficulty in building 
up an industrious and agricultural community out of the medley 
of Africans brought to Sierra Leone, they had also to contend 
with the illicit slave trade which flourished in places close to the 
colony. To stop the traffic in Sherbro Island General Charles 
Turner concluded in 1825 a treaty with its rulers putting the 
island, Turner's Peninsula and other places under British pro- 
tection. (This treaty was not ratified by the crown, but was 
revived by another agreement made in 1882.) 

At this time — 1826 — measures were taken to ensure that 
the liberated slaves should become self-supporting. Many 
colonists took to trade, and notwithstanding numerous collisions 
with neighbouring tribes the settlement attained a measure of 
prosperity. Among the leading agents in spreading civilization 
were the missionaries sent out from 1804 onwards by the Church 
Missionary Society. Despite the anxiety of the British govern- 
ment not to increase their responsibilities in West Africa, from 
time to time various small territories were purchased, and by 
1884 all the land now forming the colony had been acquired. 
The Los Islands (q.v.) which were ceded by the natives to Great 
Britain in 1818 were transferred to France in 1904. In 1866 
Freetown was made the capital of the new general government" 
set up for the British settlements on the West Coast of Africa 
(comprising Sierra Leone, Gambia, the Gold Coast and Lagos, 
each of which was to have a legislative council). In 1874 the 
Gold Coast and Lagos were detached from Sierra Leone, and the 
Gambia in 1888. 

British influence was gradually extended over the hinterland, 
chiefly with the object of suppressing intertribal wars, which 
greatly hindered trade. In this work the British 
authorities enlisted the services of Dr Edward W. Th e . 
Blyden (a pure-blooded negro), who in 1872 visited incident 
Falaba and in 1873 Timbo, both semi-Mahommedan 
countries, being cordially received by the ruling chiefs. Falaba — ■ 
which had been visited in 1869 by Winwood Reade on his journey 
tothe Niger — came definitely underBritish protection, but Timbo, 
which is in Futa Jallon, was allowed to become French territory 
through the supineness of the home government. The area for 
expansion on the north was in any case limited by the French 
Guinea settlements, and on the south the territory of Liberia 1 
hemmed in the colony. In the east and north-east British 
officers also found themselves regarded as trespassers by the 
French. The necessity for fixing the frontier in this direction 
was emphasized by the Waima incident. Both French and 
British military expeditions had been sent against the Sofas — 
Moslem mercenaries who, under the chieftainship of Fulas or 
Mandingos like Samory, ravaged the hinterland both of Sierra 
Leone and French Guinea. On the 23rd of December 1893 a 
British force was encamped at Waima. At dawn it was attacked 
by a French force which mistook the British troops for Samory's 
Sofas (save the officers the soldiers of both parties were negroes). 
Before the mistake was discovered the British had lost in killed 
three officers — Captain E. A. W. Lendy, Lieut. R. E. Liston 
and Lieut. C. Wroughton — and seven men, besides eighteen 
wounded. The French also suffered heavily. Their leader Lieut. 
Maritz was brought into the British camp mortally wounded, 

1 The Anglo-Liberian frontier, partly defined by treaty in 1885, 
was not delimitated until 1903 (see Liberia). 



SIERRA MORENA— SIEYES 



57 



and was buried by the British. Steps were taken to prevent the 
occurrence of any further conflicts, and an agreement defining the 
frontier was signed in January 1895. This agreement finally 
shut out Sierra Leone from its natural hinterland. In 1896 
the frontier was delimitated, and in the same year (26th of 
August 1896) a proclamation of a British protectorate was issued. 
To this extension of authority no opposition was offered at the 
time by any of the chiefs or tribes. Travelling commissioners 
were appointed to explore the hinterland, and frontier police 
were organized. The abolition of the slave trade followed; and 
with the introduction of the protectorate ordinance in 1897 a 
house tax of 5s. each was imposed, to come into operation in three 
districts on the 1st of January 1898. Chief Bai Bureh, in the 
Timni country, broke out into open war, necessitating a military 
punitive expedition. After strenuous fighting, in which the 
British casualties, including sick, reached 600, he was captured 
(14th of November 1898) and deported. Meantime (in April 
189S) the Mendi tribes rose, and massacred several British and 
American missionaries, including four ladies, at Rotifunk and 
Taiama, some native officials (Sierra Leonis) in the Imperri 
district, and a large number of police throughout the country. 
Speedy retribution followed, which effectually put down the 
revolt. Sir David P. Chalmers was appointed (July 1898) royal 
commissioner to inquire into the disturbances. He issued a 
report, July 1899, deprecating the imposition of the house tax, 
which was not, however, revoked. The disturbances would 
appear to have arisen not so much from dislike of the house tax 
per se as irritation at the arbitrary manner in which it was 
collected, and from a desire on the part of the paramount chiefs 
(who chafed at the suppression of slave trading and slave raiding, 
and who disseminated a powerful fetish "swear," called "Poro," 
to compel the people to join) to cast off British rule. After 
the suppression of the rising (January 1899) confidence in 
the British administration largely increased among the tribes, 
owing to the care taken to preserve the authority of the chiefs 
whilst safeguarding the elementary rights of the people. The 
building of the railway and the consequent development of trade 
and the introduction of European ideas tended largely to modify 
native habits. The power of fetishism seemed, however, un- 
affected. 

See H. C. Lukach, A Bibliography of Sierra Ieone (Oxford 
1911); Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, 
vol. iii. (2nd ed., Oxford, 1900) ; T. J. Alldridge, The Sherbro and its 
Hinterland (London, 1901), and A Transformed Colony (London, 
1910) — the last with valuable notes on secret societies and fetish; 
Winwood Reade, The African Sketch Book, vol. ii. (London, 1873); 
Colonel J. K. Trotter, The Niger Sources (London, 1898) ; Major J. J. 
Crook, History of Sierra Leone (Dublin, 1903) — a concise account of 
the colony to the end of the 19th century. For fuller details of the 
foundation and early history of the settlement consult Sierra Leone 
after a Hundred Years (London, 1894) by E. G. Ingham, bishop of 
the diocese, and The Rise of British West Africa (London, 1904) 
by Claude George. Bishop Ingham's book contains long extracts 
from the diary of Governor Clarkson, which vividly portray the 
conditions of life in the infant colony. For the rising in 1898 see 
The Advance of our West African Empire (London, 1903) by C. B. 
Wallis. A Blue Book on the affairs of the colony is published yearly 
at Freetown and an Annual Report by the Colonial Office in London. 
,Maps on the scale of 1 : 250,000 are published by the War Office. 

SIERRA MORENA, THE, a range of mountains in southern 
. Spain. The Sierra Morena constitutes the largest section of the 
mountain system called the Cordillera Marianica (anc. Monies 
mariani), which also includes a number of minor Spanish ranges, 
together with the mountains of southern Portugal. The mean 
elevation of the range is about 2500 ft., but its breadth is certainly 
not less than 40 m. It extends eastward as far as the steppe 
region of Albacete, and westward to the valley of the lower 
Guadiana. Its continuity is frequently interrupted, especially 
in the west; in the eastern and middle portions it is composed 
of numerous irregularly disposed ridges. Many of these bear 
distinctive names; thus the easternmost and loftiest is called 
the Sierra de Alcaraz (5900 ft.), while some of the component 
ridges in the extreme west are classed together as the Sierras 
de Aracena. The great breadth of the Sierra Morena long 
rendered it a formidable barrier between Andalusia and the 



north; as such it has played an important part in the social, 
economic and military history of Spain. Its configuration and 
hydrography are also important from a geographical point of 
view, partly because it separates the plateau region of Castile 
and Estrcmadura from the Andalusian plain and the highlands 
of the Sierra Nevada system, partly because it forms the water- 
shed between two great rivers, the upper Guadiana on the north 
and the Guadalquivir on the south. Parts of the Sierra Morena 
are rich in minerals; the central region yields silver, mercury and 
lead, while the Sierras de Aracena contain the celebrated copper 
mines of Tharsis and Rio Tinto (q.v.). 

SIERRA NEVADA (Span, for " snowy range "), a mountain 
range, about 430 m. long, in the eastern part of California, 
containing Mt Whitney (14,502 ft.) ; the highest ooint in the 
United States, excluding Alaska. (See California.) 

SIERRA NEVADA, THE, a mountain range of southern Spain, 
in the provinces of Granada and A*meria. The Sierra Nevada 
is a well-defined range, about 55 m. long and 25 m. broad, 
situated to the south of the Guadalquivir valley, and stretching 
from the upper valley of the river Genii or Jenil eastwards to the 
valley of the river Almerfa. It owes its name, meaning "the 
snowy range, " to the fact that several of its peaks exceed 10,000 
feet in height and are thus above the limit of perpetual snow. 
Its culminating point, the Cerro de Mulhacen or Mulahacen 
(11,421 ft.) reaches an altitude unequalled in Spain, while one of 
the neighbouring peaks, called the Picacho de Veleta (r 1,148 ft.), 
is only surpassed by Aneto (11,168 ft.), the loftiest summit of 
the Pyrenees. The Sierra Nevada is composed chiefly of soft 
micaceous schists, sinking precipitously down on the north, but 
sloping more gradually to the south and south-east. On both 
sides deep transverse valleys (barrancas) follow one another in 
close succession, in many cases with round, basin-shaped heads 
like the cirques of the Pyrenees (q.v.). In many of these cirques 
lie alpine lakes, and in one of them, the Corral de Veleta, there 
is even a small glacier, the most southerly in Europe. The 
transverse valleys open on the south into the longitudinal 
valleys of the Alpujarras (q.v.). On the north, east and west there 
are various minor ranges, such as the Sierras of Parapanda, 
Harana, Gor, Baza, Lucena, Cazorla, Estancias, Filabres, &c, 
which are connected with the main range, and are sometimes 
collectively termed the Sierra Nevada system. The coast ranges, 
or Sierra Penibetica, are not included in this group. The Sierras 
de Segura form a connecting link between the Sierra Morena 
and the Nevada system. 

SIEVE (O.E. sife, older sibi, cf. Dutch zeef, Ger. Sieb; from 
the subst. comes O.E. siflan, to sift), an instrument or apparatus 
for separating finer particles from coarser. The common sieve 
is a net of wires or other material stretched across a frame- 
work with raised edges; the material to be sifted is then shaken 
or pressed upon the net so that the finer particles pass through 
the mesh and the coarser remain. The word " screen " is usually 
applied to such instruments with large mesh for coarse work, 
and " strainer " for those used in the separation of liquids or 
semi-liquids from solid matter. In the separation of meal 
from bran " bolting-clothes " are used. There was an early 
form of divination known as coscinomancy (Gr. koctklvov, 
sieve, fxavrela, divination), where a sieve was hung or attached 
to a pair of shears, whence the name sometimes given to it of 
" sieve and shears "; the turning or movement of the sieve 
at the naming of a person suspected of a crime or other act, 
coupled with the repetition of an incantation or other magic 
formula, decided the guilt or innocence of the person. 

SIEYES, EMMANUEL-JOSEPH (1748-1836), French abbe 
and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the revolutionary and 
Napoleonic era, was born at Frejus in the south of France on the 
3rd of May 1748. He was educated for the church at the 
Sorbonne; but while there he eagerly imbibed the teachings 
of Locke, Condillac, and other political thinkers, in preference 
to theology. Nevertheless he entered the church, and owing 
to his learning and subtlety advanced until he became vicar- 
general and chancellor of the diocese of Chartres. In 1788 the 
excitement caused by the proposed convocation of the States 



58 



SIFAKA— SIGALON 



General of France after the interval of more than a century and 
a half, and the invitation of Necker to writers to state their 
views as to the constitution of the Estates, enabled Sieves to 
publish his celebrated pamphlet, "What is the Third Estate?" 
He thus begins his answer, — " Everything. What has it been 
hitherto in the political order? Nothing. What does it desire? 
To be something." For this mot he is said to have been indebted 
to Chamfort. In any case, the pamphlet had a great vogue, and 
its author, despite doubts felt as to his clerical vocation, was 
elected as the last (the twentieth) of the deputies of Paris to the 
States General. Despite his failure as a speaker, his influence 
became great; he strongly advised the constitution of the 
Estates in one chamber as the National Assembly, but he opposed 
the abolition of tithes and the confiscation of church lands. 
Elected to the special committee on the constitution, he opposed 
the right of " absolute veto " for the king, which Mirabeau 
unsuccessfully supported. For the most part, however, he 
veiled his opinions in the National Assembly, speaking very 
rarely and then generally with oracular brevity and ambiguity. 
He had a considerable influence on the framing of the depart- 
mental system, but after the spring of 1790 his influence was 
eclipsed by men of more determined character. Only once was 
he elected to the post of fortnightly president of the Constituent 
Assembly. Excluded from the Legislative Assembly by Robes- 
pierre's self-denying ordinance, he reappeared in the third 
National Assembly, known as the Convention (September 1792- 
September 1795); but there his self-effacement was even more 
remarkable; it resulted partly from disgust, partly from timidity. 
He even abjured his faith at the time of the installation of the 
goddess of reason; and afterwards he characterized his conduct 
during the reign of terror in the ironical phrase, J'ai v&eu. He 
voted for the death of Louis XVI., but not in the contemptuous 
terms La mart sans phrases sometimes ascribed to him. He is 
known to have disapproved of many of the provisions of the 
constitutions of the years 1791 and 1793, but did little or nothing 
to improve them. 

In 1795 he went on a diplomatic mission to the Hague, and 
was instrumental in drawing up a treaty between the French and 
Batavian republics. He dissented from the constitution of 1795 
(that of the Directory) in some important particulars, but without 
effect, and thereupon refused to serve as a Director of the 
Republic. In May 1798 he went as the plenipotentiary of France 
to the court of Berlin in order to try to induce Prussia to make 
common cause with France against the Second Coalition. His 
conduct was skilful, but he failed in his main object. The 
prestige which encircled his name led to his being elected a 
Director of France in place of Rewbell in May 1799. Already 
he had begun to intrigue for the overthrow of the Directory, and 
is said to have thought of favouring the advent to power at Paris 
of persons so unlikely as the Archduke Charles and the duke of 
Brunswick. He now set himself to sap the base of the con- 
stitution of 1795. With that aim he caused the revived Jacobin 
Club to be closed, and made overtures to General Joubert for 
a coup d'etat in the future. The death of Joubert at the battle 
of Novi, and the return of Bonaparte from Egypt marred his 
schemes; but ultimately he came to an understanding with the 
young general (see Napoleon I.). After the coup d'etat of 
Brumaire, Sieyes produced the perfect constitution which he 
had long been planning, only to have it completely remodelled 
by Bonaparte. Sieyes soon retired from the post of provisional 
consul, which he accepted after Brumaire; he now became one 
of the first senators, and rumour, probably rightly, connected 
this retirement with the acquisition of a fine estate at Crosne. 
After the bomb outrage at the close of 1800 (the affair of Nivose) 
Sieyes in the senate defended the arbitrary and illegal proceedings 
whereby Bonaparte rid himself of the leading Jacobins. During 
the empire he rarely emerged from his retirement, but at the 
time of the Bourbon restorations (1814 and 181 5) he left 
France. After the July revolution (1830) he returned; he 
died at Paris on the 20th of June 1836. The thin, wire-drawn 
features of Sieyes were the index of his mind, which was keen- 
sighted but narrow, dry and essentially limited. His lack 



of character and wide sympathies was a misfortune for the 
National Assemblies which he might otherwise have guided 
with effect. 

See A. Neton, Sieyes (1 748-1 836) d'apres documents inedits (Paris, 
1900) ; also the chief histories on the French Revolution and the 
Napoleonic empire. (J. Hl. R.) 

SIFAKA, apparently the name of certain large Malagasy lemurs 
nearly allied to the Indri (q.v.) but distinguished by their long 
tails, and hence referred to a genus apart — Propilhecus, of which 
three species, with several local races, are recognized. Sifakas 
are very variable in colouring, but always show a large amount 
of white. They associate in parties and are mainly arboreal, 
leaping from bough to bough with an agility that suggests flying 
through the air. When on the ground, to pass from one clump 
of trees to another, they do not run on all fours, but stand erectj 




The Crowned Sifaka (Propithecus diadema coronatus) . 
Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. 



From 



and throwing their arms above their heads, progress by a series 
of short jumps, producing an effect which is described by 
travellers as exceedingly ludicrous. They are not nocturnal, but 
most active in the morning and evening, remaining seated or 
curled up among the branches during the heat of the day. In 
disposition they are quiet and gentle, and do not show 
much intelligence; they are also less noisy than the true 
lemurs, only when alarmed or angered making a noise which 
has been compared to the clucking of a fowl. Like all 
their kindred they produce only one offspring at a birth (see 
Primates). (R. L.*) 

SIGALON, XAVIER (1788-1837), French painter, born at 
Uzes (Gard) towards the close of 1788, was one of the few leaders 
of the romantic movement who cared for treatment of form 
rather than of colour. The son of a poor rural schoolmaster, 
he had a terrible struggle before he was able even to reach Paris 
and obtain admission to Guerin's studio. But the learning 
offered there did not respond to his special needs, and he tried 
to train himself by solitary study of the Italian masters in the 
gallery of the Louvre. The "Young Courtesan" (Louvre), 



SI-GAN FU— SIGEBERT 



59 



which he exhibited in 1822, at once attracted attention and was 
bought for the Luxembourg. The painter, however, regarded 
it as but an essay in practice and sought to measure himself with 
a mightier motive; this he did in his " Locusta " (Nimes), 1824, 
and again in " Athaliah's Massacre " (Nantes), 1827. Both 
these works showed incontestable power; but the "Vision of 
St Jerome " (Louvre), which appeared at the salon of 1831, 
together with the " Crucifixion " (Issengeaux), was by far the 
most individual of all his achievements, and that year he received 
the cross of the Legion of Honour. The terrors and force of his 
pencil were not, however, rendered attractive by any charm of 
colour; his paintings remained unpurchased, and Sigalon found 
himself forced to get a humble living at times by painting 
portraits, when Thiers, then minister of the interior, recalled him 
to Paris and entrusted him with the task of copying the Sistine 
fresco of the " Last Judgment " for a hall in the Palace of the 
Fine Arts. On the exhibition, in the Baths of Diocletian at 
Rome, of Sigalon's gigantic task, in which he had been aided by 
his pupil Numa Boucoiran, the artist was visited in state by 
Gregory XVI. But Sigalon was not destined long to enjoy his 
tardy honours and the comparative ease procured by a small 
government pension; returning to Rome to copy some pendants 
in the Sistine, he died there of cholera on the 9th of August 1837. 
SI-GAN FU (officially Sian Fu), the capital of the province of 
Shen-si, N.W. China, in 34 17' N., 108° 38' E. Shi Hwang-ti 
(246-210 B.C.), the first universal emperor, established his capital 
at Kwan-chung, the site of the modern Si-gan Fu. Under the 
succeeding Han dynasty (206 b.c.-a.d. 25) this city was called 
Wei-nan and Nui-shi; under the eastern Han (a.d. 25-221) it 
was known as Yung Chow; under the T'ang (618-907) as Kwan- 
nui; under the Sung (960-1127) as Yung-hing; under the Yuan 
and Ming (1 260-1644) as Gan-si. During the Ts'in, Han and 
T'ang dynasties the city was usually the capital of the empire, 
and in size, population and wealth it is still one of the most 
important cities of China. It was to Si-gan Fu that the 
emperor and dowager empress retreated on the capture of 
Peking by the allied armies in August 1900; and it was once 
again constituted the capital of the empire until the following 
spring when the court returned to Peking, after the conclusion of 
peace. The city, which is a square, is prettily Situated on ground 
rising from the river Wei, and includes within its limits the two 
district cities of Ch'ang-gan and Hien-ning. Its walls are little 
inferior in height and massiveness to those of Peking, while its 
gates are handsomer and better defended than any at the capital. 
The population is said to be 1,000,000, of whom 50,000 are 
Mahommedans. Situated in the basin of the Wei river, along 
which runs the great road which connects northern China with 
Central Asia, at a point where the valley opens out on the plains 
of China, Si-gan Fu occupies a strategical position of great 
importance, and repeatedly in the annals of the empire has 
history been made around and within its walls. During the 
Mahommedan rebellion it was besieged by the rebels for two 
years (1868-70), but owing to the strength of the fortifications 
it defied the efforts of its assailants. It is admirably situated 
as a trade centre and serves as a depot for the silk from Cheh- 
kiang and Szech'uen, the tea from Hu-peh and Ho-nan, and the 
sugar from Szech'uen destined for the markets of Kan-suh, 
Turkestan, Kulja and Russia. Marco Polo, speaking of Kenjanf u, 
as the city was then also called, says that it was a place " of great 
trade and industry. They have great abundance of silk, from 
which they weave cloths of silk, and gold of divers kinds, and 
they also manufacture all sorts of equipments for an army. 
They have every necessary of man's life very cheap." 

Several of the temples and public buildings are very fine, and 
many historical monuments are found within and about the 
walls. Of these the most notable is the Nestorian tablet, which 
was accidentally discovered in 1625 in the Ch'ang-gan suburb. 
The stone slab which bears the inscription is 75 ft. high by 3 
wide. 

The contents of this Nestorian inscription, which consists of 1780 
characters, may be described as follows. (1) An abstract of Christian 
doctrine of a vague and figurative kind. (2) An account of the arrival 



of the missionary Olopan (probably a Chinese form of Rabban = 
Monk) from Tats'in in the year 635, bringing sacred books and 
images; of the translation of the said books; of the imperial 
approval of the doctrine and permission to teach it publicly. Then 
follows a decree of the emperor (T'ait-sung, a very famous prince), 
issued in 638, in favour of the new doctrine, and ordering a church 
to be built in the square of justice and peace (Ining fang) in the 
capital. The emperor's portrait was to be placed in this church. 
After this comes a description of Tats'in, and then some account of 
the fortunes of the church in China. Kaotsung (650-683, the devout 
patron also of the Buddhist traveller and doctor Hsiian Ts'ang), 
it is added, continued to favour the new faith. In the end of the 
century Buddhism got the upper hand, but under Yuen-tsung 
(7 1 3~755) the church recovered its prestige, and Kiho, a new 
missionary, arrived. Under Tih-tsung (780-783) the monument 
was erected, and this part of the inscription ends with a eulogy 
of I-sze, a statesman and benefactor of the church. (3) Then follows 
a recapitulation of the above in octosyllabic verse. The Chinese 
inscription, which concludes with the date of erection, viz. 781, is 
followed by a series of short inscriptions in Syriac and the Estrangelo 
character, containing the date of the erection, the name of the reigning 
Nestorian patriarch, Mar Hanan Ishua, that of Adam, bishop and 
pope of China, and those of the clerical staff of the capital. Then 
follow sixty-seven names of persons in Syriac characters, most of 
whom are characterized as priests, and sixty-one names of persons 
in Chinese, all priests but one. 

The stone — one of a row of five memorial tablets — stood 
within the enclosure of a dilapidated temple. It appears at one 
time to have been embedded in a brick niche, and about 1891 
a shed was placed over it, but in 1907 it stood in the open entirely 
unprotected. In that year Dr Frits v. Holm, a Danish traveller, 
had made an exact replica of the tablet, which in 1908 was 
deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The 
tablet itself was in October 1907 removed by Chinese officials 
into the city proper, and placed in the Pei Lin or " forest of 
tablets," a museum in which are collected tablets of the Han, 
T'ang, Sung, Yuen and Ming dynasties, some of which bear 
historical legends, notably a set of stone tablets having the 
thirteen classics inscribed upon them, while others are symbolical 
or pictorial; among these last is a full-sized likeness of Confucius. 
Antiquities are constantly being discovered in the neighbourhood 
of the city, e.g. rich stores of coins and bronzes, bearing dates 
ranging from 200 B.C. onwards. 

See Yule, Marco Polo (1903 ed.) ; A. Williamson, Journeys in North 
China (London, 1870), S. Wells Williams, The Middle Kingdom 
(London, 1883); Pere Havret, La Stele de Si-ngan Fou (Shanghai, 
1895-1902); F. v. Holm, The Nestorian Monument (Chicago, 
1909). 

SIGEBERT (d. 575), king of the Franks, was one of the four 
sons of Clotaire I. At the death of Clotaire in 561 the Frankish 
kingdom was divided among his sons, Sigebert's share comprising 
the Rhine and Meuse lands and the suzerainty over the Germanic 
tribes beyond the Rhine as far as the Elbe, together with 
Auvergne and part of Provence. At the death of his brother 
Charibert in 567 Sigebert obtained the cities of Tours and 
Poitiers, and it was he who elevated to the see of Tours the 
celebrated Gregory, the historian of the Franks. Being a 
smoother man than his brothers (who had all taken mates of 
inferior rank), Sigebert married a royal princess, Brunhilda, 
daughter of Athanagild, the king of the Visigoths; the nuptials 
were celebrated with great pomp at Metz, the Italian poet 
Fortunatus composing the epithalamium. Shortly afterwards 
Sigebert's brother Chilperic I. married Brunhilda's sister, Gals- 
wintha; but the subsequent murder of this princess embroiled 
Austrasiaand Neustria, and civil war broke out in 573. Sigebert 
appealed to the Germans of the right bank of the Rhine, who 
attacked the environs of Paris and Chartres and committed 
frightful ravages. He was entirely victorious, and pursued 
Chilperic as far as Tournai. But just when the great nobles of 
Neustria were raising Sigebert on the shield in the villa at Vitry, 
near Arras, he was assassinated by two bravoes in the pay of 
Fredegond, Chilperic's new wife. At the beginning of his reign 
Sigebert had made war on the Avars, who had attacked his 
Germanic possessions, and he was for some time a prisoner in 
their hands. 

See Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, book iv. ; Aug. 
Thierry, Recits des temps merovingiens (Brussels, 1840), and Aug 
Digot, Histoire du royaume d'Austrasie (Nancy, 1863). (C. Pf.) 



6o 



SIGEBERT OF GEMBLOUX— SIGHTS 



SIGEBERT OF GEMBLOUX (c. 1030-1112), medieval chron- 
icler, became in early life a monk in the Benedictine abbey of 
Gembloux. Later he was a teacher at Metz, and about 1070 he 
returned to Gembloux, where, occupied in teaching and writing, 
he lived until his death on the 5th of October 1112. As an enemy 
of the papal pretensions he took part in the momentous contest 
between Pope Gregory VII. and the emperor Henry IV., his 
writings on this question being very serviceable to the imperial 
cause; and he also wrote against Pope Paschal II. Sigebert's 
most important work is a Chronographia, or universal chronicle, 
according to Molinier the best work of its kind, although it 
contains many errors and but little original information. It 
covers the period between 381 and mi, and its author was 
evidently a man of much learning. The first of many editions 
was published in 1513 and the best is in Band vi. of the Monu- 
menta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, with valuable introduction 
by L. C. Bethmann. The chronicle was very popular during 
the later middle ages; it was used by many writers and found 
numerous continuators. Other works by Sigebert are a history 
of the early abbots of Gembloux to 1048 (Gesta abbatum Gem- 
blacensium) and a life of the Frankish king Sigebert III. {Vita 
Sigeberti III. regis Austrasiae). Sigebert was also a hagiographer. 
Among his writings in this connexion may be mentioned the 
Vita Deodcrici, Mettensis episcopi, which is published in Band 
iv. of the Monumenta, and the Vita Wicberti, in Band viii. 
of the same collection. Dietrich, bishop of Metz (d. 984) was 
the founder of the abbey of St Vincent in that city, and 
Wicbert or Guibert (d. 962) was the founder of the abbey 
of Gembloux. 

See S. Hirseh, De vita et scriptis Sigiberti Gemblacensis (Berlin, 
1841); A. Molinier, Les Sources de Vhistoire de France, tomes ii. and 
v. (1902-1904); and W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichts- 
quellen, Band ii. (Berlin, 1894). 

SIGEL, FRANZ (1824-1902), German and American soldier, 
was born at Sinsheim, in Baden, on the 18th of November 1824. 
He graduated at the military school at Carlsruhe, and became an 
officer in the grand ducal service. He soon became known for 
revolutionary opinions, and in 1847, after killing an opponent in 
a duel, he resigned his commission. When the Baden insurrection 
broke out, Sigel was a leader on the revolutionary side in the 
brief campaign of 1848, and then took refuge in Switzerland. 
In the following year he returned to Baden and took a con- 
spicuous part in the more serious operations of the second 
outbreak under General Louis Mieroslawski (1814-1878.) Sigel 
subsequently lived in Switzerland, England and the United 
States, whither he emigrated in 1852, the usual life of a political 
exile, working in turn as journalist and schoolmaster, and both 
at New York and St Louis, whither he removed in 1858, he 
conducted military journals. When the American Civil War 
broke out in 1861, Sigel was active in raising and training 
Federal volunteer corps, and took a prominent part in the 
struggle for the possession of Missouri. He became in May a 
brigadier-general U.S.V,, and served with Nathaniel Lyon at 
Wilson's Creek and with J. C. Fremont in the advance on Spring- 
field in the autumn. In 1862 he took a conspicuous part in the 
desperately fought battle of Pea Ridge, which definitely secured 
Missouri for the Federals. He was promoted to be major-general 
of volunteers, was ordered to Virginia, and was soon placed in 
command of the I. corps of Pope's " Army of Virginia." In 
this capacity he took part in the second Bull Run campaign, 
and his corps displayed the utmost gallantry in the unsuccessful 
attacks on Bald Hill. Up to the beginning of 1863, when bad 
health obliged him to take leave of absence, Sigel remained in 
command of his own (now called the XL) corps and the XII., 
the two forming a " Grand Division." In June 1863 he was in 
command of large forces in Pennsylvania, to make head against 
Lee's second invasion of Northern territory. In 1864 he was 
placed in command of the corps in the Shenandoah Valley, but 
was defeated by General John C. Breckinridge at Newmarket 
(15th of May), and was superseded. Subsequently he was in 
command of the Harper's Ferry garrison at the time of Early's 
raid upon Washington and made a brilliant defence of his post 



(July 4-5, 1864). He resigned his commission in May 1865, and 
became editor of a German journal in Baltimore, Maryland. 
In 1867 he removed to New York City, and in 1869 was the 
unsuccessful Republican candidate for secretary of state of New 
York. He was appointed collector of internal revenue in May 
187 1, and in the following October he was elected register of 
New York City by Republicans and " reform Democrats." 
From 1885 to 1889, having previously become a Democrat, 
he was pension agent for New York City, on the appointment 
of President Cleveland. General Sigel's last years were de- 
voted to the editorship of the New York Monthly, a German- 
American periodical. He died in New York City on the 
21st of August 1902. A monument (by Karl Bitter) in his 
honour was unveiled in Riverside Drive, New York City, in 
October 1907. 

SIGER DE BRABANT [Sighier, Sigieri, Sygeritjs], French 
philosopher of the 13th century. About the facts of his life 
there has been much difference of opinion. In 1266 he was 
attached to the Faculty of Arts in the University of Paris at the 
time when there was a great conflict between the four " nations." 
The papal legate decided in 1266 that Siger was the ringleader, 
and threatened him with death. During the succeeding ten 
years he wrote the six works which are ascribed to him and were 
published under his name by P. Mandonnet in 1899. The titles 
of these treatises are: De anima intellectiva (1270); Quaestiones 
logicales; Quaestiones naturales; De aeternitate mundi; 
Quaestio utrum haec sif vera: Homo est animal nullo homine 
existente; Impossibilia. In 1271 he was once more involved in 
a party struggle. The minority among the " nations " chose 
him as rector in opposition to the elected candidate, Aubri de 
Rheims. For three years the strife continued, and was probably 
based on the opposition between the Averroists, Siger and Pierre 
Dubois, and the more orthodox schoolmen. The matter was 
settled by the Papal Legate, Simon de Brion, afterwards Pope 
Martin IV. Siger retired from Paris to Liege. In 1277 a general 
condemnation of Aristotelianism included a special clause directed 
against Boetius of Denmark and Siger of Brabant. Again 
Siger and Bernier de Nivelles were summoned to appear on a 
charge of heresy, especially in connexion with the Impossibilia, 
where the existence of God is discussed. It appears, however, 
that Siger and Boetius fled to Italy and, according to John 
Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, perished miserably. The 
manner of Siger's death, which occurred at Orvieto, is not known. 
A Brabantine chronicle says that he was killed by an insane 
secretary {a clerico suo quasi dementi). Dante, in the Paradiso 
(x. 134-6), says that he found " death slow in coming," and some 
have concluded that this indicates death by suicide. A 13th- 
century sonnet by one Durante (xcii. 9-14) says that he was 
executed at Orvieto: a ghiado il fe' morire a gran dolore, Nella 
corte di Roma ad Orbivicto. The date of this may have been 
1 283-1 284 when Martin IV. was in residence at Orvieto. In 
politics he held that good laws were better than good rulers, and 
criticised papal infallibility in temporal affairs. The importance 
of Siger in philosophy lies in his acceptance of Averroism in its 
entirety, which drew upon him the opposition of Albertus Magnus 
and Aquinas. In December 1270 Averroism was condemned 
by ecclesiastical authority, and during his whole life Siger was 
exposed to persecution both from the Church and from purely 
philosophic opponents. In view of this, it is curious that Dante 
should place him in Paradise at the side of Aquinas and Isidore 
of Seville. Probably Dante knew of him only from the chronicler 
as a persecuted philosopher. 

See P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et V Averroisme latin du 
XIII' siecle (Fribourg, 1899); G. Paris, " Siger de Brabant " in La 
Poesie du moyen Age (1895) ; and an article in the Revue de Paris 
(Sept. 1st, 1900). 

SIGHTS, the name for mechanical appliances for directing the 
axis of the bore of a gun or other firearm on a point whose position 
relative to the target fired at is such that the projectile will 
strike the target. 

Gun Sights. — Until the 19th century the only means for 
sighting cannon was by the " line of metal " — a line scored 



SIGHTS 



61 



along the top of the gun, which, owing to the greater thickness 
of metal at the breech than at- the muzzle, was not parallel to 
the axis. " Some allowance had to be made for the inclination 
of the line of metal to the axis" (Lloyd and Hadcock, p. 32). 
The line of metal does not come under the definition of sights 
given above. In the year 1801 a proposal to use sights was 
sent to Lord Nelson for opinion, and elicited the following 
reply: " As to the plan for pointing a gun, truer than we do at 
present, if the person comes, I shall, of course, look at it, or be 
happy, if necessary, to use it; but I hope we shall be able, as 
usual, to get so close to our enemies that our shot cannot miss 
the object " (letter to Sir E. Berry, March 9, 1801). Three 
weeks later the fleet under Sir Hyde Parker and Nelson sailed 
through the Sound on its way to Copenhagen. In replying to 
the guns of Fort Elsinore no execution was done, as the long 
range made it impossible to lay the guns (Lloyd and Hadcock, 
P- 33)- 

The necessity for sights follows directly on investigation of the 
forces acting on a projectile during flight. In a vacuum, the pro- 
jectile acted on by the force of projection begins to fall under the 
action of gravity immediately it leaves the bore, and under the 
combined action of these two forces the path of the projectile is 9. 
parabola. It passes over equal spaces in equal times, but falls with 
an accelerating velocity according to the formula h = Jg2 2 , where h 
is the height fallen through, g the force of gravity, and / the time of 

g ■ J , From "£• J it: wi " be seen that in three seconds the projectile 
would have fallen 144 ft. to G ; therefore to strike T the axis must be 
raised to a point 144 ft. vertically above G. This law holds good 



r 2* 


3" 


G 

T 


"" ~ , 1"!' 


*^ 








* 

0) 
X 

10 



Fig. I — Elevation. 

also in air for very low velocities, but, where the velocities are high, 
the retardation is great, the projectile takes longer to traverse each 
succeeding space, and consequently the time of flight for any range is 
longer; the axis must therefore be directed still higher above the 
point to be struck. The amount, however, still depends on the time 
of flight, as the retardation of the air to the falling velocity may be 
neglected in the case of flat trajectory guns. Owing to the conical 
shape of the early muzzle-loading guns, if one trunnion were higher 
than the other, the " line of metal " would no longer be in the same 
vertical plane as the axis; in consequence of this, if a gun with, say, 
one wheel higher than the other were layed by this line, the axis would 
point off the target to the side of the lower wheel. Further, the in- 
clination of the line of metal to the axis gave the gun a fixed angle of 
elevation varying from i° in light guns to 2 J" in the heavier natures. 
To overcome this a " dispart sight " (D) was introduced (fig. 2) to 
bring the line of sight (A'DG') parallel to the axis (AG). 




Fig. 2. — Dispart and Tangent Sights. 

AG is the axis of the bore, ab the dispart, A'DG' is parallel to AG 
D is the dispart sight, S the tangent sight, A'DS the clearance angle! 
At greater elevations than this the muzzle notch is used ; to align on 
the target at lesser angles the dispart sight is so used. Guns without 
dispart sights cannot be layed at elevations below the clearance 
angle. 

The earliest form of a hind or breech sight was fixed, but in the early 
part of the 19th century Colonel Thomas Blomefield proposed a mov- 
able or tangent sight. It was not, however, till 1829 that a tangent 
sight (designed by Major-General William Millar) was introduced 



Gradua- 
tion of 
tangent 
sights. 



r> 



—3 



j into the navy; this was adopted by the army in 1846. In the case 
I ot most guns it was used in conjunction with the dispart sight above 
I referred to- The tangent sight (see fig. 3) was graduated in degrees 
only. I here were three patterns, one of brass and two of wood. 
As the tangent sight was placed in the line of metal, hence directly 
over the cascable, very little movement could be given to it so 
that a second sight was required for long ranges. This was of wood ; 
the third sight, also of wood, was for guns without a dispart patch 
which consequently could not be layed at elevations below the dispart 
angle. 

Referring to fig. 1 it will be seen that in order to strike T the axis 
must be directed to G' at a height above T equal to TG, while the 
line of sight or line joining the notch of the tangent 
sight and apex of the dispart or foresight must be 
directed on T. In fig. 4 the tangent sight 
has been raised from O to S, the line of 
sight is SMT, and the axis produced is 
AG'. D is the dispart, M the muzzle sight, 
OM is parallel to AG'. Now the height to 
which the tangent sight has been raised in order to 
direct the axis on G' is evidently proportional to the 
tangent of the angle OMS = AXS. This angle is called 
the angle of elevation; OM is constant and is Fig 3 
called the sighting radius. If. the dispart sight were EarlyTangent 
being used, the sighting radius would be OD, but, as Sight 
at the range in fig. 4, the line of sight through D fouls 
the metal of the gun, the muzzle sight M is used. The formula for 
length of scale is, length = sighting radius X tangent of the angle 
of elevation. In practice, tangent sights were graduated graphic- 
ally from large scale drawings. It will be seen from fig. 4 that 
if the gun and target are on the same horizontal plane the axis 
can be equally well directed by inclining it to the horizontal 
through the requisite number of degrees. This is called " quadrant 
elevation, and the proper inclination was given by means of 
the gunner's quadrant," a quadrant and plumb bob, one leg 
being made long to rest in the bore, or by bringing lines scribed 
on the breech of the gun in line with a pointer on the carriage; these 
were called quarter sights." 

Such were the sights in use with smooth-bore guns in the first half 
of the last century. Tangent sights were not much trusted at 
first. Captain Haultain, R.A., says in his description of test- 
ing sights (Occa- 
sio nal Papers, 
R.A. Institute, vol. 
i.): " Raise the 
sight, and if it 
keeps in line with 
a plumb bob, it 
can be as confi- 
dently relied upon 
as the line of metal, 
if the trunnions 
are horizontal. If 
the scale is only slightly out of the perpendicular, a few taps of the 
hammer will modify any trifling error." 

The introduction of rifling necessitated an improvement in sights 
and an important modification in them. It was found that projectiles 
fired from a rifled gun deviated laterally from the line of 
fire owing to the axial spin of the projectile, and that if the sl S hts f ot 
spin were right-handed, as in the British service, the r,/ferf 
deviation was to the right. This deviation or derivation 8fms ' 
is usually called drift (for further details see Ballistics). The 
amount of drift for each nature of gun at different ranges was 
determined by actual firing. To overcome drift the axis must be 
pointed to the left of the target, and the amount will increase with 
the range. 

In fig- 5 (plan) at a range HT, if the axis were directed on T, drift 
would carry the shot to D, therefore the axis must be directed on a 
point D such that D'T = DT. HFT is the line of sight without any 
allowance for drift, causing the projectile to fall at D. Now if the 
notch of the tan- 

gent sight be ^-^Xi 

carried to H' in 
order to lay or, T, 
the fore-sight, and 
with it the axis, 
will be moved to 
F', the line of fire H " 
will be HF'D', and 
the shot will strike 
T since D'T = DT. 
Left deflection has 
been put on ; this 
could be done by noting the amount of deflection for each range and 
applying it by means of a sliding leaf carrying the notch, and it is 
so done in howitzers; in most guns, however, it is found more 
convenient and sufficiently accurate to apply it automatically 
by inclining the socket through which the tangent scale rises 
to the left, so that as the scale rises, i.e., as the range increases,, 
the notch is carried more and more to the left, and an increasing 




Fig. 4. — Theory of Tangent Sight. 



H 




Fig. 5.— Drift. 



62 



SIGHTS 



amount of left deflection given — the amount can easily be 
determined thus : — 

The height of tangent scale for any degree of elevation is given 
with sufficient accuracy by the rough rule for circular measure 

_ »XK wn ere a is the angle of elevation in minutes, h the height 
3X1200 B . 

of the tangent scale, and R the sighting radius; thus lor 

1 ° < fc = 6 °X R = -~ Now supposing the sight is inclined l° to the left, 
which will move the notch from H to H' (see fig. 6); as before 
HH' = ^, but in this case R=^=^-"- HH ' = 55x60' the resultant 
angle of deflection is HFH', and this can be determined by the 
same formula a = feXl ^° X3 , but in this case fc-HH^-gj^gg 

. RX3600 , th t j f the si ht is ; nc ii ne d to the left l° it will 

RX3600 ' B 

give 1' deflection for every degree of elevation. By the same 



hLh 





Fig. 7. 



Fig. 6. — Correction for Drift. 

formula it can be shown that 1' deflection will alter the point of 
impact by I in. for every 100 yds. of range; thus the proper in- 
clination to give a mean correction for drift can be determined. In 
the early R.B.L. guns this angle was 2° 16'. With rifled guns 
deflection was also found necessary to allow for effect of wind, 
difference of level of trunnions, movement of target, and for the 
purpose of altering the point of impact later- 
Notck ally. This was arranged for by a movable 

leaf carrying the sighting V, worked by 
means of a mill-headed screw provided with 
a scale in degrees and fractions -to the same 
radius as the elevation scale, and an arrow- 
head for reading. Other improvements were : 
the gun was sighted on each side, tangent 
scales dropping into sockets in a sighting ring 
on the breech, thus enabling a long scale for 
all ranges to be used, and the foresights 
screwing into holes or dropping into sockets 
in the trunnions, thus obviating the fouling 
of the line of sight, and the damage to 
which a fixed muzzle sight was liable. 
The tangent sight was graduated in yards 
as well as degrees and had also a fuze scale. The degree scale 
was subdivided to 10' and a slow-motion screw at the head 
enabled differences of one minute to be given; a clamping screw 
and lever were provided (see fig. 7). 

Fore-sights varied in pattern. Some screwed in, others_ dropped 
into a socket and were secured by* a bayonet joint. Two main shapes 
were adopted for the apex — the acorn and the hogsback. Instruction 
in the use of sights was based on the principle of securing uniformity 
in laying; for this reason fine sighting was discountenanced and 

laying by full sight enjoined. " The 
centre of the line joining the two 
highest points of the notch of the 
_ o t • t. 1- 11 tangent sight, the point of the fore- 
FlG. 8.— Laying by h ull sight and the target must be in line " 

Sight. (Field Artillery Training, 1902) (see 

fig. 8). Since the early days of rifled guns tangent sights have 
been improved in details, but the principles remain the same. 
Except for some minor differences the tangent sights were the 
same for all natures of guns, and for all services, but the develop- 
ment of the modern sight has followed different lines according 
to the nature and use of the gun, and must be treated under 
separate heads. 

Sights for Mobile Artillery. 

With the exception of the addition of a pin-hole to the tangent sight 
and cross wires to the fore-sight, and of minor improvements, and 
of the introduction of French's crossbar sight and the 
reciprocating sight, of which later, no great advance was 
made until the introduction of Scott's telescopic sight. 
This sight (see Plate, fig. 9) consists of a telescope mounted 
in a steel frame, provided with longitudinal trunnions fitting into 
V's in the gun. These V's are so arranged that the axis of the sight 
frame is always parallel to that of the gun. By means of a cross-level 
the frame can be so adjusted that the cross axis on which the tele- 
scope is mounted is always truly horizontal. Major L. K. Scott, R.E., 
thus described how he was led to think of the sight : "I had read in 
the Daily News an account of some experimental firing carried out by 
H.M.S. ' Hotspur ' against the turret of H.M.S. ' Glatton,' At a 



Field 

artillery 

sights. 



range of 200 yds. on a perfectly calm day the ' Hotspur ' fired several 
rounds at the ' Glatton's ' turret and missed it." Major Scott attri- 
buted this to tilt in the sights due to want of level of mounting 
(R.A.I. Proceedings, vol. xiii.). Tilt of sights in field guns owing to 
the sinking of one wheel had long been recognized as a source of error, 
and allowed for by a rule-of -thumb correction, depending on the fact 
that the track of the wheels of British field artillery gun-carriages 
is 60", so that, for every inch one wheel is lower than the other, the 
whole system is turned through one degree — 



feXi200X3 
60 



:/tX6o = 6o' or i°, as ft is 1 inch. 



Referring to the calculations given above, this is equivalent to 1' 
deflection for every degree of elevation, which amount had to be 
given towards the higher wheel. This complication is eliminated in 
Scott's sight by simply levelling the cross axis of the telescope. 
Other advantages are those common to all telescopic sights. Personal 
error is to a great extent eliminated, power of vision extended, the 
sight is self-contained, there is no fore-sight, a fine pointer in the 
telescope being aligned on the target. It can be equally well used 
for direct or indirect, forward or back laying. A micrometer drum 
reads to 2', while the vernier reads to single minutes so that very 
fine adjustments can be made. 

Disadvantages of earlier patterns were, the telescope was inverting, 
the drum was not graduated in yards, and drift not allowed for. 
These defects were all overcome in later patterns and an 
important addition made, viz. means of measuring the 
angle of sight. In speaking of quadrant e^evation a brief 
reference was made to the necessity for making an allowance for 
difference of level of gun and target. Figs. 10 to 13 explain this more 
fully, and show that for indirect laying the angle of sight must be 



Target 



Scott's 
sight. 




" "Angle of eleuniion\ ' Hori zontal lin e £~~~JS ?9 ei 
line of sight 




Horizontal line 
* 




Figs. 10, 11, 12, 13. 

added to the angle of elevation if the target is above the gun, and 
subtracted if vice versa. In Scott's sight, mark iv., there is a longi- 
tudinal level pivoted at one end and provided with a degree scale up 
to 4 ; the level is moved by a spindle and micrometer screw reading 
to 2'. If now the telescope be directed on the target and this level 
be brought to the centre of its run, the angle of sight can be read — 
if afterwards any range ordered is put on the sight and the gun 
truly layed, this bubble will be found in the centre of its run — so 
that if thereafter the target becomes obscured the gun can be relayed 
by elevating till the bubble is in the centre of its run, or at a com- 
pletely concealed target the angle of sight can, if the range and 
difference of level are known or can be measured from somewhere 
near the gun, be put on by means of the micrometer screw, and the 
gun subsequently layed by putting the range in yards or degrees on 
the sight drum and elevating or depressing till the bubble is central. 
The disadvantages that still remain are that the sight has to be re- 
moved every time the gun is fired, and the amount of deflection is 
limited and has to be put on the reverse way to that on a tangent 
scale. Scott's sight, though no longer used with quick-firing guns, 
is the precursor of all modern sights. 



SIGHTS 






o 



h 5 

O 9 



CL, 

o 
u 



w 
►J 
w 

H 



8 



s 

fa 



SIGHTS 



63 



The introduction of trunnionless guns recoiling axially through 
a fixed cradle enabled sights to be attached to the non-recoil parts 
of the mounting, so that the necessity of removing a 
Modern delicate telescopic sight every round disappeared, and 
1 Jl. telescope sights on the rocking-bar principle (see below) 

s 'g s - were introduced for 4-7-in. Q.F. guns on field mountings; 
these sights admit of continuous laying, i.e. the eye need not 
be removed when the gun is fired. The increased importance of 
concealment for one's own guns and the certainty of being called 
upon to engage concealed targets, brought indirect laying into great 
prominence (see also Artillery). This form of laying is of two 
kinds: (1) that in which the gun can be layed for direction over the 
sight on the target itself, or on some aiming point close by, but from 
indistinctness or other causes quadrant elevation is pre- 
Inainct ferred; and (2) that used when the target is completely 
lay ng. hidden and an artificial line of fire laid out and the guns 
layed for direction on pointers, or the line transferred to a distant 
aiming point. The old method of giving quadrant elevation by 
clinometer was obviously too slow. Scott's sight (see above) was 
the first attempt to obtain indirect laying for elevation by means 
of the sight itself, and in that sight the angle of sight was taken into 
account ; in modern guns this is effected by what is technically 
called the " independent line of sight " (see Ordnance: Field 
Equipments). It is obtained by different means in different countries, 
but the principle is the same. There must be two sets of elevating 
gears, one which brings the axis of the gun and the sights together 
on to the target, thus finding the angle of sight and also pointing 
the axis of the gun at the target, and a second by which, independent 
of the sight which remains fixed, the elevation due to the range can 
be given to the gun and read by means of a pointer and dial marked 
in yards for range. This latter is shown in the Krupp equipment 
(Plate, fig. 14), in which the sight is attached to the cradle, but 
does not move with it. The hand-wheel that screws the gun and 
cradle down at the same time screws the sight up, and vice versa. 
When the target is completely concealed it is necessary to lay the 
gun on an aiming point more or less out of the line of fire, or to lay 
on a " director " with a large amount of deflection, and to align 
aiming posts with the sights at zero to give the direction of the 
target, and afterwards perhaps to transfer the line of sight to some 
other distant object, all of which require a far greater scope of 
deflection than is afforded by the deflection leaf. In the South 
African war improvised detachable deflection scales of wood or iron 
placed over the fore-sight, called gun arcs, were used, but this device 
was clumsy, inaccurate and insufficient, as it only gave about 30° 
right or left deflection, and only a sight that admitted of all-round 
laying could really satisfy the requirements. " The goniometric 
sight in its simplest form is a circular graduated base plate on which 
a short telescope or sighted ruler is pivoted. Besides the main 
graduations there is usually a separate deflection scale " (Bethell). 
In this form, which is found in British field artillery, the goniometric 
or dial sight is used for picking up the line of fire. In the pillar sight 
used in the French 80- and 90-mm. Q.F. guns it is used for laying for 
direction. 

The coUinmteur, or sight proper, has a lateral movement of 9 , 
and is actuated by the drum on the right turned by the mill- 
headed screw. The drum is divided into 100 graduations, each 
equal to 5-4'. The gonio plate below is divided into 4 quadrants, 
and each quadrant into 10 spaces of 9 each 
numbered in hundreds from o to 900. The 
stem is turned by pressing down on the mill- 
headed screw. The collimateur which is used 
in many sights is a rectangular box closed 
at one end by a darkened glass with a 
bright cross. Its use is graphically described 
in a French text-book thus: "The layer, 
keeping his eye about a foot from the 
collimateur and working the elevating wheel, 
makes the horizontal line dance about the 
landscape until it dances on to the target ; 
then working the traversing gear he does 
the same with the vertical line; then 
bringing his eye close, he brings the inter- 
section on to the target." In the Krupp arc 
sight (see Plate, fig. 14), the goniometric 
sight is placed on the top of the arc. In 
the French field Q.F. artillery the inter- 
mediate carriage (see description and dia- 
gram in article Ordnance: Field Equipments) carries the sight. 

Fig. 15 shows the reciprocating sight for the 2-5-in. gun. The 
sight drops through a socket in a pivoted bracket which is provided 
with a level and a clamp ; the level is fixed at the correct 
art,"/" angle for drift ; if t he si S ht < as is especially liable to be 

s'i 'hts* t ' le iase on stee P hillsides) is tilted away from the angle 
* ' it can be restored by moving the bracket till the bubble 

of the spirit-level is central, and then clamping it. 

With howitzers indirect laying is the rule, elevation being usually 
given by clinometer, direction by laying on banderols marking out 
the line of fire; then, when the direction has been established, 
an auxiliary mark, usually in rear, is selected and the line transferred 
to it. At night this mark is replaced by a lamp installed in rear 



SPIRIT LEVEL 




From Treatise on Service 
Ordnance. 



Fig. 15. 



and in line with the sights. The normal method of laying these is 
from the fore-sight over the tangent sight to a point in rear. 
Special sights were designed for this purpose by Colonel 
Sir E. H. French, called cross-bar sights, and were in the Siege 
year 1908 still in use with British 6-in. B.L. howitzers. art ™ e O- 
The principle of these sights (see fig. 16) is that the s «*' s - 
tangent sight has a steel horizontal bar which can slide through the 
head of the tangent scale for deflection, and is graduated for 3 left 
and 1 ° right deflection. One end of the bar is slotted to take the 
sliding leaf; this end of the bar is graduated from 0° to 6°, and in 
conjunction with the fore-sight affords a lateral scope of 6° on either 
side of the normal for picking up an auxiliary mark. The fore- 




Fig. 16. 

sight has a fixed horizontal bar slotted and graduated similarly to 
the slotted portion o( the tangent sight. The leaves are reversible, 
and provided with a notch at one end and a point at the other, so 
that they can be used for either forward or reverse laying. The 
leaf of the fore-sight has a pinhole, and that of the tangent sight 
cross-wires for fine reverse laying. Fore-sights are made right and 
left; tangent sights are interchangeable, the graduations are cut 
on the horizontal edges above and below, so that the sight can be 
changed from right to left or vice versa by removing and reversing 
the bar. Howitzer sights are vertical and do not allow for drift; 
they are graduated in degrees only. Goniometric sights have 
recently been introduced into British siege artillery. The pattern 
is that of a true sight, that is to say, the base plate is capable of 
movement about two axes, one parallel to and the other at right 
anglesto the axis of the gun, and has cross spirit-levels and a graduated 
elevating drum and independent deflection scale, so that compensa- 
tion for level of wheels can be given and quadrant elevation. 

In smooth-bore days the term mortar meant a piece of ordnance 
of a peculiar shape resting on a bed at a fixed angle of quadrant 
elevation of 45 . It was ranged by varying the charge, 
and layed for line by means of a line and plumb bob Laying 
aligned on a picket. The term mortar, though not used Mortars. 
in the British service, is still retained elsewhere to signify very short, 
large-calibre howitzers, mounted on a bed with a minimum angle of 
elevation of 45 , which with the full charge would give the maximum 
range. Range is reduced by increasing the angle of elevation (by 
clinometer) or by using reduced charges. In the 9-45-in. Skoda 
howitzer, which is really a mortar as defined above, direction is 
given by means of a pointer on the mounting and a graduated 
arc on' the bed. For a description of Goerz panoramic, " ghost " 
and other forms of sights, see Colonel H. A. Bethell, Modern 
Guns and Gunnery (Woolwich, 1907), and for sights used in the 
United States, Colonel O. M. Lissak, Ordnance and Gunnery (New 
York and London, 1907). 

Sights for Coast Defence Artillery {Fixed Armaments). 

In coast defence artillery, owing to the fact that the guns are on 
fixed mountings at a constant height (except for rise and fall of 
tide) above the horizontal plane on which their 
targets move, and that consequently the angle 
of sight and quadrant elevation for every range 
can be calculated, developments in sights, in a 
measure, gave way to improved means of giving 
quadrant elevation. Minor improvements in 
tangent sights certainly were made, notably an 
automatic clamp, but quadrant elevation was 
mainly used, and in the case of guns equipped 
with position-finders (see Range-finder) the 
guns could be layed for direction by means of 
a graduated arc on the emplacement and a 
pointer on the mounting. A straight-edge or 
vertical blade (see -fig. 17) was placed above the 
leaf of the tangent sight, and in some cases on 
the fore-sight as well, to facilitate laying for 
line. This enabled the gun to be layed from 
some little distance behind, so that the layer 
could be clear of recoil, and continuous laying was thus pos- 
sible. The arrangements for giving quadrant elevation con- 
sisted of an arc, called index plate (see fig. 18), on the gun, 
graduated in degrees read by a " reader " on the carriage. A 
yard scale of varnished paper, made out locally for quadrant eleva- 
tion with regard to height of site, was usually pasted over this. A 
correction for level of tide was in many cases necessary, and was 




From Treatise on 
Service Ordnance. 

Fig. 17. 



64 



SIGHTS 



entered in a table or mounted on a drum which gave several correc- 
tions that had to be applied to the range for various causes. One 
great drawback to this system was that elevation was given with 
reference to the plane of the racers upon which the mounting moved, 
and as this was not always truly horizontal grave errors were intro- 
duced. To overcome this Colonel H. S. Watkin, C.B., introduced a 
hydroclinometer fixed on the trunnion. It was provided with a yard 
scale calculated with reference to height 
- of site, and elevation was read by the 
intersection of the edge of the liquid 
with the graduation for the particular 
range. Special sights were introduced 
! to overcome the difficulties of dis- 
1 appearing guns, large guns firing 
through small ports, &c. Such were 
the Moncrieff reflecting sights, and the 
" chase sights " for the 10-in. gun in 
which the rear sight, equipped with a 
mirror, was placed on the chase, and the 
In the early days of B.L. guns very 




Fig. 18. — Sketch of Index 
Plate and Reader. 



Rocking- 
bar sight* 

telescope. 



fore-sight on the muzzle, &c 

little change was made in the pattern of sights. Shield sights were in 
troduced for disappearing mountings to admit of continuous laying 
for liiie, and a disk engraved for yards of range duly corrected for 
height, and called an " elevation indicator," replaced the index plate 
and reader. As in mobile artillery, the introduction of trunnionless 
guns brought about a revolution in laying and sights. Smokeless 
powder also made rapid firing a possibility and a necessity. Con- 
tinuous laying and telescopic sights became possible. The reduction of 
friction by improved mechanical arrangements, and the introduction 
of electric firing, enabled the layer not only to train and elevate the 
gun himself, but also to fire it the moment it was truly " on " the 
target. The rocking-bar sight, which had been for some time in use 
in the navy, was introduced. In this sight both hind and fore 
sights are fixed on a rigid bar pivoted about the centre; the rear 
end is raised or depressed by a rack worked by a hand- wheel ; ranges 
are read from the periphery of a drum ; the fore-sight and leaf of the 
hind-sight are provided with small electric glow lamps for night 
firing. In addition to these open sights the bar also carries a 
sighting telescope. The advantages compared with a tangent sight 
are that only half the movement is required to raise the 
sight for any particular range; the ranges on the drum 
are easier to read, and if necessary can be set by another 
man, so that the layer need not take his eye from the 
The pattern of telescope used in coast defence is that 
designed by Dr Common. It is an erecting telescope with a field of 
view of io° and a magnification of 3 diameters, and admits plenty 
of light. The diamond-shaped pointer is always in focus ; focusing 
for individual eyesight is effected by turning the eye-piece, which 
is furnished with a scale for readjustment. A higher power glass 
has since been introduced for long ranges. 

The improvements in gun mountings mentioned above led the 
way to the introduction of the automatic sight. The principle of 
combined sight and range-finder had long been known, 
."''"" and was embodied in the so-called " Italian " sight, but, 
sights. on accoun t { the s l ow ra te of fire imposed by black 

powder, the rapidity of laying conferred by its use was of no great 
advantage, and it was unsuited to the imperfect mechanical arrange- 
ments of the gun mountings of the time. When cordite replaced 
black powder, and the gun sights and all in front of the gun were 
no longer obscured by hanging clouds of smoke, it became a de- 
sideratum, and, as the automatic sight, it was reintroduced by Sir 
G. S. Clarke, when he, as superintendent of the Royal Carriage 
Factory, had brought gun mountings to such a pitch of perfection 
that it could be usefully employed. 

An automatic sight is a sight connected in such a manner with the 
elevating gear of the gun, that when the sight is directed on the 

water-line of a target at 
A any range the gun will 

have the proper quadrant 
elevation for that range. 
Colonel H. S. Watkin, 
C.B., describes the theory 
of the sight thus (Pro- 
ceedings R.A.I. 1898). 
Conditions. — The gun 
Fig. 19. — Theory of the Automatic Sight, must be at a certain 

known height above 
sea-level — the greater the height the greater the accuracy. The 
racer path must be level. Let FB (fig. 19) represent a gun at height 
BD above water-level DC, elevated to such an angle that a shot 
would strike the water at C. Draw EB parallel to DC. It is clear 
that under these conditions, if a tangent sight AF be raised to a 
height F representing the elevation due to the range BC, the object C 
will be on the line of sight. Then ABF = angle of elevation; EFB 
= quadrant angle; BCD = angle of sight; EBF=ABF— ABE; and 
sinceABE = BCD,italsoequalsABF-BCD. BCDcan always be cal- 
culated from the formula, angle of sight in minutes = ^ " [^ X ] \ 46 

R (in yards) 

'h — height of gun above sea-level; R= range). An automatic 
sight based on the Italian sight was tried in 1 878-1 879. In this 




(see fig. 20) a rack I, fixed to the carriage, caused a pinion H on the 
gun to revolve. Fixed to the pinion were three cams, for high, 
low and mean tides. The tangent scale moved freely in a socket 
fixed to the gun ; its lower end rested on one of the cams, cut to a 
correct curve. It followed 
that when the gun was ele- 
vated or depressed, the rack 
caused the pinion to revolve, 
and the sight was thus raised 
or lowered to the proper 
height to fulfil the conditions 
given above ; but, as Colonel 
Watkin said, owing to want 
of level of platform and 
other causes it was not 
satisfactory. 

With the introduction of 
quick-firing guns it was felt 
that the layer should have 
the same control over his 
gun as a marksman had over 
his rifle, and this would be Proceedings R.A. Institute. 

afforded by a satisfactory p IG 20 "Italian 

automatic sight. The prin- 
ciple of the modern automatic sight is made clear in figs. 21 and 
22, which show a combined rocking-bar and automatic sight. 

The rocking-bar consists of a carrier a fixed to the cradle, a rocking- 
bar d pivoted to the carrier at e, a sight bar /carrying the sights and 
sighting telescope. The rocking-bar is moved by a rack g into which 
a pinion on a cross-spindle j gears ; the cross-spindle is moved by 
means of a worm-wheel into which a worm on the longitudinal 




Sight. 




Enlargement 
of A 

From War Office Handbook. 



Fig. 21. 



spindle of the hand-wheel gears ; one end of the cross-spindle moves 
the range drum 2'. The worm and hand-wheel are thrown into 
and out of gear by means of the clutch t. When the hand-wheel 
is thrown out of gear the sights can only be moved by means of the 
elevating gear of the gun. The line of sight and the elevation of the 
gun henceforth are inseparable. The automatic sight consists of 
a bent lever roller cam m, also secured by the bolt e to the carrier ; 
the lower end of the lever carries the 
cam roller n, which is constrained to 
move in the cam p by means of the 
spring in the spring-box g; the rear 
end of the horizontal arm of the lever 
is formed into jaws v; the same action 
of the clutch t which releases the worm 
and hand-wheel forces a catch on a 
vertical stem u into the jaws of the 
lever, and fixes the rocking and sight 
bars rigidly to it. The movement of 
the sights can now only be effected by 
means of the elevating gear of the 
gun, acting by means of the move- 
ment of the vertical arm of the bent 
lever, and its movement is constrained 
to follow the cam, which is cut in such 
a way that for any given elevation of 
the gun the sight bar is depressed to 
the angle of sight for the range corre- 
sponding to the elevation; V is a 
lever for making allowance for state 
of tide, and c' is the scale on which the rise and fall in feet above 
and below mean sea-level are marked. In later patterns, the 
sight is automatic pure and simple, the lever is rigidly attached to 
the rocking-bar, and the range scale and gear for raising the sights 
dispensed with, much as shown in fig. 23. In the larger natures of 




From War Office Handbook. 
Fig. 22. 



SIGHTS 



65 




Fig. 2.v 



H Sight 



gun there is a rocking-bar sight on one side and an automatic sight 
on the other. The automatic sight has, however, distinct limitations ; 
it depends for its accuracy on height of site, and at long ranges 

even from a high site 
it cannot compare for 
accuracy with indepen- 
dent range-finding and 
careful laying or accur- 
ately applied quadrant 
elevation; it is also use- 
less when the water line 
of the target is obscured, 
as may often be the case 
from the splashes caused 
by bursting shell. Im- 
proved communications 
between range - finder 
and gun, range and 
training dials placed on 
the mountings where 
they can be read by the layers, and more accurate elevation indicators 
have made laying by quadrant elevation, and in certain cases giving 
direction by means of graduated arc and pointer, both accurate and 
rapid, so that once more this system of laying is coming into favour 
for long ranges. 

Naval Sights. 
In the navy the conditions of an unstable platform rendered 
quadrant elevation of little use, and necessitated a special pattern of 
tangent sight to facilitate •firing the moment the roll of the ship 
brought the sights on the target. A diagram of the Foote-Arbuthnot, 
or H, or naval tangent sight, is given below (fig. 24). 

The fore-sight was a small globe, and in the original patterns 
this was placed on a movable leaf on which deflection for speed of 
one's own ship was given, while deflection for speed of enemy's 
ship and wind were given on the tangent sight. The yard scales 
were on detachable strips, so that fresh strips 
could be inserted for variations in velocity. In 
subsequent patterns all the deflection was given 
on the tangent sight, which was provided with 
two scales, the upper one graduated in knots 
for speed of ship, and the lower one in degrees. 
Night sights were introduced by Captain 
McEvoy in 1884. They consist of an electric 
battery cable and lamp-holders and small glow 
lamps ; that for the hind-sight is coloured. 

Turret Sights. — In turrets or barbettes two 
sets of sights are provided, one for each gun. 
They are geared so as to work simultaneously and 
alike. Toothed gearing connected with the gun 
mountings actuates a rack attached to the 
standards carrying the sights, so that any move- 
ment of the gun mounting is communicated to 
the sights. The sights themselves fit into 
sockets cut at the proper angle for drift, and 
are raised in their sockets the requisite amount 
for the range by means of a small hand-wheel; 
they are thus non-recoiling sights. The layer 
has under his control the hand-wheel for setting 
the range on the sights, another hand-wheel for 
elevating the gun and the sights on to the 
l^foeAnt/e target, and a third for traversing the turret. 
[graduated The introduction of trunnionless guns was 
followed by that of rocking-bar sights (described 
above). Sighting telescopes were also intro- 
Fig. 24. duced. _ In the navy one of the first essentials 

is rapidity of fire; to attain this the duties of 
laying are subdivided ; one man laying for elevation, elevating and 
firing, a second laying for line and traversing, and a third putting 
on the elevation ordered or communicated by electric dial. To 
ensure the sights on each side reading together they are connected 
by rods. To facilitate the setting of the range the ranges are shown 
on a dial which can be read from the side of the mounting, from 
where also the sight can be set. (R. M. B. F. K.) 

. Military Rifle Sights. 
With smooth-bore arms of short range, the soldier needed little 
more, in the way of sights, than the rough equivalent of the dis- 
part of cannon, viz. patches at the breech and muzzle with notch 
and blade (fig. 25). But some form of sight was almost invariably 
employed with rifled firearms, even of early date, and when about 
178c— 1800 the rifle came into use as a military weapon, sights were 
introduced with it. The sights of the Baker, Brunswick, and other 
rifles did not differ in principle from the now common form of 
elevating back-sight (fig. 29), that is, the elevation was given on an 
upright adjustable back sight. But this refinement was long looked 
upon as a mere fad, both by the soldiers who used the smooth-bore 
(or converted rifle) musket, and by experienced short-range snap- 
shooters. In this connexion Major-General John Gibbon, U.S.A., 
records that in the American Civil War hunters and others who 

XXV. 3 




served in the western regiments habitually knocked off the back- 
sights of the rifles that were issued to them, preferring to do without 
them. But, as rifles improved and came into general use for all 
troops, sights became indispensable, and to-day as much care is 



Fig. 26. 





Fig. 25. 

taken over the sighting as over the " proof " of a military rifle. The 
modern rifle has invariably a back-sight and a fore-sight. The 
latter is, as a general rule, fixed and unalterable, its size, position 
on the barrel, &c, being practically ascertained, as accurately as 
possible, for the lowest elevation on the back-sight. Some fore- 
sights have, however, a lateral motion giving within narrow limits the 
deflection found to be necessary for the variation of each rifle from 
the average. The shape of the part seen through the notch or 





Fig. 29. 



aperture of the back-sight in aiming varies a good deal. Two of 
the commonest forms are shown in fig. 26, called the " barleycorn," 
and 27, called the " bead." The fore-sight of the Krag-Jorgensen 
rifle, used in the United States army until 1906, consisted of a blade 
with parallel sides. The shape of the part seen when aiming indicates 
whether the proper amount of the fore-sight is taken up into the 
line of vision from the back-sight to the target. A " full " sight is 
shown in fig. 8 above. The position of the fore-sight at or near 




the end of the barrel renders it peculiarly liable to injury, and in 
some rifles therefore it is provided with guards or ears; these, 
however, have the disadvantage that more or less of the light that 
would otherwise light up the sight is intercepted by the guards. 
The fore-sight of the British service " short " Lee-Enfield (1903) 
has guards and also a lateral adjustment of the barleycorn. Back- 
sights are of many different patterns, almost any two being 

II 



66 



SIGIRI— SIGISMUND 



unlike. Examples taken, except fig. 28, by permission from the 
Text Book of Small Arms (1909), are given in fig. 28 (German Mauser 
pattern), fig. 29 (" long " hand-loader Lee-Enfield), fig. 30 (" short " 
Lee-Enfield), fig. 31 (Dutch service rifle), and fig. 32 (Russian 
" three-line " rifle). Fine lateral adjustments are provided on the 
" short " Lee-Enfield, and on many other military sights of modern 
date. See for further details Rifle. 

Authorities Consulted.— Owen, Modern Artillery; Lloyd and 
Hadcock, Artillery, its Progress and Present Position; Lissak, 
Ordnance and Gunnery; Colonel H. A. Bethell, Modern Guns and 
Gunnery; Proceedings and Occasional Papers, R.A. Institute, and 
War Office publications. 

SlGIRI, the Lion's Rock, the ruin of a remarkable stronghold 
7° 59' N., and 8i° E., 14 m. N.E. of Dambulla, and about 17 m. 
nearly due W. of Pulasti-pura, the now ruined ancient capital 
of Ceylon. There a solitary pillar of granite rock rises to a great 
height out of the plain, and the top actually overhangs the sides. 
On the summit of this pencil of rock there are five or six acres of 
ground; and on them, in a.d. 477, Kasyapa the Parricide built 
his palace, and thought to find an inaccessible refuge from his 
enemies. His father Dhatu Sena, a country priest, had, after 
many years of foreign oppression, roused his countrymen, in 459, 
to rebellion, led them to victory, driven out the Tamil oppressors, 
and entered on his reign as a national hero. He was as successful 
in the arts of peace as he had been in those of war; and carried 
to completion, among other good works, an ambitious irrigation 
scheme — probably the greatest feat of engineering that had then 
been accomplished anywhere in the world. This was the cele- 
brated Kala Wewa, or Black Reservoir, more than 50 m. in 
circumference, which gave wealth to the whole country for two 
days' journey north of the capital, Anuradha-pura, and provided 
that city also with a constant supply of water. Popular with 
the people, the king could not control his own family; and as the 
outcome of a palace intrigue in 477 his son Kasyapa had declared 
himself king, and taken his father prisoner. Threatened with 
death on his refusing to say where his treasure lay hid, the old 
king told them to take him to the tank. They took him there, 
and while bathing in the water he let some of it drop through his 
fingers, and said, " This is my treasure; this, and the love of my 
people." Then Kasyapa had his father built up alive into a wall. 
Meanwhile Kasyapa's brother had escaped to India and was 
plotting a counter revolution. It was then that the parricide 
prepared his defence. He utilized his father's engineers in the 
construction of a path or gallery winding up round the Sigiri 
rock. Most of it was made, by bursting the rock by means of 
wooden wedges, through the solid granite, and its outside parapet 
was supported by walls of brick resting on ledges far below. 
It is a marvellous piece of work. Abandoned since 495 — for 
Kasyapa was eventually slain during a battle fought in the plain 
beneath — it has, on the whole, well withstood the fury of tropical 
storms, and is now used again to gain access to the top. When 
rediscovered by Major Forbes in 1835 the portions of the gallery 
where it had been exposed for so many centuries to the south-west 
monsoon, had been carried away. These gaps have lately been 
repaired, or made passable with the help of iron stanchions; 
the remains c.f the buildings at the top and at the foot of the 
mountain have been excavated; and the entrance to the gallery, 
between the outstretched paws of a gigantic lion, has been laid 
bare. The fresco paintings in the galleries are perhaps the most 
interesting of the extant remains. They are older than any 
others found in India, and have been carefully copied, and, as 
far as possible, preserved. 

See Major Forbes, Eleven Years in Ceylon (London, 1841); 
H. C. P. Bell. Archaeological Reports (Colombo, 1892- 1906); Rhys 
Davids, " Sigiri. the Lion Rock," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society (1875), pp. 191-220; H. W. Cave, Ruined Cities of Ceylon 
(London, 1906). (T. W. R. D.) 

SIGISMUND (1368-143 7), Roman emperor and king of Hungary 
and Bohemia, was a son of the emperor Charles IV. and Elizabeth, 
daughter of Bogislaus V., duke of Pomerania. He was born on 
the 15th of February 1368, and in 1374 was betrothed to Maria, 
the eldest daughter of Louis the Great, king of Poland and 
Hungary. Having become margrave of Brandenburg on his 
father's death in 1378, he was educated at the Hungarian court 



from his eleventh to his sixteenth year, becoming thoroughly 
magyarized and entirely devoted to his adopted country. His 
wife Maria, to whom he was married in 1385, was captured 
by the rebellious Horvathys in the following year, and only 
rescued by her young husband with the aid of the Venetians in 
June 1.387. Sigismund had been crowned king of Hungary on 
the 31st of March 1387, and having raised money by pledging 
Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia, he was 
engaged for the next nine years in a ceaseless struggle for the 
possession of this unstable throne. The bulk of the nation 
headed by the great Garay family was with him; but in the 
southern provinces between the Save and the Drave, the 
Horvathys with the support of the Bosnian king Tvrtko, pro- 
claimed as their king Ladislaus, king of Naples, son of the 
murdered Hungarian king, Charles II. (see Hungary). Not 
until 1395 did the valiant Miklos Garay succeed in sup- 
pressing them. In 1396 Sigismund led the combined armies of 
Christendom against the Turks, who had taken advantage of the 
temporary helplessness of Hungary to extend their dominion to 
the banks of the Danube. This crusade, preached by Pope 
Boniface IX., was very popular in Hungary. The nobles flocked 
in thousands to the royal standard, and were reinforced by 
volunteers from nearly every part of Europe, the most important 
contingent being that of the French led by John, duke of Nevers, 
son of Philip II., duke of Burgundy. It was with a host of about 
90,000 men and a flotilla of 70 galleys that Sigismund set out. 
After capturing Widdin, he sat down before the fortress of Nico- 
polis, to retain which Sultan Bajazid raised the siege of Con- 
stantinople and at the head of 140,000 men completely overthrew 
the Christian forces in a battle fought between the 25th and 28th 
of September 1396. Deprived of his authority in Hungary, 
Sigismund then turned his attention to securing the succession 
in Germany and Bohemia, and was recognized by his childless 
step-brother Wenceslaus as vicar-general of the whole empire. 
He remained, however, powerless when in 1400 Wenceslaus was 
deposed and Rupert III., elector palatine of the Rhine, was 
elected German king in his stead. During these years he was 
also involved in domestic difficulties out of which sprang a second 
war with Ladislaus of Naples; and on his return to Hungary 
in 1401 he was once imprisoned and twice deposed. This struggle 
in its turn led to a war with Venice, as Ladislaus before departing 
to his own land had sold the Dalmatian cities to the Venetians for 
100,000 ducats. In 1401 Sigismund assisted a rising against 
Wenceslaus, during the course of which the German and Bohemian 
king was made a prisoner, and Sigismund ruled Bohemia for 
nineteen months. In 1410 the German king Rupert died, when 
Sigismund, ignoring his step-brother's title, was chosen German 
king, or king of the Romans, first by three of the electors on the 
20th of September 1410, and again after the death of his rival, 
Jobst of Moravia, on the 21st of July 141 1; but his coronation 
was deferred until the 8th of November 1414, when it took 
place at Aix-la-Chapelle. 

During a visit to Italy the king had taken advantage of the 
difficulties of Pope John XXIII. to obtain a promise that a council 
should be called to Constance in 1414. He took a leading part 
in the deliberations of this assembly, and during the sittings 
made a journey into France, England and Burgundy in a vain 
attempt to secure the abdication of the three rival popes (see 
Constance, Council of). The complicity of Sigismund in 
the death of John Huss is a matter of controversy. He had 
granted him a safe-conduct and protested against his imprison- 
ment; and it was during his absence that the reformer was 
burned. An alliance with England against France, and an 
attempt to secure peace in Germany by a league of the towns, 
which failed owing to the hostility of the princes, were the main 
secular proceedings of these years. In 1419 the death of Wences- 
laus left Sigismund titular king of Bohemia, but he had to wait 
for seventeen years before the Czechs- would acknowledge him. 
But although the two dignities of king of the Romans and king 
of Bohemia added considerably to his importance, and indeed 
made him the nominal head of Christendom, they conferred no 
increase of power and financially embarrassed him. It was only 



SIGISMUND I. 



67 



as king of Hungary that he had succeeded in establishing his 
authority and in doing anything for the order and good govern- 
ment of the land. Entrusting the government of Bohemia to 
Sophia, the widow of Wenceslaus, he hastened into Hungary; 
but the Bohemians, who distrusted him as the betrayer of Huss, 
were soon in arms; and the flame was fanned when Sigismund 
declared his intention of prosecuting the war against heretics 
who were also communists. Three campaigns against the Hussites 
ended in disaster; the Turks were again attacking Hungary; 
and the king, unable to obtain support from the German princes, 
was powerless in Bohemia. His attempts at the diet of Nurem- 
berg in 1422 to raise a mercenary army were foiled by the re- 
sistance of the towns; and in 1424 the electors, among whom 
was Sigismund's former ally, Frederick I. of Hohenzollern, 
margrave of Brandenburg, sought to strengthen their own 
authority at the expense of the king. Although the scheme failed, 
the danger to Germany from the Hussites led to fresh proposals, 
the result of which was that Sigismund was virtually deprived 
of the leadership of the war and the headship of Germany. In 
1 43 1 he went to Milan where on the 25th of November he re- 
ceived the Lombard crown; after which he remained for some 
time at Siena, negotiating for his coronation as emperor and for 
the recognition of the Council of Basel by Pope Eugenius IV. 
He was crowned emperor at Rome on the 31st of May 1433, an d 
after obtaining his demands from the pope returned to Bohemia, 
where he was recognized as king in 1436, though his power was 
little more than nominal. On the gth of December 1437 he died 
at Znaim, and was buried at Grosswardein. By his second wife, 
Barbara of Cilli, he left an only daughter, Elizabeth, who was 
married to Albert V., duke of Austria, afterwards the German 
king Albert II., whom he named as his successor. As he left no 
sons the house of Luxemburg became extinct on his death. 

Sigismund was brave and handsome, courtly in his bearing, 
eloquent in his speech, but licentious in his manners. He was 
an accomplished knight and is said to have known seven 
languages. He was also one of the most far-seeing statesmen 
of his day, and steadily endeavoured to bring about the ex- 
pulsion of the Turks from Europe by uniting Christendom 
against them. As king of Hungary he approved himself a born 
political reformer, and the military measures which he adopted 
in that country enabled the kingdom to hold its own against 
the Turks for nearly a hundred years. His sense of justice and 
honour was slight ; but as regards the death of Huss he had to 
choose between condoning the act and allowing the council to 
break up without result. He cannot be entirely blamed for the 
misfortunes of Germany during his reign, for he showed a willing- 
ness to attempt reform; but he was easily discouraged, and 
was hampered on all sides by poverty, which often compelled him 
to resort to the meanest expedients for raising money. 

Bibliography. — The more important works to be consulted are 
Repertorium Germanicum; Regesten aus den pdpstlichen Archiven zur 
Geschichte des deutschen Reichs im XIV. und X V. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 
1897); E. Windecke, Denkwiirdigkeiten zur Geschichte des Zeitalters 
Kaisers Sigmund (Berlin, 1893), and Das Leben Konigs Siegmund 
(Berlin, 1886); J. Aschbach, Geschichte Kaiser Sigmunds (Hamburg, 
1838-1845); YV. Berger, Johannes Hus und Kbnig Sigmund (Augs- 
burg, 1871); G. Schonherr, The Inheritors of the House of Anjou 
(Buda-Pesth, 1895) ; and J. Acsady, History of the Hungarian Realm, 
vol. i. (Buda-Pesth, 1903). Of the German books Aschbach is 
the fullest, and Windecke the most critical. Schdnherr is the 
best Hungarian authority. Acsady is too indulgent to the vices of 
Sigismund. See also A. Main, The Emperor Sigismund (1903). 

SIGISMUND I. (1467-1548), king of Poland, the fifth son of 
Casimir IV. and Elizabeth of Austria, was elected grand-duke 
of Lithuania on the 21st of October 1505 and king of Poland on 
the 8th of January 1506. Sigismund was the only one of the six 
sons of Casimir IV. gifted with extraordinary ability. He had 
served his apprenticeship in the art of government first as prince 
of Glogau and subsequently as governor of Silesia and margrave 
of Lusatia under his elder brother Wladislaus of Bohemia and 
Hungary. Silesia, already more than half Germanized, had for 
generations been the battle-ground between the Luxemburgers 
and the Piasts, and was split up into innumerable principalities 
which warred incessantly upon their neighbours and each other. 



Into the midst of this region of banditti Sigismund came as a sort 
of grand justiciar, a sworn enemy of every sort of disorder. His 
little principality of Glogau soon became famous as a model state, 
and as governor of Silesia he suppressed the robber knights with 
an iron hand, protected the law-abiding classes, and revived 
commerce. In Poland also his thrift and businesslike qualities 
speedily remedied the abuses caused by the wastefulness of his 
predecessor Alexander. His first step was to recover control of 
the mint, and place it in the hands of capable middle-class 
merchants and bankers, like Caspar Beer, Jan Thurzo, Jan 
Boner, the Betmans, exiles for conscience' sake from Alsace, 
who had sought refuge in Poland under Casimir IV., Justus 
Decyusz, subsequently the king's secretary and historian, and 
their fellows, all practical economists of high integrity who 
reformed the currency and opened out new ways for trade and 
commerce. The reorganization of the mint alone increased the 
royal revenue by 210,000 gulden a year and enabled Sigismund to 
pay the expenses of his earlier wars. In foreign affairs Sigismund 
was largely guided by the Laskis (Adam, Jan and Hieronymus), 
Jan Tarnowski and others, most of whom he selected himself. 
In his marriages also he was influenced by political considerations, 
though to both his consorts he was an affectionate husband. 
His first wife, whom the diet, anxious for the perpetuation of the 
dynasty, compelled him, already in his forty-fourth year (Feb. 
1512), to marry, was Barbara Zapolya, whose family as repre- 
sented first by her father Stephen and subsequently by her 
brother John, dominated Hungarian politics in the last quarter 
of the 15th and the first quarter of the 16th century. Barbara 
brought him a dower of 100,000 gulden and the support of the 
Magyar magnates, but the match nearly brought about a breach 
with the emperor Maximilian, jealous already of the Jagiello in- 
fluence in Hungary. On Barbara's death three years later without 
male offspring, Sigismund (in April 1518) gave his hand to 
Bona Sforza, a kinswoman of the emperor and granddaughter 
of the king of Aragou, who came to him with a dowry of 200,000 
ducats and the promise of an inheritance from her mother of 
half a million more which she never got. Bona's grace and beauty 
speedily fascinated Sigismund, and contemporary satirists ridi- 
culed him for playing the part of Jove to her Juno. She intro- 
duced Italian elegance and luxury into the austere court of 
Cracow and exercised no inconsiderable influence on affairs. 
But she used her great financial and economical talents almost 
entirely for her own benefit. She enriched herself at the expense 
of the state, corrupted society, degraded the clergy, and in her 
later years was universally detested for her mischievous meddling, 
inexhaustible greed, and unnatural treatment of her children. 

The first twenty years of Sigismund's reign were marked by 
exceptional vigour. His principal difficulties were due to the 
aggressiveness of Muscovy and the disloyalty of Prussia. With 
the tsars Vasily III. and Ivan IV. Sigismund was never absolutely 
at peace. The interminable war was interrupted, indeed, by 
brief truces whenever Polish valour proved superior to Muscovite 
persistence, as for instance after the great victory of Orsza 
(Sept. 1514) and again in 1522 when Moscow was threatened by 
the Tatars. But the Tatars themselves were a standing menace 
to the republic. In the open field, indeed, they were generally 
defeated (e.g. at Wisniowiec in 151 2 and at Kaniow in 1526), 
yet occasionally, as at Sokal when they wiped out a whole 
Polish army, they prevailed even in pitched battles. Generally, 
however, they confined themselves to raiding on a grand scale 
and, encouraged by the Porte or the Muscovite, systematically 
devastated whole provinces, penetrating even into the heart of 
Poland proper and disappearing with immense booty. It was 
this growing sense of border insecurity which led to the establish- 
ment of the Cossacks (see Poland: History). 

The grand-masters of the Teutonic Order, always sure of 
support in Germany, were also a constant source of annoyance. 
Their constant aim was to shake off Polish suzerainty, and in 
1520-21 their menacing attitude compelled Sigismund to take 
up arms against them. The long quarrel was finally adjusted 
in 1525 when the last grand-master, after a fruitless pilgrimage 
I through Europe for support, professed Lutheranism and as first 



68 



SIGISMUND II.— SIGISMUND III. 



duke of Prussia did public homage to the Polish king in the 
market-place of Cracow. The secularization of Prussia was 
opposed by the more religious of Sigismund's counsellors, and the 
king certainly exposed himself to considerable odium in the 
Catholic world; but taking all the circumstances into considera- 
tion, it was perhaps the shortest way out of a situation bristling 
with difficulties. 

Personally a devout Catholic and opposed in principle to the 
spread of sectarianism in Poland, Sigismund was nevertheless 
too wise and just to permit the persecution of non-Catholics; 
and in Lithuania, where a fanatical Catholic minority of magnates 
dominated the senate, he resolutely upheld the rights of his 
Orthodox subjects. Thus he rewarded the Orthodox upstart, 
Prince Constantine Ortrogski, for his victory at Orsza by making 
him palatine of Troki, despite determined opposition from the 
Catholics; severely punished all disturbers of the worship of the 
Greek schismatics; protected the Jews in the country places, 
and insisted that the municipalities of the towns should be 
composed of an equal number of Catholics and Orthodox Greeks. 
By his tact, equity, and Christian charity, Sigismund endeared 
himself even to those who differed most from him, as witness 
the readiness of the Lithuanians to elect his infant son grand-duke 
of Lithuania in 1522, and to crown him in 1529. 

After his sixtieth year there was a visible decline in the energy 
and capacity of Sigismund. To the outward eye his gigantic 
strength and herculean build lent him the appearance of health 
and vigour, but forty years of unintermittent toil and anxiety 
had told upon him, and during the last two-and-twenty years of 
his reign, by which time all his old self-chosen counsellors had died 
off, he apathetically resigned himself to the course of events 
without making any sustained effort to stem the rising tide of 
Protestantism and democracy. He had no sympathy with the 
new men and the new ideas, and the malcontents in Poland often 
insulted the aged king with impunity. Thus, at his last diet, 
held at Piotrkow in 1547, Lupa Podlodowski, the champion of the 
szlachta, ocenly threatened him with rebellion. Sigismund died 
on the 1st of April 1548. By Bona he had five children — one 
son, Sigismund Augustus, who succeeded him, and four daughters, 
Isabella, who married John Zapolya, prince of Transylvania,. 
Sophia, who married the duke of Brunswick, Catherine, who 
as the wife of John III. of Sweden became the mother of the 
Polish Vasas, and Ann, who subsequently wedded King 
Stephen Bathory. 

See August Sokolowski, History of Poland (Pol.), vol. ii. (Vienna, 
1904) ; Zygmunt Celichowski, Materials for the history of the reign 
of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Posen, 1900); Adolf Pawinski, The 
youthful years of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1893); Adam 
Darowski, Bona Sforza (1904). (R. N. B.) 

SIGISMUND II. (1520-1572), king of Poland, the only son of 
Sigismund I., king of Poland, whom he succeeded in 1548, and 
Bona Sforza. At the very beginning of his reign he came into 
collision with the turbulent szlachta or gentry, who had already 
begun to oust the great families from power. The ostensible 
cause of their animosity to the king was his second marriage, 
secretly contracted before his accession, with the beautiful 
Lithuanian Calvinist, Barbara Radziwill, daughter of the famous 
Black Radziwill. But the Austrian court and Sigismund's own 
mother, Queen Bona, seem to have been behind the movement, 
and so violent was the agitation at Sigismund's first diet (31st of 
October 1548) that the deputies threatened to renounce their 
allegiance unless the king instantly repudiated Barbara. This 
he refused to do, and his moral courage united with no small 
political dexterity enabled him to win the day. By 1550, when 
he summoned his second diet, a reaction in his favour began, and 
the lingering petulance of the gentry was sternly rebuked by 
Kmita, the marshal of the diet, who openly accused them of 
attempting to diminish unduly the legislative prerogative' of the 
crown. The death of Barbara, five days after her coronation 
(7th of December 1550), under very distressing circumstances 
which led to an unproven suspicion that she had been poisoned 
by Queen Bona,- compelled Sigismund to contract a third purely 
political union with the Austrian archduchess Catherine, the 
lister of Sigismund's first wife Elizabeth, who had died within a 



twelvemonth of her marriage with him, while he was still only 
crown prince. The third bride was sickly and unsympathetic, 
and from her Sigismund soon lost all hope of progeny, to his 
despair, for being the last male of the Jagiellos in the direct line, 
the dynasty was threatened with extinction. He sought to 
remedy the evil by liaisons with two of the most beautiful of his 
countrywomen, Barbara Gizanka and Anna Zajanczkowska, the 
diet undertaking to legitimatize and acknowledge as his successor 
any heir male who might be born to him; but their complacency 
was in vain, for the king died childless. This matter of the king's 
marriage was of great political importance, the Protestants and 
the Catholics being equally interested in the issue. Had he not 
been so good a Catholic Sigismund might well have imitated the 
example of Henry VIII. by pleading that his detested third wife 
was the sister of his first and consequently the union was un- 
canonical. The Polish Protestants hoped that he would take 
this course and thus bring about a breach with Rome at the very 
crisis of the confessional struggle in Poland, while the Habsburgs, 
who coveted the Polish throne, raised every obstacle to the 
childless king's remarriage. Not till Queen Catherine's death 
on the 28th of February 1572 were Sigismund's hands free, but 
he followed her to the grave less than six months afterwards. 
Sigismund's reign was a period of internal turmoil and external 
expansion. He saw the invasion of Poland by the Reformation, 
and the democratic upheaval which placed all political power 
in the hands of the szlachta; he saw the collapse of the ancient 
order of the Knights of the Sword in the north (which led to the 
acquisition of Livonia by the republic) and the consolidation of 
the Turkish power in the south. Throughout this perilous 
transitional period Sigismund's was the hand which successfully 
steered the ship of state amidst all the whirlpools that constantly 
threatened to engulf it. A far less imposing figure than his 
father, the elegant and refined Sigismund II. was nevertheless an 
even greater statesman than the stern and majestic Sigismund I. 
Tenacity and patience, the characteristics of all the Jagiellos, 
he possessed in a high degree, and he added to them a supple 
dexterity and a diplomatic finesse which he may have inherited 
from his Italian mother. Certainly no other Polish king so 
thoroughly understood the nature of the ingredients of that 
witch's caldron, the Polish diet, as he did. Both the Austrian 
ambassadors and the papal legates testify to the care with 
which he controlled " this nation so difficult to lead." Every- 
thing went as he wished, they said, because he seemed to know 
everything beforehand. He managed to get more money than 
his father could ever get, and at one of his diets won the hearts of 
the whole assembly by unexpectedly appearing before them in 
the simple grey coat of a Masovian squire. Like his father, a 
pro-Austrian by conviction, he contrived even in this respect 
to carry the Polish nation, always so distrustful of the Germans, 
entirely along with him, thereby avoiding all serious complica- 
tions with the ever dangerous Turk. Only a statesman of genius 
could have mediated for twenty years, as he did, between the 
church and the schismatics without alienating the sympathies 
of either. But the most striking memorial of his greatness was 
the union of Lublin, which finally made of Poland and Lithuania 
one body politic, and put an end to the jealousies and discords 
of centuries (see Poland, History). The merit of this crowning 
achievement belongs to Sigismund alone; but for him it would 
have been impossible. Sigismund II. died at his beloved Kny- 
szyne on the 6th of July 1572, in his fifty-second year. 

See Ludwik Finkel, Characteristics of Sigismund Augustus (Pol.) 
(Lemberg, 1888); Letters to Nicholas Radziwill (Pol.) (Wilna, 1842); 
Geheime Brief e an Hozyus, Gesandten am Hofe des Kaisers Karl V. 
(Wadowice, 1850); Adam Darowski, Bona Sforza (Pol.) (Rome, 
1904). (R. N. B.) 

SIGISMUND HI. (1566-163 2), king of Poland and Sweden, 
son of John III., king of Sweden, and Catherine Jagiellonika, 
sister of Sigismund II., king of Poland, thus uniting in his person 
the royal lines of Vasa and Jagiello. Educated as a Catholic 
by his mother, he was on the death of Stephen Bathory elected 
king of Poland (August 19, 1587) chiefly through the efforts of 
the Polish chancellor, Jan Zamoyski, and of his own aunt, Anne, 
queen-dowager of Poland, who lent the chancellor 100,000 gulden 



SIGMARINGEN 



69 



to raise troops in defence of her nephew's cause. On his election, 
Sigismund promised to maintain a fleet in the Baltic, to fortify 
the eastern frontier against the Tatars, and not to visit Sweden 
without the consent of the Polish diet. Sixteen days later were 
signed the articles of Kalmar regulating the future relations 
between Poland and Sweden, when in process of time. Sigismund 
should succeed his father as king of Sweden. The two kingdoms 
were to be perpetually allied, but each of them was to retain its 
own laws and customs. Sweden was also to enjoy her religion 
subject to such changes as a general council might make. During 
Sigismund's absence from Sweden that realm was to be ruled by 
seven Swedes, six to be elected by the king and one by Duke 
Charles, his Protestant uncle. Sweden, moreover, was not to 
be administered from Poland. A week after subscribing these 
articles the young prince departed to take possession of the Polish 
throne. He was expressly commanded by his father to return 
to Sweden, if the Polish deputation awaiting him at Danzig 
should insist on the cession of Esthonia to Poland as a condition 
precedent to the act of homage. The Poles proved even more 
difficult to satisfy than was anticipated; but finally a com- 
promise was come to whereby the territorial settlement was 
postponed till after the death of John III. ; and Sigismund was 
duly crowned at Cracow on the 27th of December 1587. 

Sigismund's position as king of Poland was extraordinarily 
difficult. As a foreigner he was from the first out of sympathy 
with the majority of his subjects. As a man of education and 
refinement, fond of music, the fine arts, and polite literature, 
he was unintelligible to the szlachta, who regarded all artists and 
poets as either mechanics or adventurers. His very virtues were 
strange and therefore offensive to them. His prudent reserve 
and imperturbable calmness were branded as stiffness and 
haughtiness. Even Zamoyski who had placed him on the throne 
complained that the king was possessed by a dumb devil. He 
lacked, moreover, the tact and bonhomie of the Jagiellos; 
but in fairness it should be added that the Jagiellos were natives 
of the soil, that they had practically made the monarchy, and 
that they could always play Lithuania off against Poland. 

Sigismund's difficulties were also increased by his political 
views which he brought with him from Sweden cut and dried, 
and which were diametrically opposed to those of the omnipotent 
chancellor. Yet, impracticable as it may have been, Sigismund's 
system of foreign policy as compared with Zamoyski's was, at 
any rate, clear and definite. It aimed at a close alliance with the 
house of Austria, with the double object of drawing Sweden within 
its orbit and overawing the Porte by the conjunction of the two 
great Catholic powers of central Europe. A corollary to this 
system was the much needed reform of the Polish constitution, 
without which nothing beneficial was to be expected from any 
political combination. Thus Sigismund's views were those of a 
statesman who clearly recognizes present evils and would remedy 
them. But all his efforts foundered on the jealousy and suspicion 
of the magnates headed by the chancellor. The first three-and- 
twenty years of Sigismund's reign is the record of an almost 
constant struggle between Zamoyski and the king, in which the 
two opponents were so evenly matched that they did little more 
than counterpoise each other. At the diet of 1590 Zamoyski 
successfully thwarted all the efforts of the Austrian party; 
whereupon the king, taking advantage of sudden vacancies 
among the chief offices of state, brought into power the Radzi- 
wills and other great Lithuanian dignitaries, thereby for a time 
considerably curtailing the authority of the chancellor. In 1592 
Sigismund married the Austrian archduchess Anne, and the same 
year a reconciliation was patched up between the king and the 
chancellor to enable the former to secure possession of his 
Swedish throne vacant by the death of his father John III. He 
arrived at Stockholm on the 30th of September 1593 and was 
crowned at Upsala on the 19th of February IS94, but only after 
he had consented to the maintenance of the " pure evangelical 
religion " in Sweden. On the 14th of July 1594 he departed for 
Poland leaving Duke Charles and the senate to rule Sweden 
during his absence. Four years later (July 1598) Sigismund 
was forced to fight for his native crown by the usurpation of his 



uncle, aided by the Protestant party in Sweden. He landed at 
Kalmar with 5000 men, mostly Hungarian mercenaries; the 
fortress opened its gates to him at once and the capital and the 
country people welcomed him. The Catholic world watched his 
progress with the most sanguine expectations. Sigismund's 
success in Sweden was regarded as only the beginning of greater 
triumphs. But it was not to be. After fruitless negotiations 
with his uncle, Sigismund advanced with his army from Kalmar, 
but was defeated by the duke at Stangebro on the 25th of 
September. Three days later, by the compact of Linkoping, 
Sigismund agreed to submit all the points in dispute between 
himself and his uncle to a riksdag at Stockholm; but immediately 
afterwards took ship for Danzig, after secretly protesting to the 
two papal prothonotaries who accompanied him that the Linko- 
ping agreement had been extorted from him, and was therefore 
invalid. Sigismund never saw Sweden again, but he persistently 
refused to abandon his claims or recognise the new Swedish 
government; and this unfortunate obstinacy was to involve 
Poland in a whole series of unprofitable wars with Sweden. 

In 1602 Sigismund wedded Constantia, the sister of his deceased 
first wife, an event which strengthened the hands of the Austrian 
party at court and still further depressed the chancellor. At the 
diet of 1605 Sigismund and his partisans endeavoured so far to 
reform the Polish constitution as to substitute a decision by a 
plurality of votes for unanimity in the diet. This most simple 
and salutary reform was, however, rendered nugatory by the 
opposition of Zamoyski, and his death the same year made 
matters still worse, as it left the opposition in the hands of men 
violent and incapable, like Nicholas Zebrzydowski, or sheer 
scoundrels, like Stanislaw Stadnicki. From 1606 indeed to 1610 
Poland was in an anarchical condition. Insurrection and 
rebellion triumphed everywhere, and all that Sigismund could 
do was to minimize the mischief as much as possible by his 
moderation and courage. On foreign affairs these disorders had 
the most disastrous effect. The simultaneous collapse of Muscovy 
had given Poland an unexampled opportunity of rendering the 
tsardom for ever harmless. But the necessary supplies were' 
never forthcoming and the diet remained absolutely indifferent 
to the triumphs of Zolkiewski and the other great generals who 
performed Brobdingnagian feats with Lilliputian armies. At the 
outbreak of the Thirty Years' War Sigismund prudently leagued 
with the emperor to counterpoise the united efforts of the Turks 
and the Protestants. This policy was very beneficial to the 
Catholic cause, as it diverted the Turk from central to north- 
eastern Europe; yet, but for the self-sacrificing heroism of 
Zolkiewski at Cecora and of Chodkiewicz at Khotin, it might 
have been most ruinous to Poland. Sigismund died very 
suddenly in his 66th year, leaving two sons, Wladislaus and John 
Casimir, who succeeded him in rotation. 

See Aleksander Rembowski, The Insurrection of Zebrzydowski 
(Pol.) (Cracow, 1893) ; Stanislaw Niemojewski, Memoires (Pol.) 
(Lemberg, 1899); Sveriges Historia, vol. iii. (Stockholm, 1881); 
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, History of the Reign of Sigismund III. 
(Pol.) (Breslau, 1836). (R. N. B.) 

SIGMARINGEN, a town of Germany, chief town of the Prussian 
principality of Hohenzollern, on the right bank of the Danube, 
55 m. S. of Tubingen, on the railway to Ulm. Pop. (1905) 
4621. The castle of the Hohenzollerns crowns a high rock above 
the river, and contains a collection of pictures, an exceptionally 
interesting museum (textiles, enamels, metal- work, &c), an 
armoury and a library. On the opposite bank of the Danube 
there is a war monument to the Hohenzollern men who fell in 1866 
and 1870-1871. 

The division of Sigmaringen is composed of the two formerly 
sovereign principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohen- 
zollern-Hechingen (see Hohenzollern), and has an area of 
440 sq. m. and a population (1905) of 68,282. The Sigmaringen 
part of the Hohenzollern lands was the larger of the two (297 
sq. m.) and lay mainly to the south of Hechingen, though the 
district of Haigerloch on the Neckar also belonged to it. The 
name of Hohenzollern is used much more frequently than the 
official Sigmaringen to designate the combined principalities. 

See Woerl, Fuhrer durch Sigmaringen (Wurzburg,i886). 



7° 



SIGNAL 



SIGNAL (a word common in slightly different forms to nearly 
all European languages, derived from Lat. signum, a mark, sign), 
a means of transmitting information, according to some pre- 
arranged system or code, in cases where a direct verbal or 
written statement is unnecessary, undesirable, or impracticable. 
The methods employed vary with the circumstances and the 
purposes in view, and the medium into which the transmitted 
idea is translated may consist of visible objects, sounds, motions, 
or indeed anything that is capable of affecting the senses, so 
long as an understanding has been previously effected with the 
recipient as to the meaning involved. Any two persons may thus 
arrange a system for the transmission of intelligence between 
them, and secret codes of this kind, depending on the inflections 
of the voice, the accent on syllables or words, the arrangement 
of sentences, &c, have been so elaborated as to serve for the 
production of phenomena such as are sometimes attributed 
to telepathy or thought transference. With the many private 
developments of such codes we are not here concerned, nor is it 
necessary to attempt an explanation of the systems of drum-taps, 
smoke-fires, &c, by which certain primitive peoples are supposed 
to be able to convey news over long distances with astonishing 
rapidity; the present article is confined to giving an account of 
the organized methods of signalling employed at sea, in military 
operations and on railways, these being matters of practical 
public importance. 

Marine Signalling. — A system of marine signals comprises 
different methods of conveying orders or information to or from 
a ship in sight and within hearing, but at a distance too great 
to permit of hailing — in other words, beyond the reach of the 
voice, even when aided by the speaking-trumpet. The necessity 
of some plan of rapidly conveying orders or intelligence to a 
distance was early recognized. Polybius describes two methods, 
one proposed by Aeneas Tacticus more than three centuries before 
Christ, and one perfected by himself, which, as any word could 
be spelled by it, anticipated the underlying principle of later 
systems. The signal codes of the ancients are believed to have 
been elaborate. Generally some kind of flag was used. Shields 
were also displayed in a preconcerted manner, as at the battle 
of Marathon, and some have imagined that the reflected rays of 
the sun were flashed from them as with the modern heliograph. 
In the middle ages flags, banners and lanterns were used to 
distinguish particular squadrons, and as marks of rank, as they are 
at present, also to call officers to the admiral, and to report 
sighting the enemy and getting into danger. The invention of 
cannon made an important addition to the means of signalling. 
In the instructions issued by Don Martin de Padilla in 1507 the 
use of guns, lights and fires is mentioned. The introduction of 
the square rig permitted a further addition, that of letting fall 
a sail a certain number of times. Before the middle of the 17th 
century only a few stated orders and reports could be made known 
by signalling. Flags were used by day, and lights, occasionally 
with guns, at night. The signification then, and for a long time 
after, depended upon the position in which the light or flag 
was displayed. Orders, indeed, were as often as possible com- 
municated by hailing or even by means of boats. As the size 
of ships increased the inconvenience of both plans became 
intolerable. Some attribute the first attempt at a regular code 
to Admiral Sir William Penn (1621-1670), but the credit of it is 
usually given to James II. when duke of York. Notwithstanding 
the attention paid to the subject by Paul Hoste and others, 
signals continued strangely imperfect till late in the 18th century. 
Towards 1780 Admiral Kempenfelt devised a plan of flag-signal- 
ling which was the parent of that now in use. Instead of in- 
dicating differences of meaning by varying the position of a 
solitary flag, he combined distinct flags in pairs. About the 
beginning of the 19th century Sir Home Popham improved a 
method of conveying messages by flags proposed by R. Hall 
Gower (1 767-1833), and greatly increased a ship's power of 
communicating with others. The number of night and fog 
signals that could be shown was still very restricted. In 1867 
an innovation of prodigious importance was made by the adop- 
tion in the British navy of Vice- Admiral (then Captain) Philip 



Colomb's flashing system, on which he had been at work since 
1858. 

In the British navy, which serves as a model to most 
others, visual signals are made with flags or pendants, the 
semaphore, flashing, and occasionally fireworks. Sound signals 
are made with fog-horns, steam-whistles, sirens and guns. The 
number of flags in use in the naval code, comprising what is 
termed a " set," are 58, and consist of 26 alphabetical flags, 
10 numeral flags, 16 pendants and 6 special flags. Flag signals 
are divided into three classes, to each of which is allotted a 
separate book. One class consists of two alphabetical flags and 
refers to orders usual in the administration of a squadron, 
such as, for example, the flags LE, which might signify " Captain 
repair on board flagship." Another class consists of three 
alphabetical flags, which refer to a coded dictionary, wherein are 
words and short sentences likely to be required. The remaining 
refers to evolutionary orders for manoeuvring, which have alpha- 
betical and numeral flags combined. The flags which constitute 
a signal are termed a " hoist." One or more hoists may be made 
at the same time. Although flag signalling is a slow method 
compared with others, a fair rate can be attained with practice. 
For example, a signal involving 162 separate hoists has been re- 
peated at sight by 13 ships in company in 76 minutes. Semaphore 
signals are made by the extension of a man's arms through a 
vertical plane, the different symbols being distinguished by the 
relative positions of the arms, which are never less than 45° apart. 
To render the signals more conspicuous the signaller usually 
holds a small flag on a stick in each hand, but all ships are fitted 
with mechanical semaphores, which can be worked by one man, 
and are visible several miles. Flag signalling being comparatively 
slow and laborious, the ordinary message work in a squadron 
is generally signalled by semaphore. The convenience of this 
method is enormous, and by way of example it may be of interest 
to mention a record message of 350 words which was signalled 
to 21 ships simultaneously at the rate of 17 words per minute. 
Flags being limited in size, and only distinguishable by their 
colour, signals by this means are not altogether satisfactory 
at long distances, even when the wind is suitable. For signalling 
at long range the British navy employs a semaphore with arms 
from 9 to 12 ft. long mounted at the top of the mast and capable 
of being trained in any required direction, and worked from 
the deck. Its range depends upon the clearness of the atmo- 
sphere, but instances are on record where a message by this 
means has been read at 16 to 18 m. 

Night signalling is carried out by means of " flashing," by 
which is meant the exposure and eclipse of a single light for 
short and long periods of time, representing the dots and dashes 
composing the required symbol. The dots and dashes can be 
made mechanically by an obscuring arrangement, or by electro- 
mechanical means where magnets do the work, or by simply 
switching on and off specially manufactured electric lamps. 
The ordinary rate of signalling by flashing is from 7 to 10 words 
per minute. In the British navy, as in the army, dots and dashes 
are short and long exposures of light; but with some nations the 
dots and dashes are short and long periods of darkness, the light 
punctuating the spaces between them. The British navy uses 
the European modification of the so-called Morse code used in 
telegraphy, but with special signs added suitable to their code. 
The introduction of the " dot and dash " system into the British 
navy was entirely due to the perseverance of Vice-Admiral 
Colomb, who, in spite of great opposition, and even after it had 
once been condemned on its first trial at sea, carried it through 
with the greatest success. The value of this innovation made in 
1867 may be gauged by the fact that now it is possible to handle a 
fleet with ease and safety in darkness and fog — a state of affairs 
which did not formerly exist. The simplicity of the dot and 
dash principle is its best feature. As the system only requires the 
exhibition of two elements it may be used in a variety of different 
manners with a minimum of material, namely, by waving the most 
conspicuous object at hand through short and long arcs, by 
exhibiting two different shapes, each representing one of the 
elements, or dipping a lantern in a bucket, and so on. Its 



SIGNAL 



7i 



adoption has not only contributed very materially to the in- 
creased efficiency of the British navy, but it has been made 
optional for use with the mercantile marine. Curiously enough, 
flashing is not to any great extent used in the navies of other 
countries which rely more on some system of coloured lights at 
night. This system generally takes the form of four or five 
double-coloured lanterns, which are suspended from some part of 
the mast in a vertical line. Each lantern generally contains a 
red and a white lamp, either of which can be switched on. 
By a suitable keyboard on deck any combination of these coloured 
lanterns can be shown. The advantage of this system lies in the 
fact that each symbol is self-evident in its entirety, and does not 
require an expert signalman to read it, as is the case with flashing, 
which is a progressive performance. 

For long distances at night the search-light, or some other 
high power electric arc light, is atilized on the flashing system. 
Dots and dashes are then made either by flashing the light 
directly on the object, or by waving the beam up and down for 
short and long periods of time. Sometimes when a convenient 
cloud is available the reflection of the beam has been read for 
nearly 40 m., with land intervening between the two ships. In a 
fog signals are made by the steam-whistle, fog-horn, siren or by 
guns. Except for the latter method the dot and dash system is 
employed in a similar manner to flashing a light. Guns are some- 
times used in a fog for signalling, the signification being deter- 
mined by certain timed intervals between the discharges. The 
larger British ships are supplied with telegraph instruments for 
connexion with the shore, and heliographs are provided for land 
operations. Marine galvanometers are also provided, and can 
be used to communicate through submarine cables. To the 
various methods of naval signalling must be added wireless 
telegraphy, which in its application to ships at sea bids fair to 
solve some problems hitherto impracticable. (See Telegraphy: 
Wireless.) 

The international code of signals, for use between ships 
of all nations, is perhaps the best universal dictionary in exist- 
ence. By its means mariners can talk with great ease without 
knowing a word of one another's language. By means of a few 
flags any question can be asked and answered. The number 
of international flags and pendants used with the international 
code is 27, consisting of a complete alphabet and a special 
pendant characteristic of the code. At night flashing may be 
used. (C.A.G.B.; A.F.E.) 

Army Signalling. — Communication by visual signals between 
portions of an army is a comparatively recent development of 
military service. Actual signals were of course made in all ages 
of warfare, either specially agreed upon beforehand, such as a 
rocket or beacon, or of more general application, such as the 
old-fashioned wooden telegraph and the combinations of lights, 
&c, used by savages on the N.W. frontier of India. But it was not 
until the middle years of the 19th century that military signalling 
proper, as a special duty of soldiers, became at all general. 
It was about the year 1865 that, owing to the initiative of Captain 
Philip Colomb, R.N., whose signal system had been adopted for 
his own service, the question of army signalling was seriously 
taken up by the British military authorities. A school of signal- 
ling was created at Chatham, and some time later all units of the 
line were directed to furnish men to be trained as signallers. 
At first a code book was used and the signals represented code 
words, but it was found better to revert to the telegraphic 
system of signalling by the Morse alphabet, amongst the unde- 
niable advantages of which was the fact that it was used both 
by the postal service and the telegraph units of Royal Engineers. 
Thenceforward, iA ever-increasing perfection, the work of 
signallers has been a feature of almost every campaign of the 
British army. To the original flags have been added the helio- 
graph (for long-distance work), the semaphore system of the 
Royal Navy (for very rapid signalling at short distances), and 
the lamps of various kinds for working by night. Full and 
detailed instructions for the proper performance of the work, 
which provide for almost every possible contingency, have been 
published and are enforced. 



The apparatus employed for signalling in the British service 
consists of flags, large and small, heliograph and lamp for night 
work. The distances at which their signals can be read 
vary very considerably, the flags having but a limited ppara us# 
scope of usefulness, whilst the range of a heliograph is very 
great indeed. Whether it be 10 m. or 100 away, it has been found 
in practice that, given good sunlight, nothing but the presence 
of an intervening physical obstacle, such as a ridge or wood, 
prevents communication. For shorter distances moonlight, and 
even artificial light, have on occasion been employed as the source 
of light. In northern Europe the use of the instrument is much 
restricted by climate, and, further, stretches of plain country, 
permitting of a line of vision between distant hills, are not often 
found. It is in the wilder parts of the earth, that is to say in 
colonial theatres of war, that the astonishing value of the helio- 
graph is displaced. In European warfare flag signalling is more 
usually emplo fed. The flags in use are blue and white, the 
former for w x with light, the latter for dark backgrounds. 



B ^>' 






1 1 

V r 

I I 

I I 

I + 

I 1 

I I 

V\ 




Fig. 1. 

There is further a distinction between the " small " flag, which 
is employed for semaphore messages and for rapid Morse over 
somewhat shorter distances, and the " large " flag, which is 
readable at a distance of 5 to 7 m., as against the maximum of 
4 m. allowed to the small flag. With a clear atmosphere these 
distances may be exceeded. The respective sizes of these flags 
are as follows: — large flag 3'X3 r , pole 5' 6" long; small flag 
2'X 2', pole 3' 6" long. The lamps used for night signalling are 
of many kinds. Officially only the " lime light " and the " Beg- 
bie " lamps are recognized, but a considerable number of the 
old-fashioned oil lamps is still in use, especially in the auxiliary 
forces, and many experiments have been made with acetylene. 
The lime light is obtained by raising a lime pencil to a white heat 
by forcing a jet of oxygen through the flame of a spirit lamp. 
The strong light thus produced can be read under favourable 
conditions at a distance of 15 m.; but the equipment of gas-bag, 
pressure-bag, and other accessories make the whole instrument 
rather cumbrous. The bull's-eye lamp differs but slightly from 
the ordinary lantern of civil life; it burns vegetable oil. The 
Begbie lamp, which burns kerosene, is rather more elaborate and 
gives a whiter light. It was in use for many years in India 
before the objections made by the authorities in England to 
certain features of the lamp were withdrawn. All these lamps 
when in use are set up on a tripod stand and signals in 
the Morse alphabet- are made by opening and closing a 
shutter in front of the light, and thereby showing long and 
short flashes. 



72 



SIGNAL 



The same principle is followed in the heliograph. This instru- 
ment, invented by Sir Henry C. Mance, receives on a mirror, 
and thence casts upon the distant station, the rays of the sun; 
the working of a small key controls the flashes by throwing the 
mirror slightly off its alignment and thus obscuring the light from 
the party reading signals. The fact that the heliograph requires 
sunlight, as mentioned above, militates against its employment 
in Great Britain, but where it is possible to use it it is by far 
the best means of signalling. Secrecy and rapidity are its chief 
advantages. An observer 6 m. distant would see none of its 
light if he were more than 50 yds. on one side of the exact align- 
ment, whereas a flag signal could be read from almost every 




Fig. 2. — Heliograph (by permission of the Controller of H.M. 
Stationery Office). 

hill within range. None of the physical exertion required for 
fast signalling with the flag is required to manipulate the instru- 
ment at a high rate of speed. The whole apparatus is packed 
in a light and portable form. An alternative method of using 
the heliograph is to keep the rays permanently on the distant 
point, a shutter of some kind being used in front of it to produce 
obscurations. 

When in use the heliograph is fixed upon a tripod. A tangent 
screw (E) which moves the whole instrument (except the jointed 
arm L) turns the mirror in any direction. Metal U-shaped arms 
(C) carry the mirror (B), which is controlled by the vertical rod 
(J) and its clamping screw (K). The signalling mirror itself 
(usually having a surface of 5 in. diameter) is of glass, an un- 
silvered spot (R) being left in the centre. This spot retains its 
position through all movements in any plane. The instrument 
is aligned by means of the sighting vane (P) fixed in the jointed 
arm L, and the rays of the sun are then brought on to the distant 
station by turning the horizontal and vertical adjustments until 
the " shadow spot " cast by the unsilvered centre of the mirror 
appears on the vane. The heliograph is thus ready, and signals 
are made by the depression and release of the " collar " (I) 
which, with the pivoted arm (U, V) , acts as a telegraph key. 
When the sun makes an angle of more than 120 degrees with the 
mirror and the distant station, a " duplex mirror " is used in 
place of the sighting vane. The process of alignment is in this 
case a little more complicated. Various other means of making 
dots and dashes are referred to in the official work, ranging from 
the " collapsible drum " hung on a mast to the rough but effec- 
tive improvisation of a heliograph out of a shaving-glass. The 
employment of the beams of the search-light to make flashes on 
clouds is also a method of signalling which has been in practice 
very . effective. 



The Morse code employed in army signalling is as follows :- 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I 



K 

L 

M — 
N — • 



P 


S ••• 
T — 

U 

V 

w 

X 

Y 


Q 

R 


Z 

1 — 



The semaphore code used in the army is shown below : — 



ai } I ( r n -a \\_l_ 



n B C B £ 

I 3 3 * S 



hldl 



A" * 



If L MM 



in 



1YVV 



"Annul" 



/ 



h_k 



"Humerafe "J or 
Cominy" LettenCcmnf 



tk 




Ready 



J^ 



Fig. 3. — Semaphore (the 
thin upright strokes represent 
the seaman's body, the thick 
strokes his arms). 




UtTer'W" 



In using this code the signaller invariably faces his reader, as unless 
this were enforced each letter might, be read as its opposite. In the 
above diagram the appearance of the signals to the reader is shown, 
thus the sender's right side only is used for the letter A. 

In sending a message accuracy is ensured by various checks. 
The number of words in a message is the most valuable of these, 
as the receiving station's number must agree before the message 
is taken as correct. Each word or "group" sent by the Morse 
code must be " answered " before the sender passes on to another. 
All figures are checked by the " clock check " in which 1 is repre- 
sented by A, 2 by B and so on. All cipher " groups " are repeated 
back en bloc. There is an elaborate system of signals relating 
to the working of the line. The " message form " in use differs 
but slightly from the ordinary form of the Post Office telegraphs. 
Signal stations in the field are classed as (a) " fixed " and " mov- 
ing," the former connecting points of importance, or on a line of 
communications, the latter moving with the troops; (b) " ter- 
minal," "transmitting" and "central"; the first two require 
no definition, the last is intended to send and receive messages 
in many directions. The " transmitting station " receives 
and sends on messages, and consists in theory of two full " ter- 
minals," one to receive and one to send on. It is rarely possible 
in the field to work rapidly with less than five men at a trans- 
mitting and three at a terminal station. " Central " stations 



SIGNAL 



73 



are manned according to the number of stations with which they 
communicate. 

Signalling is used on most campaigns to a large extent. In the 
Tirah expedition, 1897 and 1898, one signal station received and 
sent, between the 1st and 18th November, as many as 980 
messages by heliograph, some of which were 200 to 300 words in 
length. It is often used as an auxiliary to the field telegraph, 
especially in mountainous countries, and when the wire is liable 
to be cut and stolen by hostile natives. In the Waziri expedition, 
1 88 1, communication was maintained direct for a distance of 
70 m. with a 5-in. heliograph. In the Boer War, 1899-1902, 
the system of heliographic signalling was employed very exten- 
sively by both sides. 

In Germany the first army signalling regulations only appeared in 
1902. The practice was, however, rapidly developed and towards the 
end of the 1905 campaign in South-West Africa, 9 signalling officers 
and 200 signallers were employed in that country. These usually 
worked in parties of 2 or 3, each party being protected by a few 
infantrymen or troopers. The apparatus used was heliograph by 
day and a very elaborate form of lamp by night, and work was carried 
on between posts separated by 60 and even 90 m. The signallers 
were employed both with the mobile forces and in a permanent net- 
work of communication in the occupied territory. In 1907-1908 
fresh signalling regulations were issued to the home army, and each 
company, battery or squadron is now expected to find one station of 
three men, apart from the regimental and special instructors and 
staff. Some experiments were carried out at Metz to ascertain the 
mean distance at which signals made by a man lying down could be 
seen, this being found to be about 1000 yds. The new regulations 
allow of the use of flag and lamp signalling at 4 m. instead of as 
formerly at ij. Three flags are used, blue, white and yellow, and it 
is stated that the last is the most frequently useful of the three. 

The enormous development of the field telegraph and telephone 
systems in the elaborate war of positions of 1904-1905 more or less 
crowded out, so to speak, visual signalling on both sides, and in any 
case the average illiterate Russian infantryman or the Cossack was 
not adaptable to signalling needs. Only about one-quarter of the 
signalling force (which consisted exclusively of engineer troops) in 
Kuropatkin's army was employed in optical work, the other three- 
quarters being assigned to telegraph, wireless and telephone station 
work. The Italians, who are no strangers to colonial warfare, have 
a well-developed visual signalling system. 

See British Official Training Manuals: Signalling (1907). 

Railway Signalling. — In railway phraseology the term " signal " 
is applied to a variety of hand motions and indications by lamps 
and other symbols, as well as to fixed signals; but only the 
last-named class — disks and semaphores, with lights, perman- 
ently fixed (on posts) at the side of the track — will be considered 
here. These may be divided into (1) interlocking signals, used 
at junctions and yards, and (2) block signals, for maintaining an 
interval of space between trains following one another. In 
both classes the function of a signal is to inform the engine-driver 
whether or not he may proceed beyond the signal, or on what 
conditions he may proceed, and it is essential to give him the 
information some seconds before it need be acted upon. 

The semaphore signal, which is now widely used, consists of 
an arm or blade about 5 ft. long extending horizontally, at 
right angles to the line of the track, from the top of a post 
(wood or iron) 15 to 30 ft. high, and sometimes higher (fig. 4). 
This arm, turning on a spindle, is pulled down (" off ") to indicate 
that a train may pass it, the horizontal (or " on") position 
indicating " stop "; sometimes, as on the continent of Europe, 
use is made of the position of the arm in which it points diagonally 
upwards, and on one or two English lines the arm in the safety 
position hangs down perpendicularly, parallel to, but a few inches 
away from, the post. A lamp is fixed to the side of the post about 
on a level with the blade, and by the movement of the blade is 
made to show at night red for " stop " and green for go-ahead or 
" all clear." The earlier practice, white for " all clear," still 
prevails largely in America. 

In the early days of railway signalling three positions of the 
semaphore arm were recognized: — (1) Horizontal, or at right angles 
to the post, denoting danger; (2) at a downward angle of 45 degrees, 
denoting caution; (3) hanging vertically downwards or parallel to 
the post, denoting all right. Corresponding to the position of the 
arm, three different lights were employed at night — red for danger, 
green for caution and white for all right. But now British railways 
make use of only two positions of the arm and two lights — the arm at 
right angles to the post and a red light, both signifying danger or 



stop ; and the arm at about 60 degress (or vertical, as mentioned 
above) and a green light, both meaning all right or proceed. It is 
better to abolish the use of white lights for signalling purposes. 
The reason is obvious. There are many lights and lamps on the plat- 
forms, in signal-boxes and in the streets and houses adjacent to a rail- 
way; and if white lights were recognized as signals, a driver might 
mistake a light of this nature as a signal to proceed; in fact, accidents 
have been caused in this manner. A white light is not to be regarded 
as a danger signal, as is sometimes erroneously stated, but rather 
as no signal at all ; and as there is a well-known rule to the effect 
that " the absence of a signal at a place where a signal is ordinarily 
shown must be treated as a danger signal," it follows that a white 
light, when seen at a place where a red or green light ought to be 
visible, is to be treated as a danger signal, not because a white 
light per se means danger, but because in such a case it denotes the 
absence of the proper signal. Some companies have adopted a 
purple or small white light as a " danger " signal for shunting 
purposes in sidings and yards; but this practice is not to be com- 
mended, since red should be the universal danger signal. 

Distant signals are used to make it unnecessary for an engine- 
driver to slacken his speed in case the stop (home) signal is 
obscured by fog or smoke, or is beyond a curve, or for any reason 
is not visible sufficiently far away. Encountering the distant 
signal at a point 400 to 800 yds. before reaching the home signal, 
he is informed by its position that he may expect to find the latter 
in the same position; if it is " off " he passes it, knowing that 
the home signal must be in the same position, but if it is at 
danger he proceeds cautiously, prepared to stop at the home 
signal, if necessary. The arm of a distant signal usually has a 
fish-tail end. In Great Britain its colour indications are generally 
the same as for the home signal, but occasionally it shows yellow, 
and on some lines it is distinguished at night by an angular band 
of light, shaped like a fish-tail, which appears by the side of the 
red or green light. In America its night colour-indication is 
made different from that of the home signal. Thus, where white 
is used to indicate all clear (in both home and distant) the distant 
arm, when horizontal, shows a green light; where green is the all- 
clear colour a horizontal distant shows either a yellow light or 
(on one road) a red and a green light side by side. Two lights 
for a single arm, giving their indication by position as well as 
colour, have been used to a limited extent for both home and 
distant signals. Dwarf signals (a in fig. 5) are used for very slow 
movements, such as those to or from a siding. Their blades are 
about 1 ft. long, and the posts about 4 ft. high; the lower arm 
on post c being for slow movements, is also frequently made 
shorter than the upper one. Where more than two full-sized 
arms are used on a post, the custom in America is to have the 
upper arm indicate for the track of the extreme right, and the 
others in the order in which the tracks lie; in Great Britain the 
opposite rule prevails, the upper arm 
indicating for the extreme left. But the 
signals controlling a large number of 
parallel or diverging tracks are preferably 
arranged side by side, often on a narrow 
overhead bridge or gantry spanning the 
tracks. 

All the switches and locks are con- 
nected with the signal cabin by iron rods 
(channel-iron or gas-pipe) supported 
(usually near the ground and often 
covered by boxing) on small grooved 
wheels set at suitable distances apart. 
The foundations of these supports are of 
wood, cast iron or concrete. Concrete 
foundations are comparatively recent, but 
are cheap and durable. For signals (but 
not for points) wire connexions are uni- 
versal in England, and are usual in 
America, being cheaper than rods. In 
changing the direction of a line of rodding 
a bell-crank is used, but with a wire a 
piece of chain is inserted and run round 
a grooved pulley. Wire connexions are shown at a and b, fig. 4, 
the main or " front " wire being attached at a. By this 
the signalman moves the arm down to the inclined or go- 
ahead position, to do which he has to lift the counter- 




Q>G 



4ff 

An. 



s) 



J 



Fig. 4. — Semaphore 
signal. R, Red glass; 
G, green glass. 



7+ 



SIGNAL 



weight c. If the wire should break, the counter-weight would 
restore the arm to the horizontal (stop) position, and thus 
prevent the unauthorized passage of a train; and in case of 
failure of the rod I, the iron spectacle s would act as a safety 
counter-weight. The back-wire 6 is added to ensure quick 
movement of the arm, but is not common in England. Long 
lines of rigid connexions are "compensated" for expansion and 
contraction due to changes in temperature by the introduction 
of bell-cranks or rocker-arms. With wire connexions compen- 
sation is difficult, and many plans have been tried. The most 
satisfactory devices are those in which the connexion, in the 
cabin, between the wire and the lever is broken when the signal 
is in the horizontal position. The wire is kept taut by a weight 
or spring, and at each new movement the lever (if the wire has 
lengthened or shortened) grips it at a new place. 

So early as 1846 it became a common practice in England to 
concentrate the levers for working the points and signals of a 
station in one or more cabins, and the necessity of 
interlocking soon became evident to prevent simul- 
taneous signals being given over conflicting routes, or 
for a route not yet prepared to receive the train. In large 
terminals concentration and interlocking are essential to rapid 
movements of trains and economical use of ground. 

Fig. 5 shows a typical arrangement of interlocked signals, the 
principle being the same whether a yard has one set of points or 



Inter- 
locking. 




Fig. 5.- 



-Interlocked signals (American practice, signals at right track 
and arms at right of post). 



a hundred. The signals (at a, b, and c) are of the semaphore 
pattern. For the four signals and one pair of points there are, 
in the second storey of the cabin C, five levers. Each signal arm 
stands normally in the horizontal position, indicating stop. To 
permit a train to pass from A to B the signalman moves the arm 
of signal b to an inclined position (60 degrees to 75 degrees down- 
wards); and the interlocking of the levers prevents this move- 
ment unless it can safely be made. If a has been changed to 
permit a movement from S to B, or if the points x have beeen set 
for such a movement, or if either signal on post c has been lowered, 
the lever for b is immovable. In like manner, to incline the arm 
of signal a for a movement from S to B it is first necessary to have 
the points set for track S, and to have the levers of all the other 
signals in the normal (stop) position. A sixth lever, suitably 
interlocked, works a lock bar, which engages with the head rod of 
the points; it is connected to the lock through the " detector 
bar," d. This bar, lying alongside of and close to the rail, must 
move upwards when the points lock is being moved either to 
lock or to unlock; and being made of such a length that it is 
never entirely free of the wheels of any car or engine standing or 
moving over it, it is held down by the flanges, and the signalman 
is prevented from inadvertently changing the points when a 
train is passing. At r is a throw-off or derailing switch (" catch- 
points "). When x is set for the passage of trains on the main 
line, r, connected to the same lever, is open; so that if a car, 
left on the side track unattended, should be accidentally moved 
from its position, it could not run foul of the main track. 

The function of the interlocking machine is to prevent the 
simultaneous display of conflicting signals, or the display of a 
signal over points that are not set accordingly. The most 
common forms of interlocking have the locking bars arranged in 
a horizontal plane; but for ease of description we may take one 
having them arranged vertically, the principle being the same. 
The diagram (fig. 6) shows a section with a side view of one lever. 
A machine consists of as many levers, placed side by side, as 
there are points and signals to be moved, though in some cases 
two pairs of points are moved simultaneously by a single lever, 
and two or more separate arms on the same post may be so 



arranged that either one of them will be moved by the same 
lever, the position of the point connexions being made to govern 
the selection of the arm to be moved. A switch rod would be 
connected to this lever at 
H; the lever K is for use 
where a signal is con- 
nected by two wires, as 
before described. The 
lever is held in each of 
its two positions by the 
catch rod V, which en- 
gages with notches in the 
segment B. When the 
signalman, preparatory to 
lowering a signal, grasps 
the lever at its upper end, 
he moves thisrodupwards, 
and in so doing actuates 
the interlocking, through 
the tappet N, attached at 
T. Lifting the tappet locks 
all levers which need to be 
locked to make it safe to 
move this one. In pulling 
over the lever the rocker 

R is also pulled; 

but the slot in it 

is radial to the 

centre on which 
B the lever turns, 

so that during the 

stroke N remains 

motionless. On 

the completion of 
the stroke and the dropping of V, N is raised still farther, 
and this unlocks such levers as should be unlocked after 
this lever is pulled ("cleared" or "reversed"). It will be 
seen that whenever the tappet N of any lever is locked in the 




Fig. 6. — Signal Lever, with Mechanical 
Interlocking. 




Fig. 7. — Interlocking Frame. 



and 



position shown in the figure, it is impossible to raise V, 
therefore impossible to move the lever. 

The action of tappet N may be understood by reference to 
fig. 7. A tappet, say 3, slides vertically in a planed recess in the 
locking plate, being held in place by strips G and K. Transverse 



SIGNAL 



75 



Power 
Inter- 



»tof 



ToA 



Fig. 8.- 



grooves N, O, P, carry dogs, such as J. Two dogs maybe con- 
nected together by bars, R. The dogs are held in place by 
straps Y (fig. 6). Locking is effected by sliding the dogs horizon- 
tally; for example, dog J has been pushed into the notch in 
tappet i, holding it in the normal position. If tappet 2 were 
raised, its notch would come opposite dog J; and then the 
lifting of 1 would lock 2 by pushing J to the left. By means of 
horizontal rod R, the lifting of 1 also locks 4. If 4 were already 
up, it would be impossible to lift 1. 

Switch and signal machines are sometimes worked by com- 
pressed air, or electric or hydraulic power. The use of power 
makes it possible to move points at a greater distance 
from the cabin than is permissible with manual 
locking. power. The most widely used apparatus is the electro- 
pneumatic, by which the points and signals are moved 
by compressed air at 70 ft) per sq. in., a cylinder with piston being 
fixed at each signal or switch. From a compressor near the 
cabin, air is conveyed in iron pipes buried in the ground. 
The valves admitting air to a cylinder are controlled by electro- 
magnets, the wires of which are laid from the cabin underground. 
Each switch or signal, on completing a movement, sends an 
electric impulse to the cabin, and the interlocking is 
controlled by this " return." In the machine the 
" levers " are very small and light, their essential i <i H 
function being to open and close electric circuits. This 
is performed through the medium of a long shaft placed 
horizontally with its end towards the operator, which 
is revolved on its axis through 60 degrees of a circle. 
This shaft actuates the interlocking, which is in 
principle the same as that already described; and it 
opens and closes the electric circuits, governing the 
admission of air to cylinders, by means of simple metal contact 
strips rubbing on sections of its surface. The high-pressure 
machine has been used with hydraulic power instead of 
pneumatic, and with electrical interlocking instead of 
mechanical. 

Interlocking apparatus worked by compressed air at low 
pressure (15 ft) per sq. in.), and with no electrical features, is 
in use on some lines in America and has been introduced into 
England. In place of an electromagnet for admitting compressed 
air to the cylinders, a rubber diaphragm 8 in. in diameter is used. 
This is lifted by air at 7 lb pressure, this pressure being con- 
veyed from a cabin, distant 500 ft. or more, in one or two seconds. 
As in the electro-pneumatic machine, the lever of a switch cannot 
complete its stroke until the switch has actually moved home 
and conveyed a " return indication " to the cabin. Pneumatic 
apparatus of other designs is in use to a limited extent. 

Pneumatic interlockings are costly to instal, and, depending 
on an unfailing source of power, have not been much used at iso- 
lated places, except on railways where an air-pipe is installed for 
block signals; but at large yards the pneumatic machines have 
been made a means of economy, because one attendant can 
manage as many levers as can two or three in a manual power 
machine. Moreover, a single lever will work two or more 
switches, locks, &c, simultaneously, where desirable. The 
absence of outdoor connexions above ground is also an advantage. 
Since about 1900 electric power has come into use for working 
both points and signals. A motor, with gearing and cranks, is 
fixed to the sleepers at each pair of points, the power is conveyed 
from the cabin by underground wires, the locking is of common 
mechanical types, and, in general, the system is similar to 
pneumatic systems except in the source of power. By using 
accumulators, charged by dynamos run by gasoline engines, or 
by a travelling power-car, the cost of power is reduced to a 
very low figure, so that power-interlocking becomes economical 
at small as well as large stations. 

The essence of block signalling is a simple regulation forbidding 

a train to start from station A until the last preceding train has 

passed station B ; thus a space interval is maintained 

system. between each train, instead of the time-interval that 

was relied upon in the early days of railways. As the 

introduction of the telegraph was almost or quite contempor- 



aneous with the advent of the railway, the possibility of a block 
system was early recognized; but its introduction was retarded 
by the great cost of employing attendants at every block station. 
But as traffic increased, the time-interval system proved in- 
adequate; and in the United Kingdom the block system is now 
practically universal, while in America it is in use on many 
thousand miles of line. In " permissive blocking " a second train 
is allowed to enter a block section before the first has cleared it, 
the engine-man being required so to control his speed that if 
the first train be unexpectedly stopped he can himself stop 
before coming into collision with it. It thus violates the essential 
condition of true block signalling. 

The manual " block " system in use at the present day in no 
way differs from that devised by W. F. Cooke in 1842, except so far 
as the details and designs of the telegraphic instruments are con- 
cerned. Cooke used a single-needle instrument giving two indi- 
cations — the needle to the left signifying " line clear," to the right, 
"line blocked"; the instrument was also available for speaking 
purposes. The instruments employed in Great Britain consist of 
two dials — one for the up line and one for the down — and a bell. 
They may be divided into two main classes, those requiring one wire, 
and those requiring three wires for each double line of rails. The dials 
of the one- wire instruments give only two indications, namely, " line 



/SOO ormore 



ZPir 



Z5£l 



To C. 



bQ 



/fffO or mom 



-Block signals. (English practice, trains run on left-hand track, 
signals at left of track, arms on left of post.) 

clear " and " train on line " or "line blocked," the latter being the 
normal indication, even when there is no train in the section. The 
three-wire instrument has the advantage of giving three indications 
on the dial, namely, " line clear," " line closed " and " train on line," 
the normal indication being " line closed." The one-wire instru- 
ment differs from the three-wire in that the indicator is moved over 
to the different positions by a momentary current, and is then held 
there by induced magnetism, the wire being then free for any suc- 
ceeding signals. In the three-wire apparatus there is a separate 
wire, with an instrument at each end for the up line; the same for 
the down line; and a wire for the bell, which is common to both 
lines. When no current is flowing, the indicator is vertical, meaning 
" line blocked or closed." When a current is sent along one of the 
wires, the deflections to the right or left, according to the polarity 
of the current, mean " line clear " or " train on line " respectively. 
Some dial instruments are made with needles, some with small disks, 
some with miniature semaphores to give the necessary indications, 
but the effect is the same. The block instruments and bells should 
not, as a rule, be used for speaking purposes ; but on a few subsidiary 
railways, block working is effected by means of ordinary single- 
needle telegraphic instruments, or by telephone, the drawback to such 
an arrangement being that the signalman has no indication before 
him to remind him of the condition of the line. 

Fig. 8 shows the signals at a typical English station, which 
may be called B. Notice having been received over the block 
telegraph that a train is coming from A (on the up track), the 
signalman in the cabin, b, lowers the home signal h; and (if the 
block section from B to C is clear of trains) he lowers the starting 
signal, s, also. The function of a distant signal d has already 
been described; it is mechanically impossible for it to be lowered 
unless h has previously been lowered. The relation of the signals 
to the " crossover road " xx is the same in principle as is shown 
in fig. 5. Dwarf or disk signals such as would be used for the 
siding T or the crossover xx are omitted from the sketch. Where 
the sections are very short, the starting signal of one section is 
often placed on the same post as the distant signal of the next. 
Thus, supposing B and C to be very close to each other, B's 
starting signal would be on the same post as C's distant signal, 
the latter being below the former, and the two would be so 
interconnected by " slotting " apparatus that C could not lower 
his distant signal unless B's starting signal was " off," while 
B by the act of raising his starting arm would necessarily 
throw C's distant arm to " danger." In America many block 
stations have only the home signal, even at stations where 
there are points and sidings, and on double-track lines the block 



76 



SIGNAL 



telegraphing for both is done on a single Morse circuit. In the 
United Kingdom the practice is to have separate apparatus and 
separate wires for each track. 

In the simple block system it is clearly possible for a signal- 
man, through carelessness, forgetfulness, or other cause, and in 
disregard of the indications of his telegraph instruments, 
ft/ocfc"*" " so t0 l° wer his signals as to admit a second train into the 
block section before the first has left it, and that without 
the driver of either train being aware of the fact. To eliminate 
as far as possible the chance of such an occurrence, which is 
directly opposed to the essence of the block system and may 
obviously lead to a collision, the locking of the mechanical 
signals with the electrical block instruments was introduced 
in England by W. R. Sykes about 1876, the apparatus being 
so arranged that a signalman at one end of a section is physically 
unable to lower his signals to let a train enter that section until 
they have been released electrically from the cabin at the other 
end. The starting signal at a block section A cannot be lowered 
until the signalman at the next station B , by means of an electric 
circuit, unlocks the lever in connexion with it. In so doing he 
breaks the unlocking circuit at his own station, and this break is 
restored only on the arrival of the train for which the unlocking 
was performed, the wheels of the train acting through a lever 
or by a short rail circuit. Valuable improvements have been 
made in this machine by Patenall, Coleman and others, and these 
are in use in America, where the system is known as the " con- 
trolled manual." The passage of a train is also made to set a 
signal at "stop" automatically, by disconnecting the rod 
between the signal and its lever. The connexion cannot be 
restored by the signalman ; it must be done by an electro-magnet 
brought into action by the train as it passes the next block 
station. 

The block system is used on single as well as on double lines. 
In the United Kingdom and in Australia the means for pre- 
venting collisions between trains running towards 
each other on single-track railways is the " staff 
system." The staff, suitably inscribed, is delivered 
to the engine-driver at station A, and constitutes his authority 
to occupy the main track between that station and station B. 
On reaching B he surrenders the staff, and receives another one 
which gives him the right to the road between B and C. If 
there are two or more trains to be moved, all except the last 
one receive tickets, which belong to that particular staff. The 
staff system requires no telegraph; but to obviate the incon- 
venience of sometimes finding the staff at the wrong end of the 
road, electric staff apparatus has been devised. Staffs (or tablets) 
in any desired number are kept at each of the two stations, and 
are locked in a cabinet automatically controlled, through 
electro-magnets, by apparatus in the cabinet at the other station ; 
and a staff (or tablet) being taken out at one station, a second one 
cannot be taken out at either station until this first one is re- 
turned to the magazine at one station or the other. Thus there 
is a complete block system. By simple " catching apparatus " 
on the engine, staffs or tablets may be delivered to trains moving 
at a good speed. 

The signals so far described depend fqr their operation, either 
wholly or partially, on human agency, but there are others, 
commonly known as " automatic," which are worked 
signals. kv the trains themselves, without human intervention. 
Such signals, as a rule, are so arranged that normally 
they are constrained to stand at " safety," instead of in the 
"danger" position, which, like ordinary signals, they assume 
if left to themselves; but as a train enters a block section the 
constraint on the signals that guard it is removed and they 
return to the danger position, which they retain till the train has 
passed through. To effect this result an electrical track circuit 
or rail circuit is employed, in conjunction with some form of 
power to put the signalling devices to safety. Live-wire circuits 
were formerly employed, but are now generally abandoned. 
The current from a battery b (fig. 9) passes along the rails of one 
side oi trie track to tine signal s and returns along the other tails 
through a relay. If the current through this relay is stopped in 



Staff 
system. 



any way, whether by failure of the battery or by a short circuit 
caused by the presence of a train or vehicle with metal wheels 
connected by metal axles on any part of the block section, its 
electro-magnet is de-energized, and its armature drops, removing 
the constraint which kept the signals at safety and allowing them 
to move to danger. When the train has passed through the block 



'-4®» 



^r 



Fig. 9. — Automatic electric block signal, with rail circuit. 

section the current is restored and the signals are forced back to 
show safety. The current used for the track circuit must be of 
low tension, because of the imperfect insulation, and as a rule 
the ballast must not be allowed to touch the rails and must be 
free from iron or other conducting substance. At each rail joint 
a wire is used to secure electrical continuity, and at the ends of 
each block section there are insulating joints in the track. Block 
sections more than about 1 m. long are commonly divided into 
two or more circuits, connected together by relays; but usually 
they are made under 1 m. in length and often on intra-urban 
railways very much less, so that many more trains can be passed 
over the line in a given time than is possible with ordinary 
block signalling. At points the track circuit is run through a 
circuit breaker, so that the " opening " of the points sets the 
signal for the section. The circuit is also led through the rails 
of the siding so far as they foul the main track. An indicator at 
each switch gives visual or audible warning of an approaching 
train. 

The signals themselves have been devised to work by clock- 
work, by electricity — obtained, not from the track circuit, but 
from a power station, or from non-freezing batteries at each post, 
or from accumulators charged by dynamos situated, say, every 
10 m. along the line — and by pneumatic power, either com- 
pressed atmospheric air laid on from a main or carbonic acid gas 

stored in a tank at the foot of 
the posts, each tank furnishing 
power for several thousand move- 
ments of the signal arm. A clock- 
work signal is shown in fig. 10. 
When an electro-magnet in the rail 
circuit drops its armature, the 
mechanism is released and causes 
the disk to turn and indicate stop. 
On the restoration of the current 
the disk makes another quarter 





Fig. 10. — Signal moved by 
clockwork (Union). 



Fig. 1 1 . — Enclosed disk 
signal (Hall). 



turn and then shows only its edge to the approaching train, 
indicating " all clear." 

The enclosed disk signal, commonly called a "banjo" (fig. 11), 
is a circular box about 4 ft. in diameter, with a glass-covered 
opening, behind which a red disk is shown to indicate stop. 
The disk, very light, made of cloth stretched over a wire, or of 
aluminium, is supported on a spindle, vjhicb. is delicately balanced 
on a pivot so that the closing of an electro-magnet lifts the disk. 



SIGNATURE 



77 



away from the window and thus indicates " all clear." On the 
withdrawal or failure of the current the disk falls by gravity to 
the " stop " position. A local battery is used, with a relay, the 
rail circuit not being strong enough to lift the disk. In the 
electro-pneumatic system a full-size semaphore is used. Com- 
pressed air, from pumps situated at intervals of 10 to 20 m., 
is conveyed along the line in an iron pipe, and is supplied to a 
cylinder at each signal, exactly as in pneumatic interlocking, 
before described. The rail circuit, when complete, maintains 
pressure in a cylinder, holding the signal " off." On the entrance 
of a train or the failure of the current, the air is liberated and the 
signal arm is carried by gravity to the " stop " position. 

Automatic signals are sometimes made to stand normally 
(when no train is in the section) in the " stop " position. The 
local circuit is connected with the rail circuit so that it is closed 
only when a train is approaching within, say, 1 m. With the rail 
circuit, distant signals are controlled, without a line wire, by 
means of a polarized relay. Each signal, when cleared, changes 
the polarity of the rail circuit for the next section in its rear, and 
inis, by the polarized relay, closes the local circuit of the distant 
signal, without affecting the home signal for that section. 

Automatic signals are used in America on a few single lines. 
The signal at A for the line AB is arranged as before described; 
and the signal at B, for movements in the opposite direction, is 
worked by means of a line wire from A, strung on poles. When 
a section is occupied, signals are set two sections away, so as to 
provide against the simultaneous entry of two trains. 

One of the chief causes of anxiety and difficulty in the working 
of railway traffic is fog, which practically blots out the whole system 
P of visible signals, so that while the block telegraph re- 

slxnalllnx. mams ; the means of communicating the necessary in- 
structions to the driver are no longer effective. Delay and 
confusion immediately arise; and in order to secure safety, speed 
has to be lessened, trains have to be reduced in number, and a 
system of " fog-signalling " introduced. In England, especially 
around London, elaborate arrangements have to be made. " Fog- 
signalling " consists in the employment of audible signals, or de- 
tonators, to convey to drivers the information ordinarily imparted 
by the visible or semaphore signals. As soon as possible after a fog 
comes on, a man is stationed at the foot of each distant signal, and 
generally of each home signal also, who by means of detonators, red 
and green flags and a hand-lamp, conveys information to the driver 
of every train as to the position of the semaphore arm. A detonator 
is a small flat metal case about 2 in. in diameter and J in. deep, 
furnished with two leaden ears or clips which can be easily bent down 
to grip the head of the rail. The case contains some detonating 
composition, which readily explodes with a loud report when a wheel 
passes over it. As soon as a signal arm is raised to " danger," the 
fogman places upon one of the rails of the track to which the signal 
applies two detonators, or in the case of a new and improved class of 
detonator which contains two separate charges in one case, one 
detonator, and at the same time exhibits a red flag or light to the 
driver of an approaching train. The engine of a train passing over 
the detonators explodes them, the noise so made being sufficient to 
apprise the driver that the signal, though invisible to him, is at 
danger, and he then should act in the same way as if he had seen 
the signal. If, however, the signal arm should be lowered to the 
" all-right " position before a train reaches it, the fogman should 
immediately remove the detonators and exhibit a green flag or 
lamp, replacing the detonators as soon as the signal is again raised 
to danger. As a rule the fogmen are drawn from the ranks of the 
permanent-way men, who otherwise would be idle. But if, as 
sometimes happens, a fog continues for several days, great difficulty 
is experienced in obtaining sufficient men to carry on this important 
duty without undue prolongation of their hours of work. When 
this happens, signalmen, shunters, porters, yardsmen and even clerks 
may have to be called on to take a turn at " fogging." Some 
companies have adopted mechanical appliances, whereby a man can 
place a detonator upon a line of rails or remove it while standing at a 
distance away from the track, thus enabling him to attend to more 
than one line without danger to himself. The cost of detonators often 
amounts to a considerable sum; and an apparatus called an econo- 
mizer has been introduced, whereby the explosion of one detonator 
removes the second from the rails before the wheels reach it. As it is 
only necessary for one detonator to explode, the object of placing 
two on the rails being merely to guard against a miss-fire, consider- 
able saving can thus be effected. Many attempts have been made to 
design a mechanical apparatus for conveying to a driver the re- 
quisite information as to the state of the signals during a fog, and for 
enabling the fogmen to be dispensed with. Such inventions usually 
consist of two parts, namely (1) an inclined plane or block or trigger, 
placed on the permanent way alongside the track or between the 
rails, and working in connexion with the arm of the signal ; and (2) a 



lever or rod connected with the steam-whistle, or an electric bell or 
indicator on the foot-plate, and depending from the under-side of the 
engine in such a position as to come in contact with the apparatus on 
the ground, when the latter is raised above the level of the rails. 
Most of the proposed systems only give an indication when the signal 
is at danger, and are silent when the signal is off. This is contrary 
to good practice, which requires that a driver should receive a positive 
indication both when the signal is " off " as well as when it is " on." 
If this is not done, a driver may, if the signal is " off " and if the fog 
is thick, be unaware that he has passed the signal, and not know 
what part of the line he has reached. The absence of a signal at a 
place where a signal is usually exhibited should invariably be taken 
to mean danger. Fog signalling machines that depend on the ex- 
plosion of detonators or cartridges have the drawback that they 
require recharging after a certain number of explosions, -arying with 
the nature and size of the machine. Even when a satisfactory form 
of appliance has been discovered, the manner of using it is by no 
means simple. It is clearly no use placing such an apparatus im- 
mediately alongside a stop signal, as the driver would receive the 
intimation too late for him to be able to stop at the required spot. 
To place devices of this description at or near every stop signal in a 
large station or busy junction would involve a multiplication of wires 
or rods which is undesirable. Every such apparatus should certainly 
be capable of giving an " all-right " signal as well as a " danger " 
signal. It requires very careful maintenance, and should be in regular 
daily use to ensure its efficiency. 

The fundamental principles of railway signalling are simple, 

but the development of the science has called for much study 

and a large money outlay. On every railway of any 

6 ., ui t 1 / 1 Develop- 

consequence the problems of safety, economy and ment0 f 

convenience are involved, one with another, and signalling. 

cannot be perfectly solved. Even so fundamental a 

duty as that of guarding the safety of life and limb is a relative 

one when we have to consider whether a certain expenditure is 

justifiable for a given safety device. Having good discipline 

and foregoing the advantages of high speed, many a manager 

has successfully deferred the introduction of signals; others, 

having to meet severe competition, or, in Great Britain, under 

the pressure of the government, have been forced to adopt the 

most complete apparatus at great cost. In large city terminal 

stations, where additions to the space are out of the question, 

interlocking is necessary for economy of time and labour, as, 

indeed, it is in a less degree at smaller stations also; as a measure 

of safety, however, it is desirable at even the smallest, and the 

wise manager extends its use as fast as he is financially able. 

At crossings at grade level of one railway with another, and at 

drawbridges, interlocked signals with derailing switches obviate 

the necessity of stopping all the trains, as formerly was required 

by law everywhere in America, and saving a stop saves money. 

The block system was introduced primarily for safety, but 

where trains are frequent it becomes also an element of economy. 

Without it trains must usually be run at least five minutes apart 

(many managers deem seven or ten minutes the shortest safe 

interval for general use), but with it the interval may be reduced 

to three minutes, or less, according to the shortness of the block 

sections. With automatic signals trains are safely run at high 

speed only i| m. apart, and on urban lines the distance between 

them may be only a few hundred yards. (B. B. A.; H. M. R.) 

SIGNATURE (through Fr. from Lat. signatura, signare, to 

sign, signum, mark, token, sign), a distinguishing sign or mark, 

especially the name, or something representing the name, of a 

person used by him as affixed to a document or other writing to 

show that it has been written by him or made in accordance 

with his wishes or directions (see Autograph, Monogram, &c). 

In the early sense of something which "signifies," i.e. marks a 

condition, quality or meaning, the word was formerly also used 

widely, but now chiefly in technical applications. In old medical 

theory, plants and minerals were supposed to be marked by some 

natural sign or symbol which indicated the particular medicinal 

use to which they could be put; thus yellow flowers were to 

be used for jaundice, the " scorpion-grass," the old name of 

the forget-me-not, was efficacious for the bite of the scorpion; 

many superstitions were based on the human shape of the roots 

of the mandrake or mandragora; the bloodstone was taken 

to be a cure for hemorrhage; this theory was known as the 

" doctrine of signatures." (See T. J. Pettigrew, Superstitions, 

connected with Medicine or Surgery, 1844.) In printing or book- 



78 



SIGN-BOARD—SIGNIFICS 



Dinding the " signature " is a letter or figure placed at the bottom 
of the first page of a section of a book, as an assistance to the 
binder in folding and arranging the sections consecutively; 
hence it is used of a sheet ready folded. In music it is the term 
applied to the signs affixed at the beginning of the stave showing 
the key or tonality and the time or rhythm (see Musical 
Notation). ' 

SIGN-BOARD, strictly a board placed or hung before any 
building to designate its character. The French enseigne in- 
dicates its essential connexion with what is known in English as 
a flag (q.v.), and in France banners not infrequently took the 
place of sign-boards in the middle ages. Sign-boards, however, 
are best known in the shape of painted or carved advertisements 
for shops, inns, &c, they are in fact one of various emblematic 
methods used from time immemorial for publicly calling atten- 
tion to the place to which they refer. The ancient Egyptians and 
Greeks are known to have used signs, and many Roman examples 
are preserved, among them the widely-recognized bush to in- 
dicate a tavern, from which is derived the proverb " Good wine 
needs no bush." In some cases, such as the bush, or the three 
balls of pawnbrokers, certain signs became identified with 
certain trades, but apart from these the emblems employed by 
traders — evolving often into trade-marks — may in great part 
be grouped according to their various origins. Thus, at an early 
period the cross or other sign of a religious character was used 
to attract Christians, whereas the sign of the sun or the moon 
would serve the same purpose for pagans. Later, the adaptation 
of the coats of arms or badges of noble families became common ; 
these would be described by the people without consideration 
of the language of heraldry, and thus such signs as the Red Lion, 
the Green Dragon, &c, have become familiar. Another class 
of sign was that which exhibited merely persons employed in 
the various trades, or objects typical of them, but in large towns 
where many practised the same trade, and especially, as was 
often the case, where these congregated mainly in the same 
street, such signs did not provide sufficient distinction. Thus 
a variety of devices came into existence — sometimes the trader 
used a rebus on his own name (e.g. two cocks for the name of 
Cox) ; sometimes he adopted any figure of an animal or other 
object, or portrait of a well-known person, which he considered 
likely to attract attention. Finally we have the common associa- 
tion of two heterogeneous objects, which (apart from those 
representing a rebus) were in some cases merely a whimsical 
combination, but in others arose from a popular misconception 
of the sign itself (e.g. the combination of the " leg and star " 
may have originated in a representation of the insignia of the 
garter), or from corruption in popular speech (e.g. the com- 
bination " goat and compasses " is said by some to be a corrup- 
tion of " God encompasses "). Whereas the use of signs was 
generally optional, publicans were on a different footing from 
other traders in this respect. As early as the 14th century there 
was a law in England compelling them to exhibit signs, for in 
1393 the prosecution of a publican for not doing so is recorded. 
In France edicts were directed to the same end in 1567 and 1577. 
Since the object of sign-boards was to attract the public, they 
were often of an elaborate character. Not only were the signs 
themselves large and sometimes of great artistic merit (especially 
in the 16th and 17th centuries, when they reached their greatest 
vogue) but the posts or metal supports protruding from the 
houses over the street, from which the signs were swung, were 
often elaborately worked, and many beautiful examples of 
wrought -iron supports survive both in England and on the 
Continent. The signs were a prominent feature of the streets of 
London at this period. But here and in other large towns they 
became a danger and a nuisance in the narrow ways. Already in 
1669 a royal order had been directed in France against the 
excessive size of sign-boards and their projection too far over 
the streets. In Paris in 1761 and in London about 1762-1773 
laws were introduced which gradually compelled sign-boards 
to be removed or fixed flat against the wall. For the most part 
they only survived in connexion with inns, for which some 
of the greatest artists of the time painted sign-boards, usually 



representing the name of the inn. With the gradual abolition 
of sign-boards the numbering of houses began to be introduced 
in the 18th century in London. It had been attempted in Paris 
as early as 151 2, and had become almost universal by the close of 
the 18th century, though not enforced until 1805. It appears 
to have been first introduced into London early in the 18th 
century. Pending this development, houses which carried on 
trade at night (e.g. coffee houses, &c.) had various specific arrange- 
ments of lights, and these still survive to some extent, as in the 
case of doctors' dispensaries and chemists' shops. 

See Jacob Larwood and John Camden Hotten, History of Sign- 
boards (London, 1866). 

SIGNIA (mod. Segni), an ancient town of Latium (adiectum), 
Italy, on a projecting lower summit of the Volscian mountains, 
above the Via Latina, some 35 m. S.E. of Rome. The modern 
railway station, 33 m. S.E. of Rome, lies 5 m. S.E. of Signia, 
669 ft. above sea level. The modern town (2192 ft.) occupies 
the lower part of the ancient site. Pop. (1901) 6942. Its founda- 
tion as a Roman colony is ascribed to Tarquinius Superbus, 
and new colonists were sent there in 495 B.C. Its position was 
certainly of great importance: it commands a splendid view, 
and with Anagnia, which lies opposite to it, guarded the approach 
to the valley of the Trerus or Tolerus (Sacco) and so the road to 
the south. It remained faithful to Rome both in the Latin and 
in the Hannibalic wars, and served as a place of detention for the 
Carthaginian hostages during the latter. It seems to have re- 
mained a place of some importance. Like Cora it retained the 
right of coining in silver. The wonderfully hard, strong cement, 
made partly of broken pieces of pottery, which served as the 
lining for Roman water cisterns (opus signinum) owes its name 
to its invention here (Vitruvius, viii. 7, 14). Its wine, pears and 
charcoal were famous in Roman times. In 90 B.C. it became a 
municipium with a senatus and praetores. In the civil war it 
joined the democratic party, and it was from here that in 82 B.C. 
Marius marched to Sacriportus (probably marked by the medieval 
castle of Piombinara, near Segni station, commanding the 
junction of the Via Labicana and the Via Latina; see T. Ashby, 
Papers of the British School at Rome, London, 1902, i. 125 sqq.), 
where he was defeated with loss. After this we hear no 
more of Signia until, in the middle ages, it became a papal 
fortress. 

The city wall, constructed of polygonal blocks of the mountain 
limestone and i| m. in circumference, is still well preserved and 
has several gates; the largest, Porta Saracinesca, is roofed by 
the gradual inclination of the sides until they are close enough 
to allow of the placing of a lintel. The other gates, are mostly 
narrow posterns covered with flat monolithic lintels, and the 
careful jointing of the blocks of which some of them are composed 
may be noted. Their date need not be so early as is generally 
believed (cf. Norba) and they are certainly not pre-Roman. 
A portion of the wall in the modern town has been restored in 
opus quadratum. of tufa in Roman times. Above the modern 
town, on the highest point, is the church of S. Pietro, occupying 
the central cella of the ancient Capitolium of Signia (which had 
three cellae) . The walls consist of rectangular blocks of tufa, and 
the whole rests upon a platform of polygonal masses of limestone 
(see R. Delbriick, Das Capitolium von Signia, Rome, 1903). 
An open circular cistern in front of the church lined with rect- 
angular blocks of tufa may also be noted. (T. As.) 

SIGNIFICS. The term " Signifies " may be defined as the 
science of meaning or the study of significance, provided sufficient 
recognition is given to its practical aspect as a method of mind, 
one which is involved in all forms of mental activity, including 
that of logic. 

In Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1901- 
1905) the following definition is given: — 

" I. Signifies implies a careful distinction between (a) sense or 
signification, (b) meaning or intention and (c) significance or ideal 
worth. It will be seen that the reference of the first is mainly verba! 
(or rather sensal), of the second volitional, and of the third moral 
(e.g. we speak of some event ' the significance of which cannot be 
overrated,' and it would be impossible in such a case to substitute 
the ' sense ' or the ' meaning ' of such event, without serious loss). 



SIGNIFICS 



79 



Signifies treats of the relation of the sign in the widest sense to 
each of these. 

2. A proposed method of mental training aiming at the concentra- 
tion of intellectual activities on that which is implicitly assumed to 
constitute the primary and ultimate value of every form of study, 
i.e. what is at present indifferently called its meaning or sense, its 
import or significance. . . . Signifies as a science would centralise 
and co-ordinate, interpret, inter-relate and concentrate the efforts 
to bring out meanings in every form, and in so doing to classify the 
various applications of the signifying property clearly and distinctly." 

Since this dictionary was published, however, the subject has 
undergone further consideration and some development, which 
necessitate modifications in the definition given. It is clear 
that stress needs to be laid upon the application of the principles 
and method involved, not merely, though notably, to language, 
but to all other types of human function. There is need to insist 
on the rectification of mental attitude and increase of inter- 
pretative power which must follow on the adoption of the 
significal view-point and method, throughout all stages and forms 
of mental training, and in the demands and contingencies of life. 

In so far as it deals with linguistic forms, Signifies includes 
" Semantics," a branch of study which was formally introduced 
and expounded in 1897 by Michel Breal, the distinguished French 
philologist, in his Essai de simantique. In 1900 this book was 
translated into English by Mrs Henry Cust, with a preface by 
Professor Postgate. M. Breal gives no more precise definition 
than the following: — 

" Extraire de la linguistique ce qui en ressort comme aliment pour 
la reflexion et — je ne crains pas de l'ajouter — comme regie pour not re 
propre langage, puisque chacun de nous collabore pour sa part a 
revolution de la parole humaine, voila ce qui merite d'etre mis en 
lumiere, voila ce qui j'ai essaye de faire en ce volume." 

In the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology Semantics is 
defined as " the doctrine of historical word-meanings; the 
systematic discussion of the history and development of changes 
in the meanings of words." It may thus be regarded as a reform 
and 'extension of the etymological method, which applies to 
contemporary as well as to traditional or historical derivation. 
As human interests grow in constantly specialized directions, the 
vocabulary thus enriched is unthinkingly borrowed and re- 
borrowed on many sides, at first in definite quotation, but soon 
in unconscious or deliberate adoption. Semantics may thus, for 
present purposes, be described as the application of Signifies 
within strictly philological limits; but it does not include the 
study and classification of the " Meaning " terms themselves, 
nor the attainment of a clear recognition of their radical import- 
ance as rendering, well or ill, the expressive value not only of 
sound and script but also of all fact or occurrence which demands 
and may arouse profitable attention. 

The first duty of the Significian is, therefore, to deprecate the 
demand for mere linguistic reform, which is indispensable on its 
own proper ground, but cannot be considered as the satisfaction 
of a radical need such as that now suggested. To be content with 
mere reform of articulate expression would be fatal to the 
prospect of a significantly adequate language; one characterized 
by a development only to be compared to that of the life and 
mind of which it is or should be naturally the delicate, flexible, 
fitting, creative, as also controlling and ordering, Expression. 

The classified use of the terms of expression-value suggests 
three main levels or classes of that value — those of Sense, 
Meaning and Significance. 

(a) The first of these at the outset would naturally be associated 
with Sense in its most primitive reference; that is, with the 
organic response to environment, and with the essentially 
expressive element in all experience. We ostracize the senseless 
in speech, and also ask " in what sense " a word is used or a 
statement may be justified. 

(b) But " Sense" is not in itself purposive; whereas that is 
the main character of the word " Meaning," which is properly 
reserved for the specific sense which it is intended to convey. 

(c) As including sense and meaning but transcending them in 
range, and covering the far-reaching consequence, implication, 
ultimate result or outcome of some event or experience, the term 
" Significance " is usefully applied. 



These are not, of course, the only significal terms in common 
use, though perhaps sense and significance are on the whole the 
most consistently employed. We have also signification, pur- 
port, import, bearing, reference, indication, application, implica- 
tion, denotation and connotation, the weight, the drift, the 
tenour, the lie, the trend, the range, the tendency, of given 
statements. We say that this fact suggests, that one portends, 
another carries, involves or entails certain consequences, or 
justifies given inferences. And finally we have the value of all 
forms of expression; that which makes worth while any assertion 
or proposition, concept, doctrine or theory; the definition of 
scientific fact,, the use of symbolic method, the construction of 
mathematical formulae, the playing of an actor's part, or even 
art itself, like literature in all its forms. 

The distinctive instead of haphazard use, then, of these and 
like terms would soon, both as clearing and enriching it, tell for 
good on our thinking. If we considered that any one of them 
were senseless, unmeaning, insignificant, we should at once in 
ordinary usage and in education disavow and disallow it. As it 
is, accepted idiom may unconsciously either illuminate or con- 
tradict experience. We speak, for instance, of going through 
trouble or trial; we never speak of going through well-being. 
That illuminates. But also we speak of the Inner or Internal as 
alternative to the spatial — reducing the spatial to the External. 
The very note of the value to the philosopher of the " Inner " 
as opposed to the " Outer " experience is that a certain example 
or analogue of enclosed space — a specified inside — is thus not 
measurable. That obscures. Such a usage, in fact, implies that, 
within enclosing limits, space sometimes ceases to exist. Com- 
ment is surely needless. 

The most urgent reference and the most promising field for 
Signifies lie in the direction of education. The normal child, 
with his inborn exploring, significating and comparing tendencies 
is so far the natural Significian. At once to enrich and simplify 
language would for him be a fascinating endeavour. Even his 
crudeness would often be suggestive. It is for his elders to supply 
the lacking criticism out of the storehouse of racial experience, 
acquired knowledge and ordered economy of means; and to 
educate him also by showing the dangers and drawbacks of 
uncontrolled linguistic, as other, adventure. Now the evidence 
that this last has virtually been hitherto left undone and even 
reversed, is found on careful examination to be overwhelming. 1 
Unhappily what we have so far called education has, anyhow 
for centuries past, ignored — indeed in most cases even balked — - 
the instinct to scrutinise and appraise the value of all that exists 
or happens within our ken, actual or possible, and fittingly to 
express this. 

Concerning the linguistic bearing of Signifies, abundant 
evidence has been collected, often in quarters where it would 
least be expected — 

1. Of general unconsciousness of confusion, defeat, anti- 
quation and inadequacy in language. 

2. A. Of admission of the fact in given cases, but plea of 
helplessness to set things right. B. Of protest in such cases and 
suggestions for improvement. 

3. Of direct or implied denial that the evil exists or is serious, 
and of prejudice against any attempt at concerted control and 
direction of the most developed group of languages. 

4. Of the loss and danger of now unworthy or misfitting 
imagery and of symbolic assertion, observance or rite, once both 
worthy and fitting. 

5. Of the entire lack, in education, of emphasis on the indis- 
pensable means of healthy mental development, i.e. the removal 
of linguistic hindrances and the full exploitation and expansion 
of available resources in language. 

6. Of the central importance of acquiring a clear and orderly 
use of the terms of what we vaguely call " Meaning "; and also 
of the active modes, by gesture, signal or otherwise, of conveying 
intention, desire, impression and rational or emotional thought. 

1 It would be impossible of course in a short space to prove this 
contention. But the proof exists, and it is at the service of those who 
quite reasonably may deny its possible existence. 



8 



o 



SIGNIFICS 



7. Finally and notably, of the wide-spread and all-pervading 
navoc at present wrought by the persistent neglect, in modern 
civilization, of the factor on which depends so much of our practi- 
cal and intellectual welfare and advance. 

As the value of this evidence is emphatically cumulative, the 
few and brief examples necessarily torn from their context for 
which alone room could here be found would only be misleading. 
A selection, however, from the endless confusions and logical 
absurdities which are not only tolerated but taught without 
correction or warning to children may be given. 

We speak of beginning and end as complementary, and 
then of " both ends "; but never of both beginnings. We talk of 
truth when we mean accuracy: of the literal (" it is written ") 
when we mean the actual (" it is done ")• Some of us talk of the 
mystic and his mysticism, meaning by this, enlightenment, 
dawn heralding a day; others (more justly) mean by it the 
mystifying twilight, darkening into night. We talk of the un- 
knowable when what that is or whether it exists is precisely 
what we cannot know — the idea presupposes what it denies; we 
affirm or deny immortality, ignoring its correlative innatality; 
we talk of solid foundations for life, for mind, for thought, when 
we mean the starting-points, foci. We speak of an eternal sleep 
when the very raison d'etre of sleep is to end in awaking — it is 
not sleep unless it does; we appeal to a root as to an origin, 
and also figuratively give roots to the locomotive animal. We 
speak of natural " law " taking no count of the sub-attentive 
working in the civilized mind of the associations of the legal 
system (and the law court) with its decreed and enforced, but 
also revocable or modifiable enactments. Nature, again, is in- 
differently spoken of as the norm of all order and fitness, the 
desecration of which is reprobated as the worst form of vice and 
is even motherly in bountiful provision; but also as a monster of 
reckless cruelty and tyrannous mockery. Again, we use the word 
" passion " for the highest activity of desire or craving, while we 
keep " passive " for its very negation. 

These instances might be indefinitely multiplied. But it must 
of course be borne in mind that we are throughout dealing only 
with the idioms and habits of the English language. Each 
civilized language must obviously be dealt with on its own 
merits. 

The very fact that the significating and interpretative function 
is the actual, though as yet little recognized and quite unstudied 
condition of mental advance and human achievement, accounts 
for such a function being taken for granted and left to 
take care of itself. This indeed, in pre-civilized ages (since it 
was then the very condition of safety and practically of survival) , 
it was well able to do. But the innumerable forms of pro- 
tection, precaution, artificial aid and special facilities which 
modern civilization implies and provides and to which it is always 
adding, have entirely and dangerously changed the situation. 
It has become imperative to realize the fact that through disuse 
we have partly lost the greatest as the most universal of human 
prerogatives. Hence arises the special difficulty of clearly 
showing at this stage that man has now of set purpose to recover 
and develop on a higher than the primitive plane the sovereign 
power of unerring and productive interpretation of a world which 
even to a living, much more to an intelligent, being, is essentially 
significant. These conditions apply not only to the linguistic 
but to all forms of human energy and expression, which before 
all else must be significant in the most active, as the highest, 
sense and degree. Man has from the outset been organizing his 
experience; and he is bound correspondingly to organize the 
expression of that experience in all phases of his purposive 
activity, but more especially in that of articulate speech and 
linguistic symbol. This at once introduces the volitional element ; 
one which has been strangely eliminated from the very, function 
which most of all needs and would repay it. 

One point must here, however, be emphasised. In attempting 
to inaugurate any new departure from habitual thinking, history 
witnesses that the demand at its initial stage for unmistakably 
clear exposition must be not only unreasonable but futile. This 
bf course must be typically so in the case of an appeal for the vital 



regeneration of all modes of Expression and especially of Language, 
by the practical recognition of an ignored but governing factor 
working at its very inception and source. In fact, for many 
centuries at least, the leading civilizations of the world have been 
content to perpetuate modes of speech once entirely fitting but 
now often grotesquely inappropriate, while also remaining 
content with casual changes often for the worse and always liable 
to inconsistency with context. This inevitably makes for the 
creation of a false standard both of lucidity and style in linguistic 
expression. 

Still, though we must be prepared to make an effort in assuming 
what is virtually a new mental attitude, the effort will assuredly 
be found fully worth making. For there is here from the very 
first a special compensation. If, to those whose education has 
followed the customary lines, nowhere is the initial difficulty of 
moving in a new direction greater than in the one termed 
Signifies, nowhere, correspondingly, is the harvest of advantage 
more immediate, greater, or of wider range and effort. 

It ought surely to be evident that the hope of such a language; 
of a speech which shall worthily express human need and gain 
in its every possible development in the most efficient possible 
way, depends on the awakening and stimulation of a sense which 
it is our common and foremost interest to cultivate to the utmost 
on true and healthy lines. This may be described as the im- 
mediate and insistent sense of the pregnancy of things, of the 
actual bearings of experience, of the pressing and cardinal im- 
portance, as warning or guide, of that experience considered as 
indicative; a Sense realized as belonging to a world of what 
for us must always be the Sign of somewhat to be inferred, 
acted upon, used as a mine of pertinent and productive symbol, 
and as the normal incitant to profitable action. When this 
germinal or primal sense — as also the practical starting-point, 
of language — has become a reality for us, reforms and acquisitions 
really needed will naturally follow as the expression of such 
a recovered command of fitness, of boundless capacity and of 
perfect coherence in all modes of expression. 

One objection, however, which before this will have suggested 
itself to the critical reader, is that if we are here really dealing 
with a function which must claim an importance of the very first 
rank and affect our whole view of life, practical and theoretical, 
the need could not have failed long ago to be recognised and 
acted upon. And indeed it is not easy in a few words to dispose 
of such an objection and to justify so venturesome an apparent 
paradox as that with which we are now concerned. But it may 
be pointed out that the special development of one faculty 
always entails at least the partial atrophy of another. In a case 
like this the principle typically applies. For the main human 
acquirement has been almost entirely one of logical power, subtle 
analysis, and co-ordination of artificial means. In modern 
civilization the application of these functions to an enormous 
growth of invention of every kind has contributed not a little 
to the loss of the swift and direct sense of point : the sensitiveness 
as it were of the compass-needle to the direction in which experi- 
ence was moving. Attention has been forcibly drawn elsewhere; 
and moreover, as already pointed out, the natural insight of 
children, which might have saved the situation, has been 
methodically silenced by a discipline called educative, but mainly 
suppressive and distortive. 

The biological history of Man has been, indeed, a long series 
of transmutations of form to subserve higher functions. In 
language he has so far failed to accomplish this. There has even 
in some directions been loss of advantage already gained. While 
his nature has been plastic and adaptive, language, the most 
centrally important of his acquirements, has remained relatively 
rigid, or what is just as calamitous, fortuitously elastic. There 
have been notable examples — the classical languages — of the 
converse process. In Greek and Latin, Man admirably con- 
trolled, enriched, varied, significated his expressions to serve his 
mental needs. But we forbear ourselves to follow and better 
this example. All human energies have come under orderly 
direction and control except the one in which in a true sense they 
all depend. This fatal omission, for which defective methods 



SIGN-MANUAL, ROYAL— SIGNORELLI 



81 



of education are mainly responsible, has disastrously told upon 
the mental advance of the race. But after all, we have here a 
comparatively modern neglect and helplessness. Kant, for 
instance, complained bitterly of the defeating tendency of 
language in his day, as compared with the intelligent freedom 
of the vocabulary and idiom of the " classical " Greek, who was 
always creating expression, moulding it to his needs and finding 
an equally intelligent response to his efforts, in his listeners and 
readers — in short, in his public. 

Students, who are prepared seriously to take up this urgent 
question of the application of Signifies in education and through- 
out all human spheres of interest, will soon better any instruction 
that could be given by the few who so far have tentatively striven 
to call attention to and bring to bear a practically ignored and 
unused method. But by the nature of the case they must be 
prepared to find that accepted language, at least in modern 
European forms, is far more needlessly defeating than they have 
supposed possible: that they themselves in fact are continually 
drawn back, or compelled so to write as to draw back their 
readers, into what is practically a hotbed of confusion, a prison 
of senseless formalism and therefore of barren controversy. 

It can hardly be denied that this state of things is intolerable 
and demands effectual remedy. The study and systematic and 
practical adoption of the natural method of Signifies can alone 
lead to and supply this. Signifies is in fact the natural response 
to a general sense of need which daily becomes more undeniably 
evident. It founds no school of thought and advocates no techni- 
cal specialism. Its immediate and most pressing application is, 
as already urged, to elementary, secondary and specialised 
education. In recent generations the healthy sense of discontent 
and the natural ideals of interpretation and expression have been 
discouraged instead of fostered by a training which has not only 
tolerated but perpetuated the existing chaos. Signs, however, 
are daily increasing that Signifies, as implying the practical 
recognition of, and emphasising the true line of advance in, a 
recovered and enhanced power to interpret experience and 
adequately to express and apply that power, is destined, in the 
right hands, to become a socially operative factor of the first 
importance. 

Literature. — Lady Welby, "Sense, Meaning and Interpretation," 
in Mind (January and April 1896), Grains of Sense (1897), What is 
Meaning? (1903); Professor F. Tonnies, " Philosophical Termino- 
logy " (Welby Prize Essay), Mind (July and October 1899 and 
January 1900), also article in Jahrbuch, &c, and supplements 
to Philosophische Terminologie (December 1906) ; Professor G. F. 
Stout, Manual of Psychology (1898) ; Sir T. Clifford Allbutt's Address 
on " Words and Things " to the Students' Physical Society of Guy's 
Hospital (October 1906); Mr W. J. Greenstreet's " Recent Science " 
articles in the Westminster Gazette (November 15, 1906, and January 
10, 1907). (V. W.) 

SIGN-MANUAL, ROYAL, the autograph signature of the 
sovereign, by which he expresses his pleasure either by order, 
commission or warrant. A sign-manual warrant may be either 
an executive act, e.g. an appointment to an office, or an authority 
for affixing the Great Seal. It must be countersigned by a 
principal secretary of state or other responsible minister. A 
royal order under the sign-manual, as distinct from a sign-manual 
warrant, authorizes the expenditure of money, e.g. appropriations. 
There are certain offices to which appointment is made by com- 
mission under the great seal, e.g. the appointment of an officer 
in the army or that of a colonial governor. The sign-manual is 
also used to give power to make and ratify treaties. In certain 
cases the use of the sign-manual has been dispensed with, and a 
stamp affixed in lieu thereof, as in the case of George IV., whose 
bodily infirmity made the act of signing difficult and painful 
during the last weeks of his life. A special act was passed pro- 
viding that a stamp might be affixed in lieu of the sign-manual 
(n Geo. IV. c. 23), but the sovereign had to express his consent 
to each separate use of the stamp, the stamped document being 
attested by a confidential servant and several officers of state 
(Anson, Law and Custom of the Constitution, 1907, vol. ii. pt. i. 
p. 59). 

SIGNORELLI, LUCA (c. 1442-c. 1524), Italian painter, was 
born in Cortona — his full name being Luca d'Egidio di Ventura; 



he has also been called Luta da Cortona. The precise date of his 
birth is uncertain; but, as he is said to have died at the age of 
eighty-two, and as he was certainly alive during some part of 
1524, the birth-date of 1442 must be nearly correct'. He belongs 
to the Tuscan school, associated with that of Umbria. His first 
impressions of art seem to be due to Perugia — the style of 
Bonfigli, Fiorenzo and Pinturicchio. Lazzaro Vasari, the great- 
grandfather of Giorgio Vasari, the historian of art, was brother 
to Luca's mother; he got Luca apprenticed to Piero de' Fran- 
ceschi. In 1472 the young man was painting at Arezzo, and in 
1474 at Citta. di Castello. He presented to Lorenzo de' Medici 
a picture which is probably the one named the " School of Pan," 
discovered some years ago in Florence, and now belonging to the 
Berlin gallery; it is almost the same subject which he painted 
also on the wall of the Petrucci palace in Siena — the principal 
figures being Pan himself, Olympus, Echo, a man reclining on the 
ground and two listening shepherds. He executed, moreover, 
various sacred pictures, showing a study of Botticelli and Lippo 
Lippi. Pope Sixtus IV. commissioned Signorelli to paint some 
frescoes, now mostly very dim, in the shrine of Loreto — Angels, 
Doctors of the Church, Evangelists, Apostles, the Incredulity 
of Thomas and the Conversion of St Paul. He also executed 
a single fresco in the Sistine Chapel in Rome, the " Acts of Moses " ; 
another, " Moses and Zipporah," which has been usually ascribed 
to Signorelli, is now recognized as the work of Perugino. Luca 
may have stayed in Rome from 1478 to 1484. In the latter year 
he returned to his native Cortona, which remained from this time 
his ordinary home. From 1497 he began some professional 
excursions. In Siena, in the convent of Chiusuri, he painted 
eight frescoes, forming part of a vast series of the life of St 
Benedict; they are at present much injured. In the palace of 
Pandolfo Petrucci he worked upon various classic or mythological 
subjects, including the " School of Pan " already mentioned. 
From Siena he went to Orvieto, and here he produced the works 
which, beyond all others, stamp his greatness in art. These are 
the frescoes in the chapel of S. Brizio, in the cathedral, which 
already contained some pictures on the vaulting by Fra Angelico. 
The works of Signorelli represent the " Last Days of the Mundane 
Dispensation," with the " Pomp and the Fall of Antichrist," 
and the " Eternal Destiny of Man," and occupy three vast 
lunettes, each of them a single picture. In one of them, Anti- , 
christ, after his portents and impious glories, falls headlong from 
the sky, crashing down into an innumerable crowd of men and 
women. " Paradise," the " Elect and the Condemned," " Hell," 
the " Resurrection of the Dead," and the " Destruction of the 
Reprobate " follow in other compartments. To Angelica's 
ceiling Signorelli added a section showing figures blowing 
trumpets, &c; and in another ceiling he depicted the Madonna, 
Doctors of the Church, Patriarchs and Martyrs. There is also 
a great deal of subsidiary work connected with Dante, and with 
the poets and legends of antiquity. The daring and terrible 
invention of the great compositions, with their powerful treat- 
ment of the nude and of the most arduous foreshortenings, and 
the general mastery over complex grouping and distribution, 
marked a development of art which had never previously been 
attained. It has been said that Michelangelo felt so strongly the 
might of Signorelli's delineations that he borrowed, in his own 
" Last Judgment," some of the figures or combinations which 
he found at Orvieto; this statement, however, has not been 
verified by precise instances. The contract for Luca's work is 
still on record. He undertook on 5th April 1499 to complete the 
ceiling for 200 ducats, and to paint the walls for 600, along with 
lodging, and in every month two measures of wine and two 
quarters of corn. Signorelli's first stay in Orvieto lasted not more 
than two years. In 1 502 he returned to Cortona, and painted a 
dead Christ, with the Marys and other figures. Two years later 
he was once more back in Orvieto, and completed the whole of 
his work in or about that time, i.e. some two years before 1506 — 
a date famous in the history of the advance of art, when Michel- 
angelo displayed his cartoon of Pisa. 

After finishing off at Orvieto, Signorelli was much in Siena. 
In 1507 he executed a great altarpiece for S. Medardo at Arcevia 



82 



SIGONIUS— SIGURD 



in Umbria — the " Madonna and Child," with the " Massacre of 
the Innocents " and other episodes. In 1508 Pope Julius II. 
determined to readorn the camere of the Vatican, and he sum- 
moned to Rome Signorelli, in company with Perugino, Pinturic- 
chio and Bazzi (Sodoma). They began operations, but were 
shortly all superseded to make way for Raphael, and their work 
was taken down. Luca now returned to Siena, living afterwards 
for the most part in Cortona. He continued constantly at work, 
but the performances of his closing years were not of special 
mark. In 1520 he went with one of his pictures to Arezzo. 
Here he saw Giorgio Vasari, aged eight, and encouraged his 
father to second the boy's bent for art. Vasari tells a pretty 
story how the wellnigh octogenarian master said to him " Impara, 
parentino " (" You must study, my little kinsman "), and clasped 
a jasper round his neck as a preservative against nose-bleeding, 
to which the child was subject. He was partially paralytic 
when he began a fresco of the " Baptism of Christ " in the chapel 
of Cardinal Passerini's palace near Cortona, which (or else a 
'" Coronation of the Virgin " at Foiano) is the last picture of his 
specified. Signorelli stood in great repute not only as a painter 
but also as a citizen. He entered the magistracy of Cortona as 
early as 1488, and in 1524 held a leading position among the 
magistrates of his native place. In or about the year 1524 he 
died there. 

Signorelli from an early age paid great attention to anatomy, 
carrying on his studies in burial grounds. He surpassed all his con- 
temporaries in showing the structure and mechanism of the nude 
in immediate action; and he even went beyond nature in experi- 
ments of this kind, trying hypothetical attitudes and combinations. 
His drawings in the Louvre demonstrate this and bear a close 
analogy to the method of Michelangelo. He aimed at powerful 
truth rather than nobility of form; colour was comparatively 
neglected, and his chiaroscuro exhibits sharp oppositions of lights 
and shadows. He had a vast influence over the painters of his own 
and of succeeding times, but had no pupils or assistants of high 
mark; one of them was a nephew named Francesco He was a 
married man with a family ; one of his sons died, seemingly through 
some sudden casualty, and Luca depicted the corpse with sorrow- 
ful but steady self-possession. He is described as full of kindliness 
and amiability, sincere, courteous, easy with his art assistants, of 
fine manners, living and dressing well; indeed, according to Vasari, 
he always lived more like a nobleman than a painter. The Torri- 
giani Gallery in Florence contains a grand life-sized portrait by Signo- 
relli of a man in a red cap and vest ; this is said to be the likeness 
of the painter himself, and corresponds with Vasari's observation. 
In the National Gallery, London, are the " Circumcision of Jesus " 
and three other works. 

See R. Vischer, Signorelli und die italienische Renaissance (1879); 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of Work of Signorelli, &c. 
(1893); M. Crutwell, Luca Signorelli (1899). (W. M. R.) 

SIGONIUS, CAROLUS [Carlo Sigonio or Sigone] (c. 1524- 
1584), Italian humanist, was born at Modena. Having studied 
Greek under the learned Franciscus Portus of Candia, he attended 
the philosophical schools of Bologna and Pavia, and in 1545 
was elected professor of Greek in his native place in succession to 
Portus. In 1552 he was appointed to a professorship at Venice, 
which he exchanged for the chair of eloquence at Padua in 1560. 
To this period of his life belongs the famous quarrel with Rober- 
telli, due to the publication by Sigonius of a treatise De nominibus 
Romanorum, in which he corrected several errors in a work of 
Robertelli on the same subject. The quarrel was patched up by 
the intervention of Cardinal Seripando (who purposely stopped 
on his way to the Council of Trent), but broke out again in 1562, 
when the two rivals found themselves colleagues at Padua. 
Sigonius, who was of a peaceful disposition, thereupon accepted 
(in 1 563) a call to Bologna. He died in a country house purchased 
by him in the neighbourhood of Modena, in August 1 584. The 
last year of his life was embittered by another literary dispute. 
In 1583 there was published at Venice what purported to be 
Cicero's Consolatio, written as a distraction from his grief at the 
death of his daughter Tullia. Sigonius declared that, if not 
genuine, it was at least worthy of Cicero; those who held the 
opposite view (Antonio Riccoboni, Justus Lipsius, and others) 
asserted that Sigonius himself had written it with the object of 
deceiving the learned world, a charge which he explicitly denied. 
The work is now universally regarded as a forgery, whoever may 



have been the author of it. Sigonius's reputation chiefly rests 
upon his publications on Greek and Roman antiquities, which 
may even now be consulted with advantage: Fasti consular es 
(1550; new ed., Oxford, 1802), with commentary, from the regal 
period to Tiberius, the first work in which the history of Rome 
was set forth in chronological order, based upon some fragments 
of old bronze tablets dug up in 1547 on the site of the old Forum; 
an edition of Livy with the Scholia; De antiquo jure Roma- 
norum, Italiae, provinciarum (1560) and De Romanae juris- 
prudential judiciis (1574); De republica Alheniensium (1564) 
and De Atheniensium et Lacedaemoniorum temporibus (1565), 
the first well-arranged account of the constitution, history, and 
chronology of Athens and Sparta, with which may be mentioned 
a similar work on the religious, political, and military system 
of the Jews (De republica Ebraeorum). His history of the 
kingdom of Italy (De regno Italiae, 1580) from the invasion of 
the Lombards (568) to the end of the 13th century forms a 
companion volume to the history of the western empire (De 
occidentali imperio, 1579) from Diocletian to its destruction. 
In order to obtain material for these works, Sigonius consulted 
all the archives and family chronicles of Italy, and the public 
and private libraries, and the autograph MS. of his De regno 
Italiae, containing all the preliminary studies and many docu- 
ments not used in print, was discovered in the Ambrosian library 
of Milan. At the request of Gregory XIII. he undertook to 
write the history of the Christian Church, but did not live to 
complete the work. 

The most complete edition of his works is that by P. Argelati 
(Milan, 1732-1737), which contains his life by L. A. Muratori, the 
only trustworthy authority for the biographer; see also G. Tira- 
boschi, Storia delta letteratura italiana, vii. ; Ginguene, Histoire 
litteraire d'ltalie; J. P. Krebs, Carl Sigonius (1840), including some 
Latin letters of Sigonius and a complete list of his works in chrono- 
logical order; Franciosi, Delia vita e delle opere di Carlo Sigonio 
(Modena, 1872); Hessel, De regno Italiae libri XX. von Carlo 
Sigonio, eine quellenkritische Untersuchung (1900) ; and J. E. Sandys, 
History of Classical Scholarship, ii. (1908), p. 143. 

SIGOURNEY, LYDIA HUNTLEY (1791-1865), American 
author, was born in Norwich, Connecticut, on the 1st of 
September 1791. She was educated in Norwich and Hartford. 
After conducting a private school for young ladies in Norwich, 
she conducted a similar school in Hartford from 1814 until 1819, 
when she was married to Charles Sigourney, a Hartford merchant. 
She contributed more than two thousand articles to many (nearly 
300) periodicals, and wrote more than fifty books. She died in 
Hartford, on the 10th of June 1865. Her books include Moral 
Pieces in Prose and Verse (181 5); Traits of the Aborigines of 
America (1822), a poem; A Sketch of Connecticut Forty Years 
Since (1824); Poems (1827); Letters to Young Ladies (1833), 
one of her best-known books; Sketches (1834); Poetry for 
Children (1834); Zinzendorf, and Other Poems (1835); Olive 
Buds (1836); Letters to Mothers (1838), republished in London; 
Pocahontas, and Other Poems (1841); Pleasant Memories of 
Pleasant Lands (1842), descriptive of her trip to Europe in 1840; 
Scenes in My Native Land (1844); Letters to My Pupils (1851); 
Olive Leaves (1851); The Faded Hope (1852), in memory of her 
only son, who died when he was nineteen years old; Past Meridian 
(1854); The Daily Counsellor (1858), poems; Gleanings (i860), 
selections from her verse; The Man of Uz, and Other Poems 
(1862); and Letters of Life (1866), giving an account of her 
career. She was one of the most popular writers of her day, 
both in America and in England, and was called " the American 
Hemans." Her writings were characterized by fluency, grace 
and quiet reflection on nature, domestic and religious life, and 
philanthropic questions; but they were too often sentimental, 
didactic and commonplace to have much literary value. Some 
of her blank verse and pictures of nature suggest Bryant. Among 
her most successful poems are " Niagara " and " Indian Names." 
Throughout her life she took an active interest in philanthropic 
and educational work. 

SIGURD (Sigurdr) or Siegfried (M. H. G. Stfrit), the hero of 
the Nibelungenlied, and of a number of Scandinavian poems 
included in the older Edda, as well as of the prose Vblsunga 
Saga, which is based upon the latter. According to both the 



SIGU R3SSON— SIG W ART 



83 



German and Scandinavian authorities he was the son of a certain 
Sigmundr (Siegmund), a king in the Netherlands, or the " land 
of the Franks." The exploits of this Sigmundr and his elder 
sons Sinfiotli and Helgi form the subject of the earlier parts of 
Volsunga Saga, and Siegmund and Fitela {i.e. Sinfiotli) are also 
mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. According to 
the Scandinavian story Sigmundr was slain in battle before the 
birth of Sigurd, but the German story makes him survive his 
son. Sigurd acquired great fame and riches by slaying the 
dragon Fafnir, but the chief interest of the story centres round 
his connexion with the court of the Burgundian king Gunnar 
(Gunther). He married GuSrun (Kriemhild), the sister of that 
king, and won for him by a stratagem the hand of the Valkyrie 
Brynhildr, with whom he had himself previously exchanged 
vows of love. A quarrel arose between Brynhildr and GuSrun, 
in the course of which the former learnt of the deception which 
had been practised upon her and this led eventually to the 
murder of Sigurd. According to the Scandinavian version 
he was slain by his brother-in-law Guttorm, according to the 
German version by the knight Hagen. Gunther's brothers 
were subsequently slain while visiting Atli (Etzel), who married 
Guorun after Sigurd's death. According to the German story 
they were killed at the instigation of Kriemhild in revenge for 
Siegfried. The Scandinavian version of the story attributes 
the deed to Atli's lust for gold. 

The story of Sigurd has given rise to more discussion than any 
other subject connected with the Teutonic heroic age. Like 
Achilles he is represented as the perfect embodiment of the 
ideals of the race, and, as in the case of the Greek hero, it is 
customary to regard his personality and exploits as mythical. 
There is no question, however, that the Burgundian king who 
is said to have been his brother-in-law was an historical person 
who was slain by the Huns, at the time when the Burgundian 
kingdom was overthrown by the latter. Sigurd himself is not 
mentioned by any contemporary writer; but, apart from the 
dragon incident, there is nothing in the story which affords 
sufficient justification for regarding his personality as mythical. 
Opinions, however, vary widely as to the precise proportions 
of history and fiction which the story contains. The story of 
Siegfried in Richard Wagner's famous opera-cycle Der Ring 
der Nibelungen is mainly taken from the northern version; but 
many features, especially the characterization of Hagen, are 
borrowed from the German story, as is also the episode of 
Siegfried's murder in the forest. 

See Nibelungenlied and also R. Heinzel, " Uber die Nibe- 
lungensage," in Sitzungsberichte der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften 
(Vienna, 1885); H. Lichtenberger, Le Poeme el la legende des Nibe- 
lungen (Paris, 1891); B.Symons, "Heldensage" inH. Paul's Grundriss 
der germ. Philologie, vol. iii. (Strassburg, 1900) ; and R. C. Boer, 
Untersuchungen uber den Ursprung und die Entwicklung der Nibe- 
lungensage (Halle, 1906). AlsoT. Abeling, Nibelungenlied (1907). 

(F. G. M. B.) 

SIGURSSSON, JON (1811-1879), Icelandic statesman and 
man of letters, was born in the west of Iceland in 181 1. He 
came of an old family, and received an excellent education. 
In 18.30 he was secretary to the bishop of Iceland, the learned 
Steingrimr Tonsson. In 1833 he went to the university of 
Copenhagen and devoted himself to the study of Icelandic 
history and literature. His name soon became prominent in 
the learned world, and it may safely be said that most of his 
historical works and his editions of Icelandic classics have never 
been surpassed for acute criticism and minute painstaking. 
Of these we may mention Logsognmannatal og Lbgmanna a 
I standi ("Speakers of the Law and Law-men in Iceland"); 
his edition of Landndma and other sagas in Islendinga Sogur, 
i.-ii. (Copenhagen, 1843-1847) ; the large collection of Icelandic 
laws edited by him and Oddgeir Stephensen; and last, not least, 
the Diplomatarium Islandicum, which after his death was con- 
tinued by others. But although he was one of the greatest 
scholars Iceland has produced, he was still greater as a politician. 
The Danish rule had, during the centuries following the Reforma- 
tion, gradually brought Iceland to the verge of economic ruin; 
the ancient Parliament of the island, which had degenerated 



to a mere shadow, had been abolished in 1800; all the revenue 
of Iceland went into the Danish treasury, and only very small 
sums were spent for the good of the island; but worst of all 
was the notorious monopoly which gave away the whole trade 
of Iceland to a single Danish trading company. This monopoly 
had been abolished in 1787, and the trade had been declared 
free to all Danish subjects, but practically the old arrangement 
was continued under disguised forms. Jon Sigurosson began a 
hard struggle against the Danish government to obtain a reform. 
In 1854 the trade of Iceland was declared free to all nations. In 
1840 the Althing was re-established as an advisory, not as a 
legislative body. But when Denmark got a free constitution 
in 1848, which had no legal validity in Iceland, the island felt 
justified in demanding full home rule. To this the Danish 
government was vehemently opposed; it convoked an Icelandic 
National Assembly in 185 1, and brought before that body a 
bill granting Iceland small local liberties, but practically incorpor- 
ating Iceland in Denmark. This bill was indignantly rejected, 
and, instigated by Jon Sigurosson, another was demanded of 
far more liberal tendencies. The Danish governor-general then 
dissolved the assembly, but Jon SigurSsson and all the members 
with him protested to the king against these unlawful proceedings. 
The struggle continued with great bitterness on both sides, 
but gradually the Danish government was forced to grant many 
important reforms. High schools were established at Reykjavik, 
and efforts made to better the trade and farming of the country. 
In 1871 the Danish parliament (Riksdag) passed a law defining 
the political position of Iceland in the Danish monarchy, which, 
though never recognized as valid by the Icelanders, became 
dc facto the base of the political relations of Iceland and Denmark. 
At last, in 1874, when King Christian IX. visited Iceland at the 
festival commemorating the millenary of the colonization of 
Iceland from Norway, he gave to the country a Constitution, 
with full home rule in all internal matters. An immense victory 
was gained, entirely due to Jon SigurSsson, whose high personal 
qualities had rallied all the nation round him. He was a man 
of fine appearance, with an eloquence and diplomatic gifts such 
as no others of his countrymen possessed, and his unselfish love 
of his country made itself felt in almost every branch of Icelandic 
life. Recognizing the value of an intellectual centre, he made 
Reykjavik not only the political, but the spiritual capital of Iceland 
by removing all the chief institutions of learning to that city; 
he was the soul of many literary and political societies, and the 
chief editor of the Ny Felagsrit, which has done more than any 
other Icelandic periodical to promote the cause of civilization 
and progressin Iceland. After Iceland had got home rule in 1874, 
the grateful people showered on Jon SigurSsson all the honours 
it could bestow. He lived the greater part of his life in Copen- 
hagen, and died there in 1879; but his body, together with that 
of his wife, Ingibjorg Einarsdottir, whom he had married in 
1845, and who survived him only a few days, was taken to 
Reykjavik and given a public funeral. On his monument was 
placed the inscription: " The beloved son of Iceland, her 
honour, sword, and shield." (S. Bl.) 

SIGWART, CHRISTOPH WILHELM VON (1789-1844), 
German philosopher, was born at Remmingsheim in Wiirttem- 
berg, and died in Stuttgart. He became professor of philosophy 
at Tubingen, and wrote numerous books on the history of 
philosophy: — Uber den Zusammenhang des Spinozismus mil 
der Cartesianischen Philosophie (1816); Handbuchzu Vorlesungen 
uber die Logik (1818, 3rd ed., 1835); Der Spinozismus (1839); 
and Geschichte der Philosophie (1844). 

His son, Chkistoph von Sigwart (1830-1894), after a course 
of philosophy and theology, became professor at Blaubeuren 
(1859), and eventually at Tubingen, in 1865. His principal 
work, Logik, published in 1873, takes an important place among 
recent contributions to logical theory. In the preface to the 
first edition, Sigwart explains that he makes no attempt to 
appreciate the logical theories of his predecessors; his intention 
was to construct a theory of logic, complete in itself. It re- 
presents the results of a long and careful study not only of German 
but also of English logicians. In 1895 an English translation by 



8 4 



SIGYNNAE— SIKHISM 



Miss H. Dendy was published in London. Chapter v. of the 
second volume is especially interesting to English thinkers as 
containing a profound examination of the Induction theories 
of Bacon, J. S. Mill and Hume. Among his other works are 
Spinozas neu entdeckter Traktat von Gott, dem Menschen und 
dessen Gliickscligkeit (1866); Kleine Schrijten (1881); Vorjragen 
der Ethik (1886). The Kleine Schrijten contains valuable 
criticisms on Paracelsus and Bruno. 

SIGYNNAE (Ziyvvvcu, 'Siyivvoi), an obscure people of 
antiquity. They are variously located by ancient authors. 
According to Herodotus (v. 9), they dwelt beyond the Danube, 
and their frontiers extended almost as far as the Eneti on the 
Adriatic. Their horses (or rather, ponies) were small, with shaggy 
long hair, not strong enough to carry men, but very speedy when 
driven in harness. The people themselves wore a Medic costume, 
and, according to their own account, were a colony of the Medes. 
Strabo (xi. p. 520), who places them near the Caspian, also speaks 
of their ponies, and attributes to them Persian customs. In 
Apollonius Rhodius (iv. 320) they inhabit the shores of the 
Euxine, not far from the mouth of the Danube. 

The statement as to their Medic origin, regarded as incompre- 
hensible by Herodotus, is doubtfully explained by Rawlinson as 
indicating that " the Sigynnae retained a better recollection than 
other European tribes of their migrations westward and Aryan 
origin " ; R. W. Macan (on Herod, v. 9) suggests that it may be due 
to a confusion with the Thracian Maedi (Maidoi). If the last para- 
graph in Herodotus be genuine, the Ligyes who lived above Massilia 
called traders Sigynnae, while among the Cyprians the word meant 
" spears." The similarity between Sigynnae and Zigeuner is obvious, 
and it has been supposed that they were the forefathers of the 
modern gipsies. According to J. L. Myres, the Sigynnae of Herodotus 
were " a people widely spread in the Danubic basin in the 5th century 
B.C.," probably identical with the Sequani, and connected with the 
iron-working culture of Hallstatt, which produced a narrow-bladed 
throwing spear, the sigynna spear (see notice of " Anthropological 
Essays " in Classical Review, November 1908). 

SIKH, a member of the Sikh religion in India (see Sikhism). 
The word Sikh literally means " learner," " disciple," and was 
the name given by the first guru Nanak to his followers. The 
Sikhs are divided into two classes, Sahijdhari and Kesadhari. 
The former were so named from living at ease and the latter from 
wearing long hair. Both obey the general injunctions of the Sikh 
gurus, but the Sahijdhari Sikhs have not accepted the pahul 
or baptism of Guru Govind Singh, and do not wear the distin- 
guishing habiliments of the Kesadhari, who are the baptized 
Sikhs, also called Singhs or lions. Their distinguishing habili- 
ments are long hair wound round a small dagger and bearing a 
comb inserted in it, a steel bracelet and short drawers. Neither 
the Sahijdhari nor the Kesadhari Sikhs may smoke tobacco or 
drink wine. The prohibition of wine is, however, generally dis- 
regarded except by very orthodox Sikhs. 

In the census of 1901, the number of Sikhs in the Punjab 
and North-Western Provinces was returned as 2,130,987, showing 
an increase of 13-9% in the decade; but these figures are not 
altogether reliable owing to the difficulty of distinguishing the 
Sahijdhari from the Kesadhari Sikhs and both from the Hindus. 
A man is not born a Singh, but becomes so by baptism, the water 
of which is called amrit or nectar. It is possible that one brother 
may be a Hindu, while another is a true Sikh. 

The Sikhs are principally drawn from the Arora, Jat and 
Ramgarhia tribes, but any one may become a Sikh by accepting 
the Sikh baptism. The Aroras are generally merchants or petty 
dealers. The Jats are agriculturists variously described as 
Scythian immigrants and as descendants of Rajputs who immi- 
grated to the Punjab from central India. They are of a tougher 
fibre than the Aroras; sturdy and self-reliant, slow to speak but 
quick to strike. The Ramgarhias are principally mechanics. 

To the temperament of the Jat, the Arora and the Ramgarhia 
Sikh add the stimulus of a militant religion. The Sikh is a 
fighting man, and his best qualities are shown in the army, 
which is his natural profession. Hardy, brave and slow-witted, 
obedient to discipline, attached to his officers, he makes the 
finest soldier of the East. In victory he retains his steadiness, 
and in defeat he will die at his post rather than yield. In peace 
time he shows a decided fondness for money, and will go wherever 







A.D. 




I. 

2. 

3- 

4- 
5- 


Nanak . 
Angad . 
Amar Das 
Ram Das 
Arjan . . 


■ 1 469-1 539 

■ 1 539-1 552 

■ 1 552-1 574 
• 1574-1581 
. 1581-1606 


6 

7 
8 

9 
10 



it is to be earned. There are some 30,000 Sikhs in the Indian 
army, and the sect is cherished by the military authorities, who 
insist on all recruits taking the pahul or Sikh baptism. Many 
Sikhs are also to be found in the native regiments of east 
and central Africa and of Hyderabad in the Deccan, and they 
compose a great part of the police force in the treaty ports of 
China. (M.M.) 

SIKHISM, a religion of India, whose followers (Sikhs) are 
principally found in the Punjab, United Provinces, Sind, Jammu 
and Kashmir. Sikhism was founded by Nanak, a Khatri by 
caste, who was born at Talwandi near Lahore in a.d. 1469, and 
after travelling and preaching throughout a great part of southern 
Asia died at Kartarpur in Jullundur in 1539. He was succeeded 
by nine gurus, great teachers or head priests, whose dates are as 
follows: — 

A.D. 

Har Govind. 1606-1645 
Har Rai . 1645-1661 
Har Krishan 1661-1664 
Teg Bahadur 1664-1675 
Govind Singh 167 5-1 708 

Nanak, like Buddha, revolted against a religion overladen 
with ceremonial and social restrictions, and both rebelled against 
the tyranny of the priesthood. The tendency of each religion' 
was to quietism, but their separate doctrines were largely in- 
fluenced by the surroundings of their founders. Buddha lived 
in the centre of Hindu India and among the many gods of the 
Brahmans. These he rejected, he knew of nought else, and in 
his theological system there was found no place for divinity. 
Nanak was born in the province which then formed the borderland 
between Hinduism and Islam. He taught that there was one 
God; but that God was neither Allah nor Ram, but simply God; 
neither the special god of the Mahommedan, nor of the Hindu, 
but the God of the universe, of all mankind and of all religions. 
Starting from the unity of God, Nanak and his successors 
rejected the idols and incarnations of the Hindus, and on the 
ground of the equality of all men rejected also the system of 
caste. The doctrines of Sikhism as set forth in the Granth (q.v.) 
are that it prohibits idolatry, hypocrisy, class exclusiveness, 
the concremation of widows, the immurement of women, the use 
of wine and other intoxicants, tobacco-smoking, infanticide, 
slander and pilgrimages to the sacred rivers and tanks of the 
Hindus; and it inculcates loyalty, gratitude for all favours 
received, philanthropy, justice, impartiality, truth, honesty and 
all the moral and domestic virtues upheld by Christianity. 
Sikhism mainly differs from Christianity in that it inculcates the 
transmigration of the soul, and adopts a belief in predestination, 
which is universal in the East. 

The Sikh religion did not reach this full development at once, 
nor was the first of the gurus even the first to feel dissatisfaction 
with the existing order of things. Ideas of revolt and 
reform of decadent systems are always in the air, it otihe 
may be for centuries, until some one man bolder than Gurus. 
the rest stands out to give them free expression; and 
as John the Baptist preceded Jesus Christ, so Nanak was preceded 
by several reformers, whose writings are incorporated in the 
Granth itself. The chief of these reformers are Jaidev, Ramanand 
and Kabir. Jaidev is better known as the author of the Gita- 
gobind, which was translated by Sir Edwin Arnold, than as a 
religious reformer; but in the Adi Granth are found two hymns 
of his in the Prakrit language of the time, in which he represents 
God as distinct from nature, yet everywhere present. He taught 
at the. end of the 12th century a.d. that the practice of yog, 
sacrifices and austerities was as nothing in comparison with the 
repetition of God's name, and he inculcated the worship of God 
alone, in thought, word and deed. What was worthy of worship, 
he said, he had worshipped; what was worthy of trust he had 
trusted; and he had become blended with God, as water blends 
with water. 

Jaidev was succeeded by numerous Hindu saints, who per- 
ceived that the superstitions of the age only led to spiritual 
blindness. Of these saints Ramanand was one of the most 
distinguished. He lived at the end of the 14th and beginning of 



SIKHISM 



85 



the 15th centuries, and during a visit to Benares he renounced 
some of the social and caste observances of the Hindus, called his 
disciples the liberated, and freed them from all restrictions in 
eating and social intercourse. Kabir denounced idolatry and 
the ritualistic practices of the Hindus. He was born a.d. 1398, 
and according to the legend was the son of a virgin widow, as 
the result of a prayer offered for her by Ramanand in ignorance 
of her status. Thus it will be seen that the doctrines of these 
early reformers contained the germs of the later Sikh religion. 

Nanak seems to have been produced by the same cyclic wave 
of reformation as fourteen years later gave Martin Luther to 
Europe. He taught, " There is but one God, the 
Nanak. Creator, whose name is true, devoid of fear and enmity, 
immortal, unborn and self-existent, great and bounti- 
ful." He held that the wearing of religious garb, praying and 
practising penance to be seen of men, only produced hypocrisy, 
and that those who went on pilgrimages to sacred streams, 
though they might cleanse their bodies, only increased their 
mental impurity. He pointed out that God " before all temples 
prefers the upright heart and pure," and must be worshipped in 
spirit and in truth, and not with the idolatrous accessories of 
incense, sandal-wood and burnt-offerings. He abrogated caste 
distinctions, and taught in opposition to ancient writings that 
every man had the eternal right of searching for divine know- 
ledge and worshipping his Creator. This doctrine of philosophic 
quietism was common to his successors, until in the time of the 
sixth guru, Har Govind, it was found necessary to support the 
separate existence of Sikhism by force of arms, and this led to the 
militant and political development of the tenth and most power- 
ful of the gurus, Govind Singh. The Sikhs of to-day, though they 
all derive primarily from Nanak, are only recognized as Singhs or 
real Sikhs when they accept the doctrines and practices of Guru 
Govind Singh. 

Nanak's successor, Angad, was born in a.d 1 504 and died in 1 5 5 2. 
He also was a Khatri, and was chosen by Guru Nanak in preference 
to his own sons. The legend of his choice is that Nanak 
^"j with his followers was going on a journey, when they 
saw the dead body of a man lying by the wayside. 
Nanak said, " Ye who trust in me eat of this food." All 
hesitated save Angad (or own body), who knelt and uncovered 
the dead, but, behold, the corpse' had disappeared, and a dish of 
sacred food was found in its place. The guru embraced his faith- 
ful follower, saying that he was as himself, and that his spirit 
should dwell within him. Thenceforward the Sikhs believe the 
spirit of Nanak to have been incarnate in each succeeding 
guru. Little is known of the ministry of Angad except that he 
committed to writing much of what he had heard about Guru 
Nanak as well as some devotional observations of his own, which 
were afterwards incorporated in the Granth. 

Angad, like his predecessor, postponed the claims of his own 
sons to the guruship to those of Amar Das, who had been his 
faithful servant. Amar Das preached the doctrine 
Amar Das °^ forgiveness and endurance, upheld Guru Nanak's 
abrogation of caste distinctions, and his precepts were 
implicitly followed by his successors. He used to place all his 
Sikhs and visitors in rows and cause them to eat together, 
not separately, as is the practice of the Hindus. He said: "Let 
no one be proud of his caste, for this pride of caste resulteth 
in many sins. He is a Brahman who knoweth Brahma (God). 
Every one prateth of four castes. All are sprung from the seed of 
Brahm. The whole world is formed out of one clay, but the 
Potter hath fashioned it in various forms." It was a maxim of 
the Sikhs of his time: " If any one treat you ill, bear it. If you 
bear it three times God himself will fight for you and humble 
your enemies." Guru Amar Das also discountenanced the 
practice of suttee, saying: " They are not satis who burn them- 
selves with the dead. The true sati is she who dieth from the 
shock of separation from her husband. They also ought to be 
considered satis who abide in charity and contentment, who 
serve and, when rising, ever remember their lord." Amar Das 
was born in a.d. 1509 and died in 1574 after a ministry of twenty- 
two and a half years. 



Guru 
Arjan. 



The fourth guru, originally called Jetha, was attracted to the 
third guru by his reputation for sanctity. He became the servant 
of Amar Das, helped in the public kitchen, shampooed 
his master, drew water, brought firewood from the p am 0as> 
forest, and helped in the excavation of a well which 
Amar Das was constructing at Goindwal. Jetha was of such a 
mild temper that, even if any one spoke harshly to him, he would 
endure it and never retaliate. He became known as Ram Das, 
which means God's slave; and on account of his piety and devo- 
tion Amar Das gave him his daughter in marriage and made him 
his successor. Ram Das is amongst the most revered of gurus, 
but no particular innovation is ascribed to him. He founded, 
however, the golden temple of Amritsar in a.d. 1577, which has 
remained ever since the centre of the Sikh religious worship. 
From this time onward the office of guru became hereditary, but 
the practice of primogeniture was not followed, each guru 
selecting the relative who seemed most fitted to succeed him. 

Ram Das himself, finding his eldest son Prithi Chand worldly 
and disobedient, and his second unfitted by his too retiring 
disposition for the duties of guru, appointed his 
third son, Arjan, to succeed him. When Prithi Chand 
represented that he ought to have received the turban 
bound on Guru Arjan's head in token of succession to his father, 
Arjan meekly handed it to him, without, however, bestowing 
on him the guruship. The Sikhs themselves soon revolted against 
the exactions of Prithi Chand, and prayed Arjan to assert himself 
else the seed of the True Name would perish. It was Guru 
Arjan who compiled the Granth or Sikh Bible, out of his own and 
his predecessors' compositions. On this account he was accused of 
deposing the deities of his country and substituting for them a 
new divinity, but he was acquitted by the tolerant Akbar. When 
Akbar, however, was succeeded by Jahangir the guru aided the 
latter's son Khusru to escape with a gift of money. On this account 
his property was confiscated to the state, and he was thrown 
into rigorous imprisonment and tortured to death. Arjan saw 
clearly that it was impossible to preserve his sect without force 
of arms, and one of his last injunctions to his son Har Govind 
was to sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the 
best of his ability. This was the turning-point in the history of 
the Sikhs. Hitherto they had been merely an insignificant 
religious sect; now, stimulated by persecution, they became 
a militant and political power, inimical to the Mahommedan 
rulers of the country. 

When Har Govind was installed as guru, Bhai Budha, the aged 
Sikh who performed the ceremony, presented him with a turban 
and a necklace, and charged him to wear and preserve 
them as the founder of his religion had done. Guru aov'tnd"'' 
Har Govind promptly ordered that the articles should 
be relegated to his treasury, the museum of the period. He said: 
" My necklace shall be my sword-belt, and my turban shall be 
adorned with a royal aigrette." He then sent for his bow, 
quiver, arrows, shield and sword, and arrayed himself in martial 
style, so that, as the Sikh chronicler states, his splendour shone 
like the sun. 

The first four gurus led simple ascetic lives and were regardless 
of wordly affairs. Guru Arjan, who was in charge of the great 
Sikh temple at Amritsar, received copious offerings and became 
a man of wealth and influence, while the sixth guru became a 
military leader, and was frequently at warfare with the Mogul 
authorities. Several warriors and wrestlers, hearing of Guru Har 
Govind's fame, came to him for service. He enrolled as his body- 
guard fifty-two heroes who burned for the fray. This formed 
the nucleus of his future army. Five hundred youths then came 
to him for enlistment from the Manjha, Doab and Malwa 
districts. These men told him that they had no offering to make 
to him except their lives; for pay they only required instruction 
in his religion; and they professed themselves ready to die in his 
service. The guru gave them each a horse and five weapons of 
war, and gladly enlisted them in his army. In a short time, 
besides men who required regular pay, hordes gathered round 
the guru who were satisfied with two meals a day and a suit of 
clothes every six months. The fighting spirit of the people 



86 



SIKHISM 



was roused and satisfied by the spiritual and military leader. 
Har Govind was a hunter and eater of flesh, and encouraged his 
followers to eat meat as giving them strength and daring. 
It is largely to this practice that the Sikhs owe the superiority 
of their physique over their surrounding Hindu neighbours. 
The regal state that the guru adopted and the army that he 
maintained were duly reported to the emperor Jahangir. 

In the Autobiography of Jahangir it is stated that the guru 
was imprisoned in the fortress of Gwalior, with a view to the 
realization of the fine imposed on his father Guru Arjan, but the 
Sikhs believe that the guru became a voluntary inmate of the 
fortress with the object of obtaining seclusion there to pray for 
the emperor who had been advised to that effect by his Hindu 
astrologers. After a time Jahangir died and was succeeded by 
Shah Jahan, with whom the guru was constantly at war. On 
three separate occasions after desperate fighting he defeated the 
royal troops sent against him. Many legends are told of his 
military prowess, for which there is no space in this summary. 
The guru before his death at Kiratpur, on the margin of the 
Sutlej, instructed his grandson and successor, Guru Har Rai, to 
retain two thousand two hundred mounted soldiers ever with him 
as a precautionary measure. 

Har Rai was charged with friendship for Dara Shikoh, the son 

of Shah Jahan, and also with preaching a religion 

£ a/ _ distinct from Islam. He was, therefore, summoned to 

Delhi, but instead of going himself he sent his son 

Ram Rai and shortly afterwards died. His ministry was mild but 

won him general respect. 

The eighth guru was the second son of Har Rai, but he died 

when a child and too young to leave any mark on 

Krishna, history. His elder brother Ram Rai was passed over 

in his favour and also in favour of the next guru for 

having altered a line of the Granth to please the emperor 

Aurangzeb. 

As the direct line of succession died out with Har Krishan, the 
guruship harked back at this point to Teg Bahadur, the second 
son of Har Govind and uncle of Har Rai. Teg Bahadur 
Bahadur. was P ut t0 death for refusal to embrace Islam by 
Aurangzeb in a.d. 1675. It is of him that the legend 
is told that during his imprisonment in Delhi he was accused by 
the emperor of looking towards the west in the direction of the 
imperial zenana. The guru replied, " Emperor Aurangzeb, I 
was on the top storey of my prison, but I was not looking at thy 
private apartments or at thy queen's. I was looking in the 
direction of the Europeans who are coming from beyond the seas 
to tear down thy purdahs and destroy thine empire." This 
prophecy became the battle-cry of the Sikhs in the assault on 
Delhi in 1857. 

Teg Bahadur was succeeded by the tenth and most powerful 
guru, his son Govind Singh; and it was under him that what 
had sprung into existence as a quietist sect of a purely 
oovlnd religious nature, and had become a military society 
Singh. for self -protection, developed into a national movement 
which was to rule the whole of north-western India and 
to furnish to the British arms their stoutest and most worthy 
opponents. For some years after his father's execution Govind 
Singh, then known as Gobind Rai, lived in retirement, brooding 
over the wrongs of his people and the persecutions of the fanatical 
Aurangzeb. He felt the necessity for a larger following and a 
stronger organization, and following the example of his Mahom- 
medan enemies used his religion as the basis of political power. 
Emerging from his retirement he preached the Khalsa, the 
" pure," and it is by this name his followers are now known. 
He, like his predecessors, openly attacked all distinctions of 
caste, and taught the equality of all men who would join him, 
and he instituted a ceremony of initiation with baptismal holy 
water by which all might enter the Sikh fraternity. 

The higher castes murmured, and many of them left him, for 
he taught that the Brahmanical threads must be broken; but 
the lower orders rejoiced and flocked in numbers to his standard. 
These he inspired with military ardour in the hope of social 
freedom and of national independence. He gave them outward 



signs of their faith in the five K's — which will subsequently be 
explained — he signified the military nature of their calling by the 
title of " singh " or " lion " and by the wearing of steel, and he 
strictly prohibited the use of tobacco. The following are the 
main points of his teaching: Sikhs must have one form of 
initiation, sprinkling of water by five of the faithful; they should 
worship the one invisible God and honour the memory of Guru 
Nanak and his successors; their watchword should be, " Sri wall 
guru ji ka khalsa, sri wah guru ji ki fatah " (Khalsa of God, 
victory to God!), but they should revere and bow to nought 
visible save the Granth Sahib, the book of their belief; they should 
occasionally bathe in the sacred tank of Amritsar; their locks 
should remain unshorn; and they should name themselves 
singhs or lions. Arms should dignify their person; they should 
ever practise their use'; and great would be the merit of those 
who fought in the van, who slew the enemies of their faith, and 
who despaired not although overpowered by superior numbers. 

The religious creed of Guru Govind Singh was the same as 
that of Guru Nanak: the God, the guru and the Granth remained 
unchanged. But while Nanak had substituted holiness of life 
for vain ceremonial, Guru Govind Singh demanded in addition 
brave deeds and zealous devotion to the Sikh cause as proof of 
faith; and while he retained his predecessors' attitude towards 
the Hindu gods and worship he preached undying hatred to the 
persecutors of his religion. 

During the spiritual reign of Guru Govind Singh the religious 
was partially eclipsed by the military spirit. The Mahommedans 
promptly responded to the challenge, for the danger was too 
serious to be neglected; the Sikh army was dispersed and two 
of Guru Govind Singh's sons were murdered at Sirhind by the 
governor of that fortress, and his mother died of grief at the cruel 
death of her grandchildren. The death of the emperor Aurangzeb 
brought a temporary lull: the guru assisted Aurangzeb 's suc- 
cessor, Bahadur Shah, and was himself not long after assassinated 
at Nander in the Deccan. As all the guru's sons predeceased him, 
and as he was disappointed in his envoy Banda, he left no human 
successor, but vested the guruship in the Granth Sahib and 
his sect. No formal alteration has been made in the Sikh religion 
since Guru Govind Singh gave it his military organization, 
but certain modifications have taken place as the result of time 
and contact with Hinduism. After the guru's death the gradual 
rise of the Sikhs into the ruling power of northern India until 
they came in collision with the British arms belongs to the 
secular history of the Punjab (q.v.). 

The chief ceremony initiated by Guru Govind Singh was the 
Khanda ka Pahul or baptism by the sword. This baptism may 
not be conferred until the candidate has reached an age 
of discrimination and capacity to remember obligations, cere- 
seven years being fixed as the earliest age, but it is monies. 
generally deferred until manhood. Five of the initiated 
must be present, all of whom should be learned in the faith. 
An Indian sweetmeat is stirred up in water with a two-edged 
sword and the novice repeats after the officiant the articles of his 
faith. Some of the water is sprinkled on him five times, and he 
drinks of it five times from the palms of his hands; he then 
pronounces the Sikh watchword given above and promises 
adherence to the new obligations he has contracted. He must 
from that date wear the five K's and add the word singh to his 
original name. The five K's are (1) the kcs or uncut hair of the 
whole body, (2) the kachh or short drawers ending above the knee, 
(3) the kara or iron bangle, (4) the khanda or small steel dagger,(s) 
the khanga or comb. The five K's and the other esoteric observ- 
ances of the Sikhs mostly had a utilitarian purpose. When 
fighting was a part of the Sikh's duty, long hair and iron rings 
concealed in it protected his head from sword cuts. The kachh 
or drawers fastened by a waist-band was more convenient and 
suitable for warriors than the insecurely tied dhoti of the Hindus 
or the tamba of the Mahommedans. So also the Sikh's physical 
strength was increased by the use of meat and avoidance of 
tobacco. Another Sikh ceremony is the kara parshad or com- 
munion made of butter, flour and sugar, and consecrated with 
certain ceremonies. The communicants sit round, and the. kara 



SIKH WARS 



8 



/ 



The 
Slkhlsm 



par shad is then distributed equally to all the faithful present, no 
matter to what caste they belong. The object of this ceremony 
is to abolish caste distinctions. 

There may be said to be three degrees of strictness in the 
observances of the Sikhs. There may first be mentioned the 
zealots such as the Akalis, who, though generally 
quite illiterate, aim at observing the injunctions of 
o'tto^day. Guru Govind Singh; secondly, the true Sikhs or 
Singhs who observe his ordinances, such as the prohibi- 
tions of cutting the hair and the use of tobacco; and, thirdly, 
those Sikhs who while professing devotion to the tenets of the 
gurus are almost indistinguishable from ordinary Hindus. 
These are largely Nanakpanti Sikhs, or followers only of Guru 
Nanak. The Nanakpanti Sikhs do not wear the hair long, nor 
use any of the outward signs of the Sikhs, though they reverence 
the Cranth Sahib and above all the memory of their guru. They 
are distinguished from the Hindus by no outward sign except 
a slight laxity in the matter of caste observances. 

Sikhism attained its zenith under the military genius of 
Ranjit Singh. After the Biitish conquest of the Punjab the 
military spirit of the Sikhs remained for some time in abeyance. 
Then came the mutiny, and Sikhs once more were recruited in 
numbers and saved India for the British crown. Peace returned, 
and during the next twenty or twenty-five years Sikhism reached 
its lowest ebb; but since then the demand for Sikhs in the 
regiments of the Indian army and farther afield has largely 
revived the faith. The establishment of Singh Sabhas, of Sikh 
newspapers, and the spread of education have largely tended in 
the same direction, but the strict ethical code of Sikhism and the 
number of its obligatory divine services have caused many to 
fall away from the faith: nor does the austere Sikh ritual appeal 
to women, who generally prefer Hinduism with its picturesque 
material worship and the brightness of its innumerable festivals. 
At the present day the stronghold of Sikhism still remains the 
great Phulkian states of Patiala, Nabha and Jind and the 
surrounding districts of Ludhiana, Lahore, Amritsar, Jullundur 
and Gujranwala. In these states and districts are recruited 
the soldiers who form one of the main bulwarks of the British 
empire in India. 

For authorities see Cunningham, History of the Sikhs; Sir Lepel 
Griffin, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ("Rulers of India" series, 1892); 
Falcon, Handbook on Sikhs; and specially M. Macauliffe, The Sikh 
Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors (6 vols., 1909), and 
two lectures before the United Service Institution of India on " The 
Sikh Religion and its Advantages to the State " and " How the Sikhs 
became a Militant Race." (M. M.) 

SIKH WARS, two Indian campaigns fought between the Sikhs 
and the British, which resulted in the conquest and annexation 
of the Punjab (see Punjab). 

First Sikh War (1843-46). — The first Sikh War was brought 
about by the insubordination of the Sikh army, which after the 
death of Ranjit Singh became uncontrollable and on the nth 
of December 1845 crossed the Sutlej, and virtually declared 
war upon the British. The British authorities had foreseen 
the outbreak, and had massed sufficient troops at Ferozepore, 
Ludhiana and Umballa to protect the frontier, but not to offer 
provocation. So complete were the preparations for advance 
that on the 12th, the day after the Sikhs crossed the Sutlej, 
Sir Hugh Gough, the commander-in-chief, marched 16 m. with 
the Umballa force to Rajpura; on the 13th the governor-general, 
Sir Henry Hardinge, declared war, and by the 18th the whole 
army had marched 150 m. to Moodkee, in order to protect 
Ferozepore from the Sikh attack. 

Wearied with their long march, the British troops were 
enjoying a rest, when the news came in that the Sikhs were 
advancing to battle at four o'clock in the afternoon. The 
British had some 10,000 men, and the Sikhs are estimated 
by some authorities as low as 10,000 infantry with 2000 
cavalry and 22 guns. The battle opened with an artillery 
duel, in which the British guns, though inferior in weight, soon 
silenced the enemy, the 3rd Light Dragoons delivered a brilliant 
charge, and the infantry drove the enemy from position after 
position with great slaughter and the loss of seventeen guns. 



The victory was complete, but the fall of night prevented it 
from being followed up, and caused some of the native regiments 
to fire into each other in the confusion. 

After the battle of Moodkee Sir Henry Hardinge volunteered 
to serve as second in command under Sir Hugh Gough, a step 
which caused some confusion in the ensuing battle. 
At 4 a.m. on the 21st of December the British advanced S hah. 
from Moodkee to attack the Sikh entrenched camp 
under the command of Lai Singh at Ferozeshah, orders having 
been sent to Sir John Littler, in command at Ferozepore, to 
join the main British force. At n a.m. the British were in front 
of the Sikh position, but Sir John Littler, though on his way, 
had not yet arrived. Sir Hugh Gough wished to attack while 
there was plenty of daylight; but Sir Henry Hardinge re- 
asserted his civil authority as governor-general, and forbade 
the attack until the junction with Littler was effected. The 
army then marched on to meet Littler and the battle did not 
begin until between 3.30 and 4 p.m. The engagement opened 
with an artillery duel, in which the British again failed to gain 
the mastery over the Sikhs. The infantry, therefore, advanced 
to the attack; but the Sikh muskets were as good as the British, 
and fighting behind entrenchments they were a most formidable 
foe. Sir John Littler's attack was repulsed, the 62nd regiment 
losing heavily in officers and men, while the sepoys failed to 
support the European regiments. But the Moodkee force, 
undaunted, stormed and captured the entrenchment, though 
the different brigades and regiments lost position and became 
mixed up together in the darkness. The army then passed the 
night on the Sikh position, while the Sikhs prowled round 
keeping up an incessant fire. In the morning the British found 
that they had captured seventy-three pieces of cannon and were 
masters of the whole field; but at that moment a fresh Sikh 
army, under Tej Singh, came up to the assistance of the scattered 
forces of Lai Singh. The British were exhausted with their 
sleepless night, the native troops were shaken, and a determined 
attack by this fresh army might have won the day; but Tej 
Singh, after a half-hearted attack, which was repulsed, marched 
away, whether from cowardice, incapacity or treason, and left 
the British masters of the position. 

After the battle of Ferozeshah the Sikhs retired behind the 
Sutlej, but early in January they again raided across the river 
near Ludhiana, and Sir Harry Smith was detached 
to protect that city. On the 21st of January he was 
approaching Ludhiana when he found the Sikhs under Runjoor 
Singh in an entrenched position flanking his line of march at 
Budhowal. Sir Harry Smith passed on without fighting a general 
action, but suffered considerable loss in men and baggage. 
After receiving reinforcements Sir Harry again advanced from 
Ludhiana and attacked the Sikhs at Aliwal on the 28th of 
January. An attack upon the Sikh left near the village of 
Aliwal gave Sir Flarry the key of the position, and a brilliant 
charge by the 16th Lancers, which broke a Sikh square, com- 
pleted their demoralization. The Sikhs fled in confusion, losing 
sixty-seven guns, and by this battle were expelled from the 
south side of the Sutlej. 

Ever since Ferozeshah Sir Hugh Gough had been waiting 
to receive reinforcements, and on the 7th of February his siege 
train arrived, while on the following day Sir Harry 
Smith's force returned to camp. On the 10th of 
February Sir Hugh attacked the Sikhs, who occupied a strong 
entrenched position in a bend of the Sutlej. After two hours' 
cannonading, the infantry attack commenced at 9 A.M. The 
advance of the first brigade was not immediately successful, 
but the second brigade following on carried the entrenchments. 
The cavalry then charged down the Sikh lines from right to left 
and completed the victory. The Sikhs, with the river behind 
them, suffered terrible carnage, and are computed to have lost 
10,000 men and 67 guns. The British losses throughout the 
campaign were considerably heavier than was usual in Indian 
warfare; but this was partly due to the fact that the Sikhs were 
the best natural fighters in India, and partly to the lack of 
energy of the Hindostani sepoys. After the battle of Sobraon 



Aliwal. 



88 



SIKKIM 



ChUllaa- 
waJla. 



the British advanced to Lahore, where the treaty of Lahore 
was signed on the nth of March. 

Second Sikh War {1848-1840). — For two years after the battle 
of Sobraon the Punjab remained a British protectorate, with 
Sir Henry Lawrence as resident; but the Sikhs were unconvinced 
of their military inferiority, the Rani Jindan and her ministers 
were constantly intriguing to recover their power, and a further 
trial of strength was inevitable. The outbreak came at Multan, 
where on the 20th of April 1848 the troops of the Dewan 
Mulraj broke out and attacked two British officers, Mr Vans 
Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson, eventually murdering them. 
On hearing of the incident, Lieut. Herbert Edwardes, who was 
Sir Henry Lawrence's assistant in the Derajat, advanced upon 
Multan with a force of levies drawn from the Pathan tribes of 
the frontier; but he was not strong enough to do more than keep 
the enemy in check until Multan was invested by a Bombay 
column under General Whish. In the meantime Edwardes 
wished for an immediate British advance upon Multan; but 
Lord Gough, as he had now become, decided on a cold season 
campaign, on the ground that, if the Sikh government at Lahore 
joined in the rising, the British would require all their available 
strength to suppress it. Multan was invested on the 18th of 
August by General Whish in conjunction with the Sikh general 
Shere Singh; but during the course of the siege Shere Singh 
deserted and joined the rebels, thus turning the rising into a 
national war. The siege of Multan was temporarily abandoned, 
but was resumed in November, when Lord Gough's main advance 
had begun, and Mulraj surrendered on the 22nd of January. In 
the meantime Lord Gough had collected his army and stores, 
and on the 9th of November crossed the Sutlej. 

On the 22nd of November there was a cavalry skirmish at 
Ramnagar, in which General Cureton and Colonel Havelock were 
killed. For a month after this Lord Gough remained 
inactive, waiting to be reinforced by General Whish 
from Multan; but at last he decided to advance 
without General Whish, and fought the battle of Chillianwalla 
on the 13th of January 1849. Lord Gough had intended to 
encamp for the night; but the Sikh guns opening fire revealed 
the fact that their army had advanced out of its intrenchments, 
and Lord Gough decided to seize the opportunity and attack 
at once. An hour's artillery duel showed that the Sikhs had the 
advantage both in position and guns, and the infantry advance 
commenced at three o'clock in the afternoon. The battle resulted 
in great loss to the European regiments, the 24th losing all its 
officers in a few minutes, while the total loss in killed and wounded 
amounted to 2338; but when darkness fell the British were in 
possession of the whole of the Sikh line. Lord Gough subse- 
quently retired to the village of Chillianwalla, and the Sikhs 
returned and carried off their guns. After the battle Lord Gough 
received an ovation from his troops, but his losses were thought 
excessive by the public in England and the directors of the East 
India Company, and Sir Charles Napier was appointed to super- 
sede him. Before, however, the latter had time to reach India, 
the crowning victory of Gujrat had been fought and won. 

After the fall of Multan General Whish marched to join Lord 
Gough, and the junction of the two armies was effected on the 
1 8th of February. In the meantime the Sikhs had 
withdrawn from their strong intrenchments at Russool, 
owing to want of provisions, and marched to Gujrat, which Lord 
Gough considered a favourable position for attacking them. 
By a series of short marches he prepared the way for his " last 
and best battle." In this engagement, for the first time in either 
of the Sikh wars, the British had the superiority in artillery, in 
addition to a picked force of 24,000 men. The battle began on 
the morning of the 21st of February with two and a half hours' 
artillery fire, which was overwhelmingly in favour of the British. 
At 11.30 a.m. Lord Gough ordered a general advance covered 
by the artillery; and an hour and a half later the British were 
in possession of the town of Gujrat, of the Sikh camp, and of the 
enemy's artillery and baggage, and the cavalry were in full 
pursuit on both flanks. In this battle the British only lost 96 
killed and 700 wounded, while the Sikh loss was enormous, in 



addition to 67 guns. This decisive victory ended the war. On 
the 1 2th of March the Sikh leaders surrendered at discretion, 
and the Punjab was annexed to British India. 

See Sir Charles Gough and A. D. Innes, The Sikhs and the Sikh 
Wars (1897) ; and R. S. Rait. Life and Campaigns of Viscount Cough 
(1903)- 

SIKKIM, called by Tibetans Dejong (" the rice country "), 
a protected state of India, situated in the eastern Himalaya, 
between 27 5' and 28° 9' N. and between 87 59' and 88° 56' E. 
It comprises an area of 2818 sq. m. of what may be briefly 
described as the catchment basin of the headwaters of the rivers 
Tista and Rangit. On the S. and S.E., branches of these rivers 
form the boundary between Sikkim and British India, while 
on the W., N. and N.E. Sikkim is separated from Nepal, Tibet 
and Bhutan by the range of lofty mountains which culminate 
in Kinchinjunga and form a kind of horse-shoe, whence dependent 
spurs project southwards, gradually contracting and lessening 
in height until they reach the junction of the Rangit and the 
Tista. Thus the country is split up into a succession of deep 
valleys surmounted by open plateaus cut off from one another 
by high and steep ridges, and lies at a very considerable elevation, 
rising from 1000 ft. above sea-level at its southern extremity 
to 16,000 or 18,000 ft. on the north. The main trade-passes into 
Tibet, such as the Jelep (14,500), Chola (14,550), and Kangra-la 
(16,000), are not nearly so high as in the western Himalaya, 
while those into Nepal are less than 12,000 ft. 

Physical Features. — Small though the country is, a wide variation 
of climate makes it peculiarly interesting. From a naturalist's 
point of view it can be divided into three zones. The lowest, stretch- 
ing from 1000 to 5000 ft. above sea- level, may be called the tropical 
zone; thence to 13,000 ft., the upper limit of tree vegetation, the 
temperate; and above, to the line of perpetual snow, the alpine. 
Down to about 1880 Sikkim was covered with dense forests, only 
interrupted where village clearances had bared the slopes for agri- 
culture, but at the present time this description does not apply below 
6000 ft., the upper limit at which maize ripens; for here, owing to 
increase of population (particularly the immigration of Nepalese 
settlers) , almost every suitable spot has been cleared for cultivation. 
The exuberance of its flora may be imagined when it is considered 
that the total flowering plants comprise some 4000 species ; there are 
more than 200 different kinds of ferns, 400 orchids, 20 bamboos, 30 
rhododendrons, 30 to 40 primulas, and many other genera are equally 
profuse; in fact Sikkim contains types of every flora from the 
tropics to the poles, and probably no other country of equal or larger 
extent can present such infinite variety. Butterflies abound and 
comprise about 600 species, while moths are estimated at 2000. 
Birds are profusely represented, numbering between 500 and 600 
species. Among mammals, the most interesting are the snow leopard 
(Felis unica), the cat-bear {Aelurus fulgens) , the musk deer (Moschus 
moschiferus) and two species of goat antelope (Nemorhaedus bubalinus 
and Cemas goral). Copper and lime are the chief minerals found and 
worked in Sikkim, but they are of little commercial value at present. 

Government and Population. — The population is essentially agri- 
cultural, each family living in a house on its own land : there are no 
towns or villages, and the only collection of houses, outside the Lachen 
and Lachung valleys, are the few that have sprung up round country 
market-places, such as Rhenock, Dikkeling and Gangtok; but in the 
above-mentioned valleys the inhabitants, who are Bhutanese in 
origin and herdsmen in occupation, have large clusters of well-built 
houses at various altitudes up the valleys, which they occupy^ in 
rotation according to the season of the year. 

The seat of government, or in other words the palace of the raja, 
was formerly situated at Rubdentze ; but when that place was taken 
and destroyed by the Gurkhas, a new palace was built at Tumlong, 
close to the eastern and Tibetan boundary, while a subsidiary 
summer residence was erected on the other side of the Chola range 
at Chumbi, in the Am-mochu valley. At the present time the raja 
and his court remain in the more open country at Gangtok, where 
the British political officer and a small detachment of native troops 
are also stationed. 1 

The first regular census of Sikkim, in 1901, returned the population 
at 59,014, showing an apparent increase of nearly twofold in the 
decade. Of the total, 65 % were Hindus and 35 % Buddhists. 
The Lepchas, supposed to be the original inhabitants, numbered 
only 8000, while no less than 23,000 were immigrants from Nepal. 

The state religion is Buddhism as practised in Tibet, but is not 
confined to one particular sect ; while among the heterogeneous popu- 
lation of Sikkim all manner of religious cults can be found. Educa- 
tion is at a low ebb, though the monasteries are supposed to maintain 
schools, and missionary enterprise has established others. 

The revenue of Sikkim has increased under British guidance from 
Rs. 20,000 a year to nearly Rs. 1,60,000, derived chiefly from a land 
and poll tax, excise, and sale of timber; the chief expenditure is on 



SILA— SILENUS 



89 



the maintenance of the state, which practically means the raja's 
family, and on the improvement of communications. The country 
has a complete system of mountain roads, bridged and open to animal 
(but not cart) traffic. British trade with Central Tibet is carried over 
the Jelep route, on the south-eastern border of Sikkim. 

History. — The earliest inhabitants of Sikkim were the Rong-pa 
(ravine folk), better known as Lepchas, probably a tribe of Indo- 
Chinese origin; but when or how they migrated to Sikkim is un- 
known. The reigning family, however, is Tibetan, and claims descent 
from one of the Gyalpos or princelings of eastern Chinese Tibet ; their 
ancestors in course of several generations found their way westwards 
to Lhasa and Sakya, and thence down the Am-mochu valley ; finally, 
about the year 1604, Penchoo Namyg6 was born at Gangtok, and 
in 1 64 1, with the aid of Lha-tsan Lama and two other priests of the 
Duk-pa or Red-hat sect of Tibet, overcame the Lepcha chiefs, who 
had been warring among themselves, established a firm government 
and introduced Buddhist Lamaism as a state religion. His son, 
Tensung Namyge, very largely extended his kingdom, but much of it 
was lost in the succeeding reign of Chak-dor Namyge (1700-1717), 
who is credited with having designed the alphabet now in use among 
the Lepchas. 

In the beginning of the 18th century Bhutan appropriated a large 
tract of country on the east. Between 1776 and 1792 Sikkim was 
constantly at war with the victorious Gurkhas, who were, however, 
driven out of part of their conquests by the Chinese in 1792; but it 
was not until 1 816 that the bulk of what is known to us as Sikkim 
was restored by the British, after the defeat of the Nepalese by 
General Ochterlony. In 1839 the site of Darjeeling was ceded by 
the raja of Sikkim. In 1849 the British resumed the whole of the 
plains (Tarai) and the outer hills, as punishment for repeated insults 
and injuries. In 1861 a Britisn force was required to impose a treaty 
defining good relations. The raja, however, refused to carry out his 
obligations and defiantly persisted in living in Tibet ; his administra- 
tion was neglected, his subjects oppressed, and a force of Tibetan 
soldiers was allowed, and even encouraged, to seize the road and 
erect a fort within sight of Darjeeling. After months of useless re- 
monstrance, the government was forced in 1888 to send an expedi- 
tion, which drove the Tibetans back over the Jelep pass. A con- 
vention was then concluded with China in 1890, whereby the British 
protectorate over Sikkim was acknowledged and the boundary of the 
state defined ; to this was added a supplemental agreement relating 
to trade and domestic matters, which was signed in 1893. Since 
that time the government has been conducted by the maharaja 
assisted by a council of seven or eight of his leading subjects, and 
guided by a resident British officer. Crime, of which there is little, 
is punished under local laws administered by kazis or petty chiefs. 
Since 1904 political relations with Sikkim, which had formerly been 
conducted by the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, have been in the 
hands of the Viceroy. 

Rajas of Sikkim (Dejong-Gyalpo) : Penchoo Namgye (1641- 
1670), Tensung Namgye (1670-1700), Chak-dor Namgye (1700- 
1717), Gyur-me Namgye (1717-1734), Penchoo Namgye (1734- 
1/80), Tenzing Namgy6 (1780-1790), Cho-phoe Namgye (1790- 
1861), Sikhyong Namgye (^861-1874), Tho-tub Namgye (1874), the 
maharaja, whose son has been educated at Oxford. 

Authorities. — Sir J. W. Edgar, Report on a Visit to Sikkim and the 
Tibetan Frontier in 1873 (Calcutta, 1874); Macaulay, Report on a 
Mission to Sikkim and the Tibetan Frontier (Calcutta, 1885) ; The 
Gazetteer of Sikkim (Calcutta, 1894) ; Hooker, Himalayan Journals 
(London, 1854); L. A. Waddell, Lamaism (London, 1895); Among 
the Himalayas (London, 1898). (A. W. P.) 

SILA, a mountainous forest district of Calabria, Italy, to the 
E. of Cosenza, extending for some 37 m. N. to S. and 25 m. E. 
to W. The name goes back to the Greek period, and then pro- 
bably belonged to a larger extension of territory than at present. 
In ancient times these mountains supplied timber to the Greeks 
for shipbuilding, the forests have given way to pastures to 
some extent; but a part of them, which belongs to the state, is 
maintained. Geologically these mountains, which consist of 
granite, gneiss and mica schist, are the oldest portion of the 
Italian peninsula; their culminating point is the Botte Donato 
(6330 ft), and they are not free of snow until the late spring. 
They are very rarely explored by travellers. 

SILANION, a Greek sculptor of the 4th century B.C. He was 
noted as a portrait-sculptor. Of two of his works, his heads of 
Plato and of Sappho, we possess what seem to be copies. Both 
are of simple ideal type, the latter of course not strictly a portrait, 
since Sappho lived before the age of portraits. The best copy of 
the Plato is in the Vatican. 

SILAS (fl. a.d. 50), early Christian prophet and missionary, 
was the companion of St Paul on the second journey, when he 
took the place formerly held by Barnabas. The tour included 
S. Galatia, Troas, Philippi (where he was imprisoned), Thes- 
salonica and Beroea, where Silas was left with Timothy, though 



he afterwards rejoined Paul at Corinth. He is in all probability 
the Silvanus l who is associated with Paul in the letters to the 
Thessalonians, mentioned again in 2 Cor. i. 19, and the bearer and 
amanuensis of 1 Peter (see v. 12). It is possible, indeed, that he 
has an even closer connexion with this letter, and some scholars 
(e.g. R. Scott in The Pauline Epistles, 1909) are inclined to give 
him a prominent place among the writers of the New Testament.. 
He was of Jewish birth and probably also a Roman citizen. 

SILAY, a town of the province of Negros Occidental, island of 
Negros, Philippine Islands, on the N.W. coast, about 10 m. N. 
of Bacolod, the capital of the province. Pop. (1903, after the 
annexation of Guimbalon and a portion of Eustaquio Lopez) - 
22,000. There are more than fifty barrios or villages in the town 
and the largest of these had, in 1903, 3834 inhabitants. The 
language is Visayan. There is a considerable coasting trade, 
sugar, brought by a tramway from neighbouring towns, is shipped 
from here, and the cultivation of sugar-cane is an important in- 
dustry; Indian corn, tobacco, hemp, cotton and cacao are also 
grown. 

SILCHAR, a town of British India, in the Cachar district of 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, of which it is the headquarters. 
Pop. (1901) 9256. It is situated on the left bank of the river 
Barak, with a station on the Assam-Bengal railway, 271 m. 
N. of Chittagong. Silchar is the centre of an important tea 
industry, and the headquarters of the volunteer corps known 
as the Surma Valley Light Horse. 

SILCHESTER, a parish in the north of Hampshire, England, 
about 10 m. S. of Reading, containing the site of the Romano- 
British town Calleva Atrebatum. This site has been lately 
explored (1890-1909) and the whole plan of the ancient town 
within the walls recovered; unfortunately the excavators had 
to abandon their task before the suburbs, cemeteries and what- 
ever else may lie outside the walls have been examined. The 
results are published in Archacologia, the official organ of the 
London Society of Antiquaries (-see Britain: Roman). As the 
excavations proceeded, the areas excavated were covered in again, 
but the ruins of the town hall, which have been famous since the 
12th century, still remain. The smaller and movable objects 
found in the excavations have been deposited by the duke of 
Wellington, owner of the site of Calleva, in the Reading museum. 

SILENUS, a primitive Phrygian deity of woods and springs. 
As the reputed inventor of music he was confounded with 
Marsyas. He also possessed the gift of prophecy, but, like 
Proteus, would only impart information on compulsion; when 
surprised in a drunken sleep, he could be bound with chains 
of flowers, and forced to prophesy and sing (Virgil, Eel. vi., where 
he gives an account of the creation of the world; cf. Aelian, 
Var. hist. iii. 18). In Greek mythology he is the son of Hermes 
(or Pan) and a nymph. He is the constant companion of 
Dionysus, whom he was said to have instructed in the cultivation 
of the vine and the keeping of bees. He fought by his side in the 
war against the giants and was his companion in his travels 
and adventures. The story of Silenus was often the subject of 
Athenian satyric drama. Just as there were supposed to be 
several Pans and Fauns, so there were many Silenuses, whose 
father was called Papposilenus (" Daddy Silenus "), represented 
as completely covered with hair and more animal in appearance. 
The usual attributes of Silenus were the wine-skin (from which 
he is inseparable), a crown of ivy, the Bacchic thyrsus, the ass, 
and sometimes the panther. In art he generally appears as a 
little pot-bellied old man, with a snub nose and a bald head, 
riding on an ass and supported by satyrs; or he is depicted 
lying asleep on his wine-skin, which he sometimes bestrides. 
A more dignified type is the Vatican statue of Silenus carrying 
the infant Dionysus, and the marble group from the villa Borghese 
in the Louvre. 

See Preller- Robert, Griechische Mythologie (1894), PP- 729-735; 
Talfourd Ely, " A Cyprian Terracotta," in the Archaeological Journal 
(1896); A. Baumeister, Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, iii. 
(l? OON 



1 For the abbreviation, cf. Lucas, Prisca ( = Priscilla), Sopater 
( = Sosipater). 



go 



SILESIA 



SILESIA, the name of a district in the east of Europe, the greater 
part of which is included in the German empire and is known as 
German Silesia. A smaller part, called Austrian Silesia, is 
included in the empire of Austria-Hungary. 

German Silesia. 
■ German Silesia is bounded by Brandenburg, Posen, Russian 
Poland, Galicia, Austrian Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia and the 
kingdom and province of Saxony. Besides the bulk of the old 
duchy of Silesia, it comprises the countship of Glatz, a fragment 
of the Neumark, and part of Upper Lusatia, taken from the 
kingdom of Saxony in 1815. The province, which has an area 
of 15,576 sq. m. and is the largest in Prussia, is divided into three 
governmental districts, those of Liegnitz and Breslau comprising 
lower Silesia, and of Oppeln taking in the greater part of moun- 
tainous Silesia. 

Physiographically Silesia is roughly divided into a flat and a 
hilly portion by the so-called Silesian Langental, which begins 
on the south-east near the river Malapane, and extends across the 
province in a west-by-north direction to the Black Elster, following 
in part the valley of the Oder. The south-east part of the province, 
to the east of the Oder and south of the Malapane, consists of a 
hilly outpost of the Carpathians, the Tarnowitz plateau, with a 
mean elevation of about 1000 ft. To the west of the Oder the land 
rises gradually from the Langental towards the southern boundary 
of the province, which is formed by the central part of the Sudetic 
system, including the Glatz Mountains and the Riesengebirge 
(Schneekoppe, 5260 ft.). Among the loftier elevations in advance 
of this southern barrier the most conspicuous is the Zobten (2356 ft.). 
To the north and north-east of the Oder the province belongs almost 
entirely to the great North-German plain, though a hilly ridge, rarely 
attaining a height of 1000 ft., may be traced from east to west, 
asserting itself most definitely in the Katzengebirge. Nearly the 
whole of Silesia lies within the basin of the Oder, which flows through 
it from south-east to north-west, dividing the province into two 
approximately equal parts. The Vistula touches the province on 
the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while 
on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of 
the Elbe. The Iser rises among the mountains on the south. Among 
the chief feeders of the Oder are the Malapane, the Glatzer Neisse, 
the Katzbach and the Bartsch; the Bober and Queiss flow through 
Silesia, but join the Oder beyond the frontier. The only lake of 
any extent is the Schlawa See, 7 m. long, on the north frontier; 
and the only navigable canal, the Klodnitz canal, in the mining 
district of upper Silesia. There is a considerable difference in the 
climate of Lower and Upper Silesia ; some of the villages in the 
Riesengebirge have the lowest mean temperature of any inhabited 
place in Prussia (below 40 F.). 

Of the total area of the province 56% is occupied by arable land, 
10-2% by pasture and meadow, and nearly 29% by forests. The 
soil along the foot of the mountains is generally good, and the district 
between Ratibor and Liegnitz, where 70 to 80% of the surface is 
under the plough, is reckoned one of the most fertile in Germany. 
The parts of lower Silesia adjoining Brandenburg, and also the district 
to the east of the Oder, are sandy and comparatively unproductive. 
The different cereals are all grown with success, wheat and rye 
sometimes in quantity enough for exportation. Flax is still a 
frequent crop in the hilly districts, and sugar-beets are raised over 
large areas. Tobacco, oil-seeds, chicory and hops may also be 
specified, while a little wine, of an inferior quality, is produced near 
Grunberg. Mulberry trees for silk-culture have been introduced 
and thrive fairly. Large estates are the rule in Silesia, where about 
a third of the land is in the hands of owners possessing at least 
250 acres, while properties of 50,000 to 100,000 acres are common. 
The districts of Oppeln and Liegnitz are among the most richly 
wooded parts of Prussia. The merino sheep was introduced by 
Frederick the Great, and since then the Silesian breed has been 
greatly improved. The woods and mountains harbour large 
quantities of game, such as red deer, roedeer, wild boars and hares. 
The fishery includes salmon in the Oder, trout in the mountain 
streams, and carp in the small lakes or ponds with which the province 
is sprinkled. 

The great wealth of Silesia, however, lies underground, in the 
shape of large stores of coal and other minerals, which have been 
worked ever since the 12th century. The coal measures of Upper 
Silesia, in the south-east part of the province, are among the most 
extensive in continental Europe, and there is another large field 
near Waldenburg in the south-west. The output in 1905 exceeded 
34 million tons, valued at £12,500,000 sterling, and equal, to more 
than a quarter of the entire yield of Germany. The district of 
Oppeln also contains a great quantity of iron, the production in 
1905 amounting to 862,000 tons. The deposits of zinc in the vicinity 
of Beuthen are perhaps the richest in the world, and produce two- 
thirds of the zinc ore of Germany (609,000 tons). The remaining 
mineral products include lead, from which a considerable quantity 



of silver is extracted, copper, cobalt, arsenic, the rarer metal cadmium, 
alum, brown coal, marble, and a few of the commoner precious 
stones, jaspers, agates and amethysts. The province contains 
scarcely any salt or brine springs, but there are well-known mineral 
springs at Warmbrunn, Salzbrunn and several other places. 

A busy manufacturing activity has long been united with the 
underground industries of Silesia, and the province in this respect 
is hardly excelled by any other part of Prussia. On the plateau of 
Tarnowitz the working and smelting of metals is the predominant 
industry, and in the neighbourhood of Beuthen, Konigshtitte and 
Gleiwitz there is an almost endless succession of iron-works, zinc- 
foundries, machine-shops and the like. At the foot of the Riesenge- 
birge, and along the southern mountain line generally, the textile 
industries prevail. Weaving has been practised in Silesia, on a 
large scale, since the 14th century; and Silesian linen still maintains 
its reputation, though the conditions of production have greatly 
changed. Cotton and woollen goods of all kinds are also made in 
large quantities, and among the other industrial products are beetroot 
sugar, spirits, chemicals, tobacco, starch, paper, pottery, and 
" Bohemian glass." Lace, somewhat resembling that of Brussels, 
is made by the women of the mountainous districts. The trade of 
Silesia is scarcely so extensive as might be expected from its im- 
portant industrial activity. On the east it is hampered by the 
stringent regulations of the Russian frontier, and the great waterway 
of the Oder, though in process of being regulated, is sometimes too 
low in summer for navigation. The extension of the railway system 
has, however, had its usual effect in fostering commerce, and the 
mineral and manufactured products of the province are freely 
exported. 

At the census of 1905 the population of Silesia was 4,942,611, 
of whom 2,120,361 were Protestants, 2,765,394 Catholics and 
46,845 Jews. The density is 317 per sq. m., but the average is 
of course very greatly exceeded in the industrial districts such 
as Beuthen. Three-fourths of the inhabitants and territory are; 
German, but to the east of the Oder the Poles, more than 1,000,000 
in number, form the bulk of the population, while there are about 
15,500 Czechs in the south part of the province and 25,000 Wends 
near Liegnitz. The Roman Catholics, most of whom are under 
the ecclesiastical sway of the prince bishop of Breslau, are 
predominant in Upper Silesia and Glatz; the Protestants prevail 
in Lower Silesia, to the west of the Oder, and in Lusatia. The 
nobility is very numerous in Silesia, chiefly in the Polish districts. 
The educational institutions of the province are headed by the 
university of Breslau. In 1900 the percentage of illiterate 
recruits, in spite of the large Polish-speaking contingent, was only 
0-05. The capital and seat of the provincial diet is Breslau 
(q.v.), which is also by far the largest and most important town. 
The towns next in point of size are Gorlitz, Liegnitz, Konigshtitte. 
Beuthen, Schweidnitz, Neisse and Glogau. The province sends 
thirty-five members to the Reichstag and sixty-five to the 
Prussian chamber of deputies. The government divisions of 
Breslau and Oppeln together form the district of the 6th army 
corps with its headquarters at Breslau, while Liegnitz belongs 
to that of the 5th army corps, the headquarters of which are at 
Posen. Glogau, Glatz and Neisse are fortresses. 

History. — The beginnings of Silesian history do not reach back 
beyond the 10th century a.d., at which time the district was 
occupied by clans of Slavonic nationality, one of which derived 
its name from the mountain Zlenz (mod. Zobtenburg), near 
Breslau, and thus gave rise to the present appellation of the 
whole province. The etymology of place-names suggests that the 
original population was Celtic, but this conjecture cannot be 
verified in any historical records. About the year 1000 the 
Silesian clans were incorporated in the kingdom of Poland, 
whose rulers held their ground with difficulty against continuous 
attacks by the kings of Bohemia, but maintained themselves 
successfully against occasional raids from Germany. The 
decisive factor in the separation of Silesia from Poland was 
furnished by a partition of the Polish crown's territories in 1138. 
Silesia was henceforth constituted as a separate principality, 
and in 1201 its political severance from Poland became complete 
A yet more important result of the partition of 1138 was the 
transference of Silesia to the German nation. The independent 
dynasty which was then established was drawn under the 
influence of the German king, Frederick Barbarossa, and two 
princes who in 1163 divided the sovereignty among themselves 
as dukes of Upper and Lower Silesia inaugurated the policy 



SILESIA 



9* 



of inviting German colonists to their vacant domains. More 
extensive immigrations followed, in the course of which the whole 
of Silesia was covered with German settlements. The numerous 
townships which then sprang up acquired rights of self-govern- 
ment according to German law, Breslau being refounded about 
1 250 as a German town, and a feudal organization was introduced 
among the landholding nobility. By the end of the 13th century 
Silesia had virtually become a German land. 

This ethnical transformation was accompanied by a great 
rise in material prosperity. Large areas of forest or swamp 
were reclaimed for agriculturs; the great Silesian industries 
of mining and weaving were called into existence, and Breslau 
grew to be a leading centre of exchange for the wares of East and 
West . The growing resources of the Silesian duchies are exempli- 
fied by the strength of the army with which Henry II., duke of 
Lower Silesia, broke the force of the Mongol invasion at the 
battle of Liegnitz (1241), and by the glamour at the court of the 
Minnesinger, Henry IV. (1 266-1 290) . This prosperity, however, 
was checked by a growing tendency among the Silesian dynasties 
to make partitions of their territories at each new succession. 
Thus by the end of the 14th century the country had been split 
up into 18 principalities: Breslau, Brieg, Glogau, Jauer, Liegnitz, 
Munsterberg, 01s, Schweidnitz and Steinau in Lower Silesia; 
Beuthen, Falkenberg, Kosel, Neisse, Oppeln, Ratibor, Strehlitz, 
Teschen and Troppau in the upper district. The petty rulers 
of these sections wasted their strength with internecine quarrels 
and proved quite incompetent to check the lawlessness of their 
feudal vassals. Save under the vigorous rule of some dukes 
of Lower Silesia, such as Henry I. and Bolko I., and the above- 
named Henry II. and IV., who succeeded in reuniting most of 
the principalities under their sway, the country fell into a state 
of growing anarchy. 

Unable to institute an effective national government, and 
unwilling to attach themselves again to Poland, the Silesian 
princes began about 1290 to seek the protection of the German 
dynasty then ruling in Bohemia. The intervention of these 
kings resulted in the establishment of their suzerainty over the 
whole of Silesia and the appropriation cf several of its petty 
states as crown domains. The earliest of these Bohemian 
overlords, King John and the emperor Charles IV., fully justified 
their intrusion by the vigorous way in which they restored order 
and regularized the administration; in particular, the cities 
at this time attained a high degree of material prosperity and 
political importance. Under later rulers the connexion with 
Bohemia brought the Silesians no benefit, but involved them 
in the destructive Hussite wars. At the outbreak of this conflict 
in 1420 they gave ready support to their king Sigismund against 
the Bohemian rebels, whom they regarded as dangerous to their 
German nationality, but by this act they exposed themselves 
to a series of invasions (1425-1435) by which the country was 
severely devastated. In consequence of these raids the German 
element of population in Upper Silesia permanently lost ground ; 
and a complete restitution of the Slavonic nationality seemed 
imminent on the appointment of the Hussite, George Podiebrad, 
to the Bohemian kingship in 1457. Though most of the Silesian 
dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau 
fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce 
his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, 
Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469). 
Matthias enforced his authority by the vigorous use of his 
mercenaries and by wholesale confiscations of the lands of turbu- 
lent nobles. By instituting a permanent diet of Silesian princes 
and estates to co-operate with his vicegerent, he took an important 
step towards the abolition of particularism and the establishment 
of an effective central government. In spite of these reforms 
the Silesians, who felt severely the financial exactions of Matthias, 
began to resent the control of the Bohemian crown. Profiting 
by the feebleness of Matthias' successor Vladislav, they extorted 
concessions which secured to them a practical autonomy. 
These privileges still remained to them at the outset of the 
religious Reformation, which the Silesians, in spite of their 
Catholic zeal during the Hussite wars, accepted readily and 



carried out with singularly little opposition from within or 
without. But a drastic revolution in their government was 
imposed upon them by the German king, Ferdinand I., who 
had been prevented from interference during his early reign by 
his wars with the Turks, and who showed little disposition to 
check the Reformation in Silesia by forcible means, but subse- 
quently reasserted the control of the Bohemian crown by a 
series of important enactments. He abolished all privileges 
which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly 
centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the 
provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial 
functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was 
withdrawn altogether. Henceforth, too, annexations of territory 
were frequently carried out by the Bohemian crown on the 
extinction of Silesian dynasties, and the surviving princes showed 
an increasing reluctance to the exercise of their authority. 
Accordingly the Silesian estates never again chose to exercise 
initiative save on rare occasions, and from 1550 Silesia passed 
almost completely under foreign administration. 

An uneventful period followed under the rule of the house of 
Habsburg, which united the kingship of Bohemia with the 
archduchy of Austria and the imperial crown. But this respite 
from trouble was ended by the outbreak of the Thirty Years' 
War (1618-48), which brought Silesia to the verge of ruin. Dis- 
quieted by some forcible attempts on Rudolph II. 's part to 
suppress Protestantism in certain parts of the country, and 
mistrusting a formal guarantee of religious liberty which was 
given to them in 1609, the Silesians joined hands with the 
Bohemian insurgents and renounced their allegiance to their 
Austrian ruler. Their defection, which was terminated by a 
capitulation in 1621, was not punished severely, but in spite 
of their attempt to maintain neutrality henceforth they were 
quite unable to secure peace. Silesia remained a principal 
objective of the various contending armies and was occupied 
almost continuously by a succession of ill-disciplined mercenary 
forces whose depredations and exactions, accentuated at times 
by religious fanaticism, reduced the country to a state of helpless 
misery. Three-quarters of the population are estimated to have 
lost their lives, and commerce and industry were brought to a 
standstill. Recovery from these disasters was retarded by the 
permanent diversion of trade to new centres like Leipzig and 
St Petersburg, and by a state of unsettlement due to the govern- 
ment's disregard of its guarantees to its Protestant subjects. A 
greater measure of religious liberty was secured for the Silesians 
by the representatives of King Charles XII. of Sweden on their 
behalf, and effective measures were taken by the emperor Charles 
VI. to stimulate commercial intercourse between Silesia and 
Austria. Nevertheless in the earlier part of the 18th century the 
condition of the country still remained unsatisfactory. 

An important epoch in the history of Silesia is marked by the 
year 1 740, when the dominion of Austria was exchanged for that 
of Prussia. Availing himself of a testamentary union made in 
1 537 between the duke of Liegnitz and the elector of Brandenburg, 
and of an attempt by the elector Frederick William to call it into 
force in spite of its annulment by Ferdinand I. in 1546, Frederick 
II. of Prussia raised a claim to the former duchies of Liegnitz, 
Brieg, Jagerndorf and Wohlau. The empress Maria Theresa, 
who was at this time involved with other enemies, was unable 
to prevent the occupation of Lower Silesia by Frederick and in 
1 741 ceded that province to him. In the following year Frederick 
renewed his attack and extorted from Austria the whole of 
Silesia except the districts of Troppau, Teschen and Jagerndorf, 
the present province of Austrian Silesia. 

Though constrained by the general dangers of her position to 
make terms with Prussia, Maria Theresa long cherished the hope 
of recovering a possession which she, unlike her predecessors, 
valued highly and held by a far better title than did her opponent. 
A second war which Fiederick began in 1744 in anticipation of a 
counter-attack from her only served to strengthen his hold upon 
his recent conquest; but in the famous Seven Years' War (q.v.) 
of 1756-63 the Austrian empress, aided by France and Russia, 
almost effected her purpose. Silesia was repeatedly overrun by 



92 



SILESIAN WARS— SILICA 



Austrian and Russian troops, and Frederick's ultimate expulsion 
seemed only a question of time. Yet the Prussian king recovered 
his lost ground by gigantic efforts and eventually retained his 
Silesian territory undiminished. 

The annexation by Frederick was followed by a complete 
reorganization in which the obsolete powers of the local dynasts 
were abolished and Silesia became a mere province of the highly 
centralized Prussian state. Owing to the lack of a corporate 
Silesian consciousness and the feebleness of their local institutions, 
the people soon became reconciled to their change of rulers. 
Moreover Frederick, who had proved by his wars the importance 
which he attached to Silesia, was indefatigable in times of peace 
in his attempts to justify his usurpation. Making yearly visits 
to the country, and further keeping himself in touch with it by 
means of a special " minister of Silesia," he was enabled to effect 
numerous political reforms, chief of which were the strict enforce- 
ment of religious toleration and the restriction of oppressive 
seignorial rights. By liberal endowments and minute but 
judicious regulations he brought about a rapid development of 
Silesian industries; in particular he revived the mining and 
weaving operations which at present constitute the country's 
chief source of wealth. 

After its incorporation with Prussia Silesia ceases to have an 
independent political history. During the Napoleonic wars it was 
partly occupied by French troops (1806-1813), and at the begin- 
ning of the War of Liberation it was the chief scene of operations 
between the French and the allied armies. In 1815 it was 
enlarged by a portion of Lusatia, which had become detached 
from Silesia as far back as the nth century and since then had 
been annexed to the kingdom of Saxony. During the rest of 
the 19th century its peace has been interrupted from time to time 
by riots of discontented weavers. But the general record of 
recent times has been one of industrial development and 
prosperity hardly inferior to that of any other part of Germany. 

See C. Griinhagen, Geschichte Schlesiens (2 vols., Gotha, 1884- 
1886), and Schlesien unter Friedrich dem Grossen (2 vols., Gotha, 
1 890-1892) ; M. Morgenbesser, Geschichte von Schlesien (Berlin, 1892) ; 
Knotel, Geschichte Ober schlesiens (Kattowitz, 1906) ; H. Grotefend, 
Stammtafeln der schlesischen Fiirsten bis 1740 (Breslau, 1889); 
F. Rachfahl, Die Organisation der Gesamtstaatsverwaltung Schlesiens 
vor dem dreissigjdhrigen Kriege (Leipzig, 1894); H. Fechner, 
Geschichte des schlesischen Berg- und Hiittenwesens 1/41-1806 (Berlin, 
1903) ; see also the Zeitschrift des Vereins fur Geschichte und Altertunt 
Schlesiens (Breslau, 1855 sqq.), and Oberschlesische Heimat, Zeit- 
schrift des ober schlesischen Geschichtsvereins (Oppeln, 1905 sqq.). 

Austrian Silesia. 

Austrian Silesia (Ger. Osterreichisch-Schlesien) is a duchy and 
crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Galicia, S. by Hungary 
and Moravia, W. and N. by Prussian Silesia. It has an area of 
1987 sq. m. and is the smallest province of Austria. Silesia is 
divided by a projecting limb of Moravia into two small parts of 
territory, of which the western part is flanked by the Sudetic 
mountains, namely the Altvater Gebirge; while the eastern part 
is flanked by the Carpathians, namely the Jablunka Gebirge 
with their highest peak the Lissa Hora (4346 ft.). A great pro- 
portion of the surface of Silesia is occupied by the offshoots of 
these ranges. The province is traversed by the Vistula, which 
rises in the Carpathians within eastern Silesia, and by the Oder, 
with its affluents the Oppa and the Olsa. Owing to its mountain- 
ous character, and its slopes towards the N. and N.E., Silesia 
has a somewhat severe climate for its latitude, the mean annual 
temperature being 50 F., while the annual rainfall varies from 
20 to 30 in. 

Of the total area 49-4% is arable land, 34-2% is covered by 
forests, 6-2% by pasturages, while meadows occupy 5-8% and 
gardens 1-3%. The soil cannot, as a rule, be termed rich, although 
some parts are fertile and produce cereals, vegetables, beetroot and 
fruit. In the mountainous region dairy-farming is carried on after 
the Alpine fashion and the breeding of sheep is improving. Large 
herds of geese and pigeons are reared, while hunting and fishing 
constitute also important resources. The mineral wealth of Silesia 
is great and consists in coal, iron-ore, marble and slate. It possesses 
several mineral springs, of which the best known are the alkaline 
springs at Karlsbrunn. Like its adjoining provinces, Silesia boasts 
of a great and varied industrial activity, chiefly represented by the 
metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches. The cloth 



and woollen industries are concentrated at Bielitz, Jagerndorf and 
Engelsberg ; linen is manufactured at Freiwaldau Freudenthal and 
Bennisch ; cotton goods at Friedek. The iron industry is con- 
centrated at Trzinietz, near Teschen, and various industrial and 
agricultural machines are manufactured at Troppau, Jagerndorf, 
Ustron and Bielitz. The organs manufactured at Jagerndorf enjoy 
a good reputation. Other important branches of industry are 
chemicals at Hruschau and Petrowitz; sugar refineries, milling, 
brewing and liqueurs. 

In 1900 the population numbered 680,422, which corresponds 
to 342 inhabitants per sq. m. The Germans formed 44-69% 
of the population, 33-21% were Poles and 22-05% Czechs 
and Slavs. According to religion, 84-73 were Roman Catholics, 
14% Protestants and the remainder were Jews. The local diet 
is composed of 31 members, and Silesia sends 12 deputies to the 
Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes Silesia is 
divided into 9 districts and 3 towns with autonomous munici- 
palities: Troppau, the capital, Bielitz and Friedek. Other 
principal towns are: Teschen, Polnisch-Ostrau, Jagerndorf, 
Karwin, Freudenthal, Freiwaldau and Bennisch. 

The actual duchy is only a very small part, which was left 
to Austria after the Seven Years' War, from its former province 
of the same name. It formed, with Moravia, a single province 
until 1849, when it was created a separate duchy. 

See F. Slama, Osterreichisch-Schlesien (Prague, 1887); and A. 
Peter, Das Herzogtum Schlesien (Vienna, 1884). 

SILESIAN WARS, the name given to the contests between 
Austria and Prussia for the possession of Silesia. The first (1740- 
1742) and second (1 744-1 745) wars formed a part of the great 
European struggle called the War of the Austrian Succession 
(q.v.), and the third war (1756-1762) similarly a part of the 
Seven Years' War {q.v.). 

SILHOUETTE, ETIENNE DE (1709-1767), controller-general 
of France, was born at Limoges on the 5th of July 1709. He 
travelled extensively while still a young man and drew attention 
to himself by the publication of English translations, historical 
writings, and studies on the financial system of England. Suc- 
cessively councillor to the parlement of Metz, secretary to the 
duke of Orleans, member of the commission on delimitation of 
Franco-British interests in Acadia (1749), and royal commis- 
sioner in the Indies Company, he was named controller-general 
through the influence of the marquise de Pompadour on the 
4th of March 1759. The court at first reposed a blind confidence 
in him, but soon perceived not only that he was not a financier 
but also that he was bent on attacking privilege by levj'ing a 
land-tax on the estates of the nobles and by reducing the pensions. 
A storm of opposition gathered and broke: a thousand cartoons 
and jokes were directed against the unfortunate minister who 
seemed to be resorting to one financial embarrassment in order 
to escape another; and in allusion to the sacrifices which he 
demanded of the nobles, even the conversion of their table plate 
into money, silhouette became the popular word for a figure 
reduced to simplest form. The word was eventually (1835) 
admitted to the dictionary by the French academy. Silhouette 
was forced out of the ministry on the 21st of November 1759 and 
withdrew to Brie-sur-Marne, where during the remainder of 
his life he sought refuge from scorn and sarcasm in religious 
devotion. He died on the 20th of January 1767. 

Silhouette left, several translations from the English and the 
Spanish, accounts of travel, and dull historical and philosophical 
writings, a list of which is given in Querard, France litteraire, ix. 138. 
A Testament politique, published under his name in 1772, is apochry- 
phal. See J. P. Clement and A. Lemoine, M. de Silhouette (Paris, 
1872). 

SILICA, in chemistry, the name ordinarily given to amorphous 
silicon dioxide, Si0 2 . This chemical compound is widely and 
most abundantly distributed in nature, both in the free state and 
in combination with metallic oxides. Free silica constitutes the 
greater part of sand and sandy rocks; when fairly pure it occurs 
in the large crystals which we know as quartz (q.v.), and which, 
when coloured, form the gem-stones amethyst, cairngorm, 
cats'-eye and jasper. Tridymite (q.v.) is a rarer form, crystallo- 
graphically different from quartz. Amorphous forms also occur: 
chalcedony (q.v.), and its coloured modifications agate, carnelian, 



SILICON 



93 



onyx and sard, together with opal (qq.v.) are examples. Amorph- 
ous silica can be obtained from a silicate (a compound of silica 
and a metallic oxide) by fusing the finely powdered mineral 
with sodium carbonate, decomposing the sodium silicate thus 
formed with hydrochloric acid, evaporating to dryness to convert 
the colloidal silicic acid into insoluble silica, and removing the 
soluble chlorides by washing with hot water. On drying, the 
.silica is obtained as a soft white amorphous powder, insoluble in 
water and in all acids except hydrofluoric; it dissolves in hot 
solutions of the caustic alkalis and to a less extent in alkali 
carbonates. It melts at a high temperature, and in the electric 
furnace it may be distilled, the vapours condensing to a bluish- 
white powder. By heating a solution of sodium silicate in a glass 
vessel the glass is attacked (an acid silicate being formed) and 
silica separates at ordinary temperatures in a hydrated amorphous 
form, at higher temperatures but below 180° as tridymite, and 
above 180° as quartz. 

Silicates. — These compounds are to be regarded as salts of silicic 
acid, or combinations of silicon dioxide and metallic basic oxides; 
they are of great importance since they constitute the commonest 
rock-forming and many other minerals, and occur in every petro- 
graphical species. The parent acid, silicic acid, was obtained by 
T. Graham by dialysing a solution of hydrochloric acid to which 
sodium silicate had been added; a colloidal silicic acid being re- 
gained in the dialyser. This solution may be concentrated until 
it contains about 14% of silica by open boiling, and this solution on 
evaporation in a vacuum gives a transparent mass of metasilicic 
acid, H 2 Si0 3 . The solution is a tasteless liquid having a slight acid 
reaction; it gradually changes to a clear transparent jelly, which 
afterwards shrinks on drying. This coagulation is brought about 
very quickly by sodium carbonate, and may be retarded by hydro- 
chloric acid or by a solution of a caustic alkali. Several hydrated 
forms have been obtained, e.g. 2Si0 2 -H 2 0, 3Si0 2 -H 2 0, 4Si0 2 -H 2 0, 
8Si0 2 -H 2 0; these are very unstable, the first two losing water on ex^ 
posure whilst the others absorb water. The natural silicates may be 
regarded as falling into 5 classes, viz. orthosilicates, derived from 
Si(OH) 4 ; metasilicates, from SiO(OH) 2 ; disilicates, from Si 2 3 (OH) 2 ; 
trisilicates, from Si 3 6 (0H) 2 ; and basic silicates. These acids may 
be regarded as derived by the partial dehydration of the ortho-acid. 
Another classification is given in Metallurgy; a list of mineral 
silicates is given in Mineralogy, and for the synthetical production 
of these compounds see also Petrology. 

SILICON [symbol Si, atomic weight 28-3 (0=i6)], a non- 
metallic chemical element. It is not found in the uncombined 
condition, but in combination with other elements it is, with 
perhaps the exception of oxygen, the most widely distributed and 
abundant of all the elements. It is found in the form of oxide 
(silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, 
chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c, but occurs chiefly in the form 
of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and 
alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various 
clays, soils and rocks. It has also been found as a constituent of 
various parts of plants and has been recognized in the stars. 
The element exists in two forms, one amorphous, the other 
crystalline. The older methods used for the preparation of the 
amorphous form, namely the decomposition of silicon halides 
or silicofluorides by the alkali metals, or of silica by magnesium, 
do not give good results, since the silicon obtained is always 
contaminated with various impurities, but a pure variety may 
be prepared according to E. Vigouroux (Ann. chim. phys., 1897, 
(7) 12, p. 1 53) by heating silica with magnesium in the presence of 
magnesia, or by heating silica with aluminium. The crystalline 
form may be prepared by heating potassium silicofluoride with 
sodium or aluminium (F. Wohler, Ann., 1856, 97, p. 266; 1857, 
102, p. 382) ; by heating silica with magnesium in the presence of 
zinc (L. Gattermann, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 186); and by the reduc- 
tion of silica in the presence of carbon and iron (H. N. Warren, 
Chem. News, 1888, 57, p. 54; 1893, 67, p. 136). Another 
crystalline form, differing from the former by its solubility in 
hydrofluoric acid, was prepared by H. Moissan and F. Siemens 
(Comptes rendus, 1904, 138, p. 1299). A somewhat impure 
silicon (containing 90-98% of the element) is made by the 
Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls (United States Patents 
745122 and 842273, 1908) by heating coke and sand in an 
electric furnace. The product is a crystalline solid of specific 
gravity 2-34, and melts at about 1430 C. See also German 



Patent 108817 for the production of crystallized silicon from 
silica and carborundum. 

Amorphous silicon is a brown coloured powder, the crystalline 
variety being grey, but it presents somewhat different appear- 
ances according to the method used for its preparation. The 
specific gravity of the amorphous form is 2-35 (Vigouroux), 
that of the crystalline variety varying, according to the method 
of preparation, from 2-004 to 2-493. The specific heat varies with 
the temperature, from 0-136 at -39 C. to 0-2029 a t 2 3 2 ° C. 
Silicon distils readily at the temperature of the electric furnace. 
It is attacked rapidly by fluorine at ordinary temperature, and 
by chlorine when heated in a current of the gas. It undergoes a 
slight superficial oxidation when heated in oxygen. It combines 
directly with many metals on heating, whilst others merely 
dissolve it. When heated with sodium and potassium, appar- 
ently no action takes place, but if heated with lithium it forms 
a lithium silicide, Li 6 Si2 (H. Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, 
p. 1083). It decomposes ammonia at a red heat, liberating 
hydrogen and yielding a compound containing silicon and nitro- 
gen. It reduces many non-metallic oxides. It is only soluble 
in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acid, or in solutions of the 
caustic alkalis, in the latter case yielding hydrogen and a silicate: 
Si+2KHO+H 2 = K !! SiOs+2H 2 . On fusion with alkaline car- 
bonates and hydroxides it undergoes oxidation to silica which 
dissolves on the excess of alkali yielding an alkaline silicate. 

Silicon hydride, SiH 4 , is obtained in an impure condition, as a 
spontaneously inflammable gas, by decomposing magnesium silicide 
with hydrochloric acid, or by the direct union of silicon and hydrogen 
in the electric arc. In the pure state it may be prepared by decom- 
posing ethyl silicoformate in the presence of sodium (C. Friedel and 
A. Ladenburg, Comptes rendus, 1867, 64, pp. 359, 1267) ; 4Si(OC 2 H 6 ) s = 
SiH4+3Si(OC 2 H 6 )4. When pure, it is a colourless gas which is not 
spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperature and pressure, 
but a slight increase of temperature or decrease of pressure sets up 
decomposition. It is almost insoluble in water. It burns when 
brought into contact with chlorine, forming silicon chloride and 
hydrochloric acid. It decomposes solutions of silver nitrate and 
copper sulphate. A second hydride of silicon, of composition 
Si 2 H 6 , was prepared by H. Moissan and S. Smiles {Comptes rendus, 
1902, pp. 569, 1549) from the products obtained in the action of 
hydrochloric acid on magnesium silicide. These are passed through 
a vessel surrounded by a freezing mixture and on fractionating the 
product the hydride distils over as a colourless liquid which boils at 
52° C. It is also obtained by the decomposition of lithium silicide 
with concentrated hydrochloric acid. Its vapour is spontaneously 
inflammable when exposed to air. It behaves as a reducing agent. 
For a possible hydride (Si 2 H 3 )„ see J. Ogier, Ann. chim. phys., 1880, 
(5), 20, p. 5. 

Only one oxide of silicon, namely the dioxide or silica, is known 
(see Silica). 

Silicon fluoride, SiF 4 , is formed when silicon is brought into contact 
with fluorine (Moissan) ; or by decomposing a mixture of acid potas- 
sium fluoride and silica, or of calcium fluoride and silica with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. It is a colourless, strongly fuming gas which has 
a suffocating smell. It is decomposed with great violence when heated 
in contact with either sodium or potassium. It combines directly 
with ammonia to form the compound SiF 4 -2NH3, and is absorbed by 
dry boric acid and by many metallic oxides. Water decomposes it 
into silicofluoric acid and silicic acid: 3SiF 4 +3H20=2H 2 SiF6+ 
H 2 Si0 3 . With potassium hydroxide it yields potassium silicofluoride, 
whilst with sodium hydroxide, sodium fluoride is produced: 3SiF4 = 
4KHO= Si0 2 + 2K 2 SiF 6 + 2H 2 0; SiF 4 + 4NaOH = Si0 2 +4NaF + 
2H 2 0. It combines directly with acetone and with various amines. 
Silicon fluoroform, SiHF 3 , was obtained by O. Ruff and Curt Albert 
(Ber., 1905, 38, p. 53) by decomposing titanium fluoride with silicon 
chloroform in sealed vessels at 100-120° C. It is a colourless gas 
which may be condensed to a liquid boiling at -80-2° C. On 
solidification it melts at about — no" C. The gas is very unstable, 
decomposing slowly, even at ordinary temperatures, into hydrogen, 
silicon fluoride and silicon: 4SiHF 3 =2H 2 +3SiF 4 -|-Si. It burns with 
a pale-blue flame forming silicon fluoride, silicofluoric acid and 
silicic acid. It is decomposed readily by water, sodium hydroxide, 
alcohol and ether: 

2SiHF 3 +4H 2 = H 4 Si0 4 +H 2 SiF 6 +2H 2 ; 
SiHF 3 +3NaOH+H 2 = H 4 Si0 4 +3NaF+H 2 ; 
2SiHF 3 +4C 2 H 6 0H=Si(0C 2 H 6 ) 4 + H 2 SiF 6 +2H 2 ; 
SiHF 3 +3(C2H 6 ) 2 = SiH(OC 2 H 6 )3+3C 2 H 5 F. 

Silicofluoric acid, H 2 SiF 6 , is obtained as shown above, and also by the 
action of sulphuric acid on barium silicofluoride, or by absorbing 
silicon fluoride in aqueous hydrofluoric acid. The solution on 
evaporation deposits a hydrated form, H 2 SiF6-2H 2 0, which decom- 
poses when heated. The anhydrous acid is not known, since on 



94- 



SILISTRIA 



evaporating the aqueous solution it gradually decomposes into silicon 
fluoride and hydrofluoric acid. 

Silicon chloride, SiCl 4 , was prepared by J. J. Berzelius (Jahresb., 
1825, 4, p. 91) by the action of chlorine on silicon, and is also ob- 
tained when an intimate mixture of silica and carbon is heated in a 
stream of chlorine and the products of reaction fractionated. It is a 
very stable colourless liquid which boils at 58° C. Oxygen only 
attacks it at very high temperatures. When heated with the alkali 
and alkaline earth metals it yields silicon and the corresponding 
metallic chlorides. Water decomposes «t into hydrochloric and 
silicic acids. It combines directly with ammonia gas to form 
SiCU-6NH 3 , and it also serves as the starting point for the prepara- 
tion of numerous organic derivatives of silicon. The hexachloride, 
Si 2 Cl6, is formed when silicon chloride vapour is passed over strongly 
heated silicon ; by the action of chlorine on the corresponding iodo- 
compound, or by heating the iodo-compound with mercuric chloride 
(C. Friedel, Comptes renins, 1871, 73, p. 49"). It is a colourless 
fuming liquid which boils at 146-148° C. It is decomposed by water, 
and also when heated between 350° and 1000 C, but it is stable both 
below and above these temperatures. The octochloride, Si 3 Cls, is 
formed to the extent of about J to I % in the action of chlorine on 
silicon (L. Gattermann, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 11 14). It is a colourless 
liquid which boils at 210 C. Water decomposes it with the forma- 
tion of silico-mesoxalic acid, HOOSi-Si(OH)2-SiOOH. Silicon chloro- 
form, SiHCl 3 , first prepared by H. Buff and F. Wohler (Ann., 1857, 
104, p. 94), is formed by heating crystallized silicon in hydrochloric 
acid gas at a temperature below red heat, or by the action of hydro- 
chloric acid gas on copper silicide, the products being condensed 
by liquid air and afterwards fractionated (O. Ruff and Curt Albert, 
Ber., 1905, 38, p. 2222). It is a colourless liquid which boils at 33° C. 
It fumes in air and burns with a green flame. It is decomposed by 
cold water with the formation of silicoformic anhydride, H2Si 2 3 . 
It unites directly with ammonia gas yielding a compound of variable 
composition. It is decomposed by chlorine. 

Similar bromo-compounds of composition SiBr 4 , Si 2 Br 6 and SiHBr3 
are known. Silicon tetraiodide, Silt, is formed by passing iodine 
vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. 
Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98) ; the iodo-compound con- 
denses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by 
shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury. It crystallizes in 
octahedra which melt at 120-5° C. and boil at 290° C. Its vapour 
burns with a red flame. It is decomposed by alcohol and also by 
ether when heated to 100° C: SiI 4 +2C 2 H 6 OH =Si0 2 +2C 2 H s I + 
2HI; SiI 4 -H(C 2 H 5 ) 2 0==Si(OC 2 Hp 4 -4-4C 2 H 6 I. The hexaiodide, Si 2 I 6 , 
is obtained by heating the tetraiodide with finely divided silver to 
300° C. It crystallizes in hexagonal prisms which exhibit double 
refraction. It is soluble in carbon bisulphide, and is decomposed by 
water and also by heat, in the latter case yielding the tetraiodide and 
the di-iodide, S12I4, an orange-coloured solid which is not soluble in 
carbon bisulphide. Silicon iodoform, SiHI 3 , is formed by the action 
of hydriodic acid on silicon, the product, which contains silicon 
tetraiodide, being separated by fractionation. It is also obtained by 
the action of hydriodic acid on silicon nitrogen hydride suspended 
in carbon bisulphide, or by the action of a benzene solution of hydri- 
odic acid on trianilino-silicon hydride (O. Ruff, Ber., 1907, 41, p. 
3738). It is a colourless, strongly refracting liquid, which boils at 
about 220° C, slight decomposition setting in above 150° C. Water 
decomposes it with production of leucone. Numerous chloro-iodides 
and bromoiodides of silicon have been described. 

Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with 
silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought 
into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. 
Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH(NHC6H 6 ) 3 , is obtained by the action of 
aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform. It crystallizes 
in needles which decompose at 114° C. Silicon amide, Si(NH 2 )4, is 
obtained as a white amorphous unstable solid by the action of dry 
ammonia on silicon chloride at -50° C. (E. Vigouroux and C. Hugot, 
Comptes rendus, 1903, 136, p. 1670). It is readily decomposed by 
water: Si(NH 2 ) 4 +2H 2 = 4NH 3 +Si0 2 . Above o° C. it decom- 
poses thus: Si(NH 2 )4 = 2_HN 3 +Si(NH) 2 . 

Silicon sulphide, SiS 2 , is formed by the direct union of silicon with 
sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized 
silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); 
or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture 
of silica and carbon. It crystallizes in needles which rapidly de- 
compose when exposed to moist air. By heating crystallized silicon 
with boron in the electric furnace H. Moissan and A. Stock (Comptes 
rendus, 1900, 131, p. 139) obtained two borides, SiB 3 and SiB 6 . 
They are both very stable crystalline solids. The former is com- 
pletely decomposed when fused with caustic potash and the latter 
by a prolonged boiling with nitric acid. For silicon carbide see 
carborundum. Numerous methods have been given for the prepara- 
tion of magnesium silicide, Mg 2 Si, in a more or less pure state, but the 
pure substance appears to have been obtained by P. Lebeau (Comptes 
rendus, 1908, 146, p. 282) in the following manner. Alloys of 
magnesium and silicon are prepared by heating fragments of mag- 
nesium with magnesium filings and potassium silico-fluoride. From 
the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is 
removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue con- 
sisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left. 



It decomposes water at ordinary temperature with evolution of 
hydrogen but without production of silicon hydride, whilst cold 
hydrochloric acid attacks it vigorously with evolution of hydrogen 
and spontaneously inflammable silicon hydride. 

Organic Derivatives of Silicon. 

The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding 
carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not 
capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the 
same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain ' 
of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl 
compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, 
the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl 
compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids. SiCU-H 
2Zn(C 2 H 6 ) 2 = 2ZnCl 2 +Si(C 2 H6)4- This method has been modified by 
F. S. Kipping (Jour. Chem. Soc, 1901, 79, p. 449) and F. Taurke 
(Ber., 1905, 38, p. 1663) by condensing silicon halides with alkyl 
chlorides in the presence of sodium: SiCl4+4R-Cl-|-8Na = 
SiR4+8NaCl;SiHCl 3 +3R-Cl+6Na=SiHR 3 +6NaCl;whilstKipping 
(Proc. Chem. Soc, 1904, 20, p. 15) has used silicon halides with the 
Grignard reagent :C 2 H 6 MgBr(+SiCl4)->C 2 H 6 SiCl 3 (-|-MgBrPh)-> 
Ph-C 2 HrSiCi 2 (+MgBrC 3 H 7 )->Ph-C 2 H 5 -C ii H 7 -SiCl. 

Silicon Telramelhyl, Si(CH 3 ) 4 (tetramethyl silicane), and silicon 
tetraethyl, Si(C 2 H 6 ) 4 , are both liquids. The latter reacts with 
chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C 2 H5) 3 -C 2 H 4 Cl, which 
condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon 
nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) 
may be obtained by hydrolysis. Triethyl silicol, (C 2 H6)sSi-OH, is a 
true alcohol, obtained by condensing zinc ethyl with silicic ester, the 
resulting substance of composition, (C 2 H 6 ) 3 -SiOC 2 H5, with. acetyl 
chloride yielding a chloro-compound (C 2 H5) 3 SiCl, which with aqueous 
ammonia yields the alcohol. Silicon tetraphenyl, Si(C 6 H 5 ) 4 , a solid 
melting at 231° C, is obtained by the action of chlorobenzene on 
silicon tetrachloride in the presence of sodium. Silico-oxalic acid, 
(SiO-OH) 2 , obtained by decomposing silicon hexachloride with ice- 
cold water, is an unstable solid which is readily decomposed by the 
inorganic bases, with evolution of hydrogen and production of a 
silicate. Silicomesoxalic acid, HO-OSiSi(OH)2-SiO-OH, formed by 
the action of moist air on silicon octochloride at 0° C, is very unstable, 
and hot water decomposes it with evolution of hydrogen and forma- 
tion of silicic acid (L. Gattermann, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 1 1 14). Silica* 
benzoic acid, CsHs-SiO-OH, results from the action of dilute aqueous 
ammonia on phenyl silicon chloride (obtained from mercury diphenyl 
and silicon tetrachloride). It is a colourless solid which melts at 
92° C. For silicon derivatives of the amines see Michaelis, Ber., 
1896, 29, p. 710; on asymmetric silicon and the resolution of 
cK-benzyl-ethyl-propyl-silicol see F. S. Kipping, Jour. Chem. Soc, 
1907, 91, pp. 209 et seq. 

The atomic weight of silicon has been determined usually by 
analysis of the halide compounds or by conversion of the halides 
into silica. The determination of W. Becker and G. Meyer (Zeit. 
anorg. Chem., 1905, 43, p. 251) gives the value 28-21, and the Inter- 
national Commission in 1910 has adopted the value 28-3. 

SILISTRIA (Bulgarian Silistra), the chief town of a department 
in Bulgaria and the see of an archbishop, situated on a low-lying 
peninsula projecting into the Danube, 81 m. below Rustchuk 
and close to the frontier of the Rumanian Dobrudja. Pop. (1892) 
11,718; (1900) 12,133; (1908) 12,055, of whom 6142 were 
Bulgarians and 4126 Turks. The town was formerly a fortress 
of great strength, occupying the N.E. corner of the famous 
quadrilateral (Rustchuk, Silistra, Shumla, Varna), but its 
fortifications were demolished in accordance with the Berlin 
Treaty (1878). In the town is a large subterranean cavern, the 
Houmbata, which served as a refuge for its inhabitants during 
frequent bombardments. The principal trade is in cereals; 
wine and wood are also exported. The town is surrounded by 
fine vineyards, some 30 kinds of grapes being cultivated, and 
tobacco is grown. Sericulture, formerly a flourishing industry, 
has declined owing to a disease of the silk-worms, but efforts 
have been made to revive it. Apiculture is extensively practised 
and there are large market-gardens in the neighbourhood, 
The soil of the department is fertile, but lacking in water; the 
inhabitants have excavated large receptacles in which rain-water 
is stored. A considerable area is still covered with forest, to 
which the region owes its name of Deli Orman (" the wild wood") ; 
there are extensive tracts of pasturage, but cattle-rearing declined 
in 1 880-1910. A large cattle-fair, lasting three days, is held in' 
May. The town possessed in 1910 one steam flour-mill and some 
cloth factories and tanneries. 

Silistria was the Durostorum of the Romans (Bulgarian 
Drstr) ; the ancient name remains in the title of the archbishop, 
who is styled metropolitan of Dorostol, and whose diocese is now 



SILIUS ITALICUS 



95 



united with that of Tcherven (Rustchuk). It was one of the most 
important towns of Moesia Inferior and was successively the 
headquarters of the legio I. (Italica) and the legio XI. (Claudia). 
It was defended by the Bulgarian tsar Simeon against the 
Magyars and Greeks in 893. In 967 it was captured by the 
Russian prince Sviatoslav, whom the Byzantine emperor 
Nicephorus Phocas had summoned to his assistance. In 971 
Sviatoslav, after a three months' heroic defence, surrendered the 
town to the Byzantines, who had meanwhile become his enemies. 
In 1388 it was captured by the Turks under Ali Pasha, the grand 
vizier of the sultan Murad. A few years later it seems to have 
been in the possession of the Walachian prince Mircea, but 
after his defeat by Mahommed I. in 1416 it passed finally into 
the hands of the Turks. Silistria flourished under Ottoman rule; 
Hajji Khalifa describes it as the most important of all the Danu- 
bian towns; a Greek metropolitan was installed here with five 
bishops under his control and a settlement of Ragusan merchants 
kept alive its commercial interests. In 1810 the town was 
surrendered to the Russians under Kamenskiy, who destroyed its 
fortifications before they withdrew, but they were rebuilt by 
foreign engineers, and in 1828-1829 were strong enough to offer 
a serious resistance to the Russians under Diebich, who captured 
the town with the loss of 3000 men. At that date the population 
including the garrison was 24,000, but in 1837 it was only about 
4000. The town was held in pledge by the Russians for the pay- 
ment of a war indemnity (1829-1836). During the campaign 
of 1854 it was successfully defended by General Krach against 
the Russians under Paskievich; the circuit of its defences had 
been strengthened before this time by the outlying fortresses 
Medjid-tabia (built by English engineers) and Arab-tabia. It 
was again invested by the Russians in 1877, and on the con- 
clusion of peace was evacuated by the Turks. (J. D. B.) 

SILIUS ITALICUS, in full Titus Catius Silius Italicus 
(a.d. 25 or 26-101), Latin epic poet. His birthplace is unknown. 
From his cognomen Italicus the conclusion has been drawn 
that he came from the town of Italica in Spain; but Latin 
usage would in that case have demanded the form Italicensis, 
and it is highly improbable that Martial would have failed to 
name him among the literary celebrities of Spain in the latter 
half of the 1st century. The conjecture that Silius derived 
from Italica, the capital of the Italian confederation during the 
Social War, is open to still stronger objection. Most likely 
some ancestor of the poet acquired the title " Italicus " from 
having been a member of one of the corporations of "Italici" 
who are often mentioned in inscriptions from Sicily and else- 
where. In early life Silius was a renowned forensic orator, 
later a safe and cautious politician, without ability or ambition 
enough to be legitimately obnoxious to the cruel rulers under 
whom he lived. But mediocrity was hardly an efficient protec- 
tion against the murderous whims of Nero, and Silius was 
generally believed to have secured at once his own safety and 
his promotion to the consulship by prostituting his oratorical 
powers in the judicial farces which often ushered in the doom 
of the emperor's victims. He was consul in the year of Nero's 
death (68), and is mentioned by Tacitus as having been one of 
two witnesses who were present at the conferences between 
Vitellius and Flavius Sabinus, the elder brother of Vespasian, 
when the legions from the East were marching rapidly on the 
capital. The life of Silius after his consulship is well depicted 
by the younger Pliny: — " He conducted himself wisely and 
courteously as the friend of the luxurious and cruel Vitellius; 
he won repute by his proconsulship of Asia, and obliterated 
by the praiseworthy use he made of his leisure the stain he had 
incurred through his active exertions in former days. In dignity 
and contentment, avoiding power and therefore hostility, he 
outlived the Flavian dynasty, keeping to a private station after 
his governorship of Asia. " His poem contains only two passages 
relating to the Flavians; in both Domitian is eulogized as a 
warrior; in one he figures as a singer whose lyre is sweeter 
than that of Orpheus himself. Silius was a great student and 
patron of literature and art, and a passionate collector. Two 
great Romans of the past, Cicero and Virgil, were by him idealized 



and veritably worshipped; and he was the happy possessor 
of their estates at Tusculum and Naples. The later life of Silius 
was passed on the Campanian shore, hard by the tomb of Virgil, 
at which he offered the homage of a devotee. He closely emu- 
lated the lives of his two great heroes: the one he followed in 
composing epic verse, the other in debating philosophic questions 
with his friends of like tastes. Among these was Epictetus, who 
judged him to be the most philosophic spirit among the Romans 
of his time, and Cornutus, the Stoic, rhetorician and grammarian, 
who appropriately dedicated to Silius a commentary upon 
Virgil. Though the verse of Silius is not wrapped in Stoic gloom 
like that of Lucan, yet Stoicism lends in many places a not 
ungraceful gravity to his poem. Silius was one of the numerous 
Romans of the early empire who had the courage of their opinions, 
and carried into perfect practice the theory of suicide adopted 
by their school. Stricken by an incurable tumour, he starved 
himself to death, keeping a cheerful countenance to the end. 

Whether Silius committed to writing his philosophic dialogues 
or not, we cannot say. Chance has preserved to us his epic 
poem entitled Punica, in seventeen books, and comprising 
some fourteen thousand lines. In choosing the Second Punic 
War for his subject, Silius had, we know, many predecessors, 
as he doubtless had many followers. From the time of Naevius 
onwards every great military struggle in which the Romans 
had been engaged had found its poet over and over again. In 
justice to Silius and Lucan, it should be observed that the 
mythologic poet had a far easier task than the historic. In a 
well-known passage Petronius pointedly describes the difficulties 
of the historic theme. A poet, he said, who should take upon 
him the vast subject of the civil wars would break down beneath 
the burden unless he were " full of learning," since he would 
have not merely to record facts, which the historians did much 
better, but must possess an unshackled genius, to which full 
course must be given by the use of digressions, by bringing 
divine beings on to the stage, and by giving generally a mytho- 
logic tinge to the subject. The Latin laws of the historic epic 
were fixed by Ennius, and were still binding when Claudian 
wrote. They were never seriously infringed, except by Lucan, 
who substituted for the dei ex machina of his predecessors the 
vast, dim and imposing Stoic conception of destiny. By pro- 
tracted application, and being " full of learning," Silius had 
acquired excellent recipes for every ingredient that went to the 
making of the conventional historic epic. Though he is not 
named by Quintilian, he is probably hinted at in the mention of a 
class of poets who, as the writer says, " write to show their 
learning." To seize the moments in the history, however un- 
important, which were capable of picturesque treatment; to 
pass over all events, however important, which could not readily 
be rendered into heroics; to stuff out the somewhat modern 
heroes to something like Homeric proportions; to subject all 
their movements to the passions and caprices of the Olympians; 
to ransack the poetry of the past for incidents and similes 
on which a slightly new face might be put; to foist in by well- 
worn artifices episodes, however strange to the subject, taken 
from the mythologic or historic glories of Rome and Greece, — 
all this Silius knew how to do. He did it all with the languid 
grace of the inveterate connoisseur, and with a simplicity foreign 
to his time, which sprang in part from cultivated taste and 
horror of the venturesome word, and in part from the subdued 
tone of a life which had come unscathed through the reigns of 
Caligula, Nero and Domitian. The more threadbare the theme, 
and the more worn the machinery, the greater the need of 
genius. Two of the most rigid requirements of the ancient epic 
were abundant similes and abundant single combats. But all 
the obvious resemblances between the actions of heroic man and 
external nature had long been worked out, while for the renova- 
tion of the single combat little could be done till the hero of the 
Homeric type was replaced by the medieval knight. Silius, 
however, had perfect poetic appreciation, with scarce a trace 
of poetic creativeness. No writer has ever been more correctly 
and more uniformly judged by contemporaries and by posterity 
alike. Only the shameless flatterer, Martial, ventured to call 



9 6 



SILK 



his friend a poet as great as Virgil. But the younger Pliny 
gently says that he wrote poems with greater diligence than 
talent, and that, when, according to the fashion of the time, 
he recited them to his friends, " he sometimes found out what 
men really thought of them. " It is indeed strange that the 
poem lived on. Silius is never mentioned by ancient writers 
after Pliny except Sidonius, who, under different conditions 
and at a much lower level, was such another as he. Since the 
discovery of Silius by Poggio, no modern enthusiast has arisen to 
sing his praises. His poem has been rarely edited since the 18th 
century. Yet, by the purity of his taste and his Latin in an 
age when taste was fast becoming vicious and Latin corrupt, 
by his presentation to us of a type of a thousand vanished Latin 
epics, and by the historic aspects of his subject, Silius merits 
better treatment from scholars than he has received. The 
general reader he can hardly interest again. He is indeed of 
imitation all compact, and usually dilutes what he borrows; 
he may add a new beauty, but new strength he never gives. 
Hardly a dozen lines anywhere are without an echo of Virgil, 
and there are frequent admixtures of Lucretius, Horace, Ovid, 
Lucan, Homer, Hesiod and many other poets still extant. 
If we could reconstitute the library of Silius we should probably 
find that scarcely an idea or a phrase in his entire work was 
wholly his own. 

The raw material of the Punica was supplied in the main by 
the third decade of Livy, though Silius may have consulted other 
historians of the Hannibalic war. Such facts as are used are 
generally presented with their actual circumstances unchanged, 
and in their historic sequence. The spirit of the Punic times is 
but rarely misconceived — as when to secret voting is attributed 
the election of men like Flaminius and Varro, and distinguished 
Romans are depicted as contending in a gladiatorial exhibition. 
Silius clearly intended the poem to consist of twenty-four books, 
like -the Iliad and the Odyssey, but after the twelfth he hurries in 
visible weariness to the end, and concludes with seventeen. The 
general plan of the epic follows that of the Iliad and the Aeneid. 
Its theme is conceived as a duel between two mighty nations, 
with parallel dissensions among the gods. Scipio and Hannibal 
are the two great heroes who take the place of Achilles and 
Hector on the one hand and of Aeneas and Turnus on the other, 
while the minor figures are all painted with Virgilian or Homeric 
pigments. In the delineation of character our poet is neither 
very powerful nor very consistent. His imagination was too 
weak to realize the actors with distinctness and individuality. 
His Hannibal is evidently at the outset meant for an incarnation 
of cruelty and treachery, the embodiment of all that the vulgar 
Roman attached to the name " Punic. " But in the course of 
the poem the greatness of Hannibal is borne in upon the poet, 
and his feeling of it betrays itself in many touches. Thus he 
names Scipio "the great Hannibal of Ausonia"; he makes 
Juno assure the Carthaginian leader that if fortune had only 
permitted him to be born a Roman he would have been admitted 
to a place among the gods; and, when the ungenerous monster 
of the first book accords in the fifteenth a splendid burial to 
Marcellus, the poet cries, " You would fancy it was a Sidonian 
chief who had fallen. " Silius deserves little pity for the failure 
of his attempt to make Scipio an equipoise to Hannibal and the 
counterpart in personal prowess and prestige of Achilles. He 
becomes in the process almost as mythical a figure as the medieval 
Alexander. The best drawn of the minor characters are Fabius 
Cunctator, an evident copy of Lucan's Cato, and Paullus, the 
consul killed at Cannae, who fights, hates and dies like a genuine 
man. 

Clearly it was a matter of religion with Silius to repeat and 
adapt all the striking episodes of Homer and Virgil. Hannibal 
must have a shield of marvellous workmanship like Achilles and 
Aeneas; because Aeneas descended into Hades and had a vision 
of the future history of Rome, so must Scipio have his revelation 
from heaven; Trebia, choked with bodies, must rise in ire like 
Xanthus, and be put to flight by Vulcan; for Virgil's Camilla 
there must be an Asbyte, heroine of Saguntum; the beautiful 
speech of Euryalus when Nisus seeks to leave him is too good to 



be thrown away — furbished up a little, it will serve as a parting 
address from Imilce to her husband Hannibal. The descriptions 
of the numerous battles are made up in the main, according to 
epic rule, of single combats — wearisome sometimes in Homer, 
wearisome oftener in Virgil, painfully wearisome in Silius. The 
different component parts of the poem are on the whole fairly 
well knit together, and the transitions are not often needlessly 
abrupt; yet occasionally incidents and episodes are introduced 
with all the irrelevancy of the modern novel. The interposition 
of the gods is, however, usually managed with dignity and 
appropriateness. 

As to diction and detail, we miss, in general, power rather 
than taste. The metre runs on with correct smooth monotony, 
with something always of the Virgilian sweetness, though 
attenuated, but nothing of the Virgilian variety and strength. 
The dead level of literary execution is seldom broken by a rise 
into the region of genuine pathos and beauty, or by a descent 
into the ludicrous or the repellent. There are few absurdities, 
but the restraining force is trained perception and not a native 
sense of humour, which, ever present in Homer, not entirely 
absent in Virgil, and sometimes finding grim expression in Lucan, 
fails Silius entirely. The address of Anna, Dido's sister, to Juno 
compels a smile. Though deified on her sister's death, and for 
a good many centuries already an inhabitant of heaven, Anna 
meets Juno for the first time on the outbreak of the Second 
Punic War, and deprecates the anger of the queen of heaven for 
having deserted the Carthaginians and attached herself to the 
Roman cause. Hannibal's parting address to his child is also 
comical: he recognizes in the " heavy wailing " of the year-old 
babe " the seeds of rages like his own." But Silius might have 
been forgiven for a thousand more weaknesses than he has if 
in but a few things he had shown strength. The grandest scenes 
in the history before him fail to lift him up; his treatment, 
for example, of Hannibal's Alpine passage falls immensely below 
Lucan's vigorous delineation of Cato's far less stirring march 
across the African deserts. 

But in the very weaknesses of Silius we may discern merit. 
He at least does not try to conceal defects of substance by 
contorted rhetorical conceits and feebly forcible exaggerations. 
In his ideal of what Latin expression should be he comes near 
to his contemporary Quintilian, and resolutely holds aloof from 
the tenor of his age. Perhaps his want of success with the men 
of his time was not wholly due to his faults. His self-control 
rarely fails him; it stands the test of the horrors of war, and of 
Venus working her will on Hannibal at Capua. Only a few 
passages here and there betray the true silver Latin extravagance. 
In the avoidance of rhetorical artifice and epigrammatic antithesis 
Silius stands in marked contrast to Lucan, yet at times he can 
write with point. Regarded merely as a poet he may not deserve 
high praise; but, as he is a unique specimen and probably the 
best of a once numerous class, the preservation of his poem among 
the remains of Latin Literature is a fortunate accident. 

The poem was discovered in a MS., possibly at Constance, by 
Poggio, in 1416 or 1417; from this now lost MS. all existing MSS., 
which belong entirely to the 15th century, are derived. A valuable 
MS. of the 8th or 9th century, found at Cologne by L. Carrion in the 
latter part of the 16th century, disappeared soon after its discovery. 
Two editiones principes appeared at Rome in 1471; the principal 
editions since have been those of Heinsius (1600), Drakenborch 
(1717), Ernesti (Leipzig, 1791) and L. Bauer (1890). The Punica 
is included in the second edition of the Corpus poetarum Latinorum. 
A useful variorum edition is that of Lemaire (Paris, 1823). Recent 
writing on Silius is generally in the form of separate articles or small 
pamphlets; but see H. E. Butler, Post- Augustan Poetry (1909), 
chap. x. (J, S. R.) 

SILK, a fibrous substance produced by many insects, princi- 
pally in the form of a cocoon or covering within which the 
creatures are enclosed and protected during the period of their 
principal transformations. The webs and nests, &c, formed 
by spiders are also of silk. But the fibres used for manufacturing 
purposes are exclusively produced by the mulberry silk-moth 
of China, Bombyx mori, and a few other moths closely allied to 
that insect. Among the Chinese the name of the silkworm is 
" si, " Korean " soi "; to the ancient Greeks it became known 



SILK 



97 



as (Trip, the nation whence it came was to them S^pes, and the 
fibre itself ai\piKov, whence the Latin sericum, the French sole, 
the German Seide and the English silk. 

History. — The silk industry originated in China; and according 
to native records it has existed there from a very remote period. 
The empress, known as the lady of Si-ling, wife of a famous 
emperor, Huang-ti (2640 B.C.), encouraged the cultivationof 
the mulberry tree, the rearing of the worms and the reeling 
of silk. This empress is said to have devoted herself personally 
to the care of silkworms, and she is by the Chinese credited with 
the invention of the loom. A voluminous ancient literature 
testifies not only to the antiquity but also to the importance of 
Chinese sericulture, and to the care and attention bestowed 
on it by royal and noble families. The Chinese guarded the 
secrets of their valuable art with vigilant jealousy; and there 
is no doubt that many centuries passed before the culture spread 
beyond the country of its origin. Through Korea a knowledge 
of the silkworm and its produce reached Japan, but not before 
the early part of the 3rd century. One of the most ancient 
books of Japanese history, the Nihongi, states that towards 
a.d. 300 some Koreans were sent from Japan to China to engage 
competent people to teach the arts of weaving and preparing 
silk goods. They brought with them four Chinese girls, who 
instructed the court and the people in the art of plain and 
figured weaving; and to the honour of these pioneer silk weavers 
a temple was erected in the province of Settsu. Great efforts 
were made to encourage the industry, which from that period 
grew into one of national importance. At a period probably 
little later a knowledge of the working of silk travelled westward, 
and the cultivation of the silkworm was established in India. 
According to a tradition the eggs of the insect and the seed 
of the mulberry tree were carried to India by a Chinese princess 
concealed in the lining of her head dress. The fact that seri- 
culture was in India first estalished in the valley of the Brahma- 
putra and in the tract lying between that river and the Ganges 
renders it probable that it was introduced overland from the 
Chinese empire. From the Ganges valley the silkworm was 
slowly carried westward and spread in Khotan, Persia and the 
states of Central Asia. 

Most critics recognize in the obscure word d'meseq or d'mesheq, 
Amos iii. 12, a name of silk corresponding to the Arabic dimaks, 
late Greek jxtra^a , English damask, and also follow the ancients in 
understanding meshi, Ezek. xvi. 10, 13, of " silken gauze." But 
the first notice of the silkworm in Western literature occurs in 
Aristotle, Hist. anim. v. 19 (17), n (6), where he speaks of " a 
great worm which has horns and so differs from others. At its 
first metamorphosis it produces a caterpillar, then a bombylius 
and lastly a chrysalis — all these changes taking place within six 
months. From this animal women separate and reel off the 
cocoons and afterwards spin them. It is said that this was first 
spun in the island of Cos by Pamphile, daughter of Plates." 
Aristotle's vague knowledge of the worm may have been derived 
from information acquired by the Greeks with Alexander the 
Great; but long before this time raw silk must have begun to 
be imported at Cos, where it was woven into a gauzy tissue, the 
famous Coa veslis, which revealed rather than clothed the form. 

Towards the beginning of the Christian era raw silk began to 
form an important and costly item among the prized products 
of the East which came to Rome. Allusions to silk and its source 
became common in classical literature; but, although these 
references show familiarity with the material, they are singularly 
vague and inaccurate as to its source; even Pliny knew nothing 
more about the silkworm than could be learned from Aristotle's 
description. The silken textures which at first found their way 
to Rome were necessarily of enormous cost, and their use by men 
was deemed a piece of effeminate luxury. From an anecdote of 
Aurelian, who neither used silk himself nor would allow his wife 
to possess a single silken garment, we learn that silk was worth 
its weight in gold. 

Notwithstanding its price and the restraints otherwise put on 
the use of silk the trade grew. Under Justinian a monopoly of 
the trade and manufacture was reserved to the emperor, and 

XXV. 4 



looms, worked by women, were set up within the imperial palace 
at Constantinople. Justinian also endeavoured, through the 
Christian prince of Abyssinia, to divert the trade from the 
Persian route along which silk was then brought into the east of 
Europe. In this he failed, but two Persian monks who had long 
resided in China, and there learned the whole art and mystery 
of silkworm rearing, arrived at Constantinople and imparted 
their knowledge to the emperor. By him they were induced to 
return to China and attempt to bring to Europe the material 
necessary for the cultivation of silk, which they effected by 
concealing the eggs of the silkworm in a hollow cane. From the 
precious contents of that bamboo tube, brought to Constantinople 
about the year 550, were produced all the races and varieties 
of silkworm which stocked and supplied the Western world for 
more than twelve hundred years. 

Under the care of the Greeks the silkworm took kindly to its 
Western home and flourished, and the silken textures of Byzan- 
tium became famous. At a later period the conquering Saracens 
obtained a mastery over the trade, and by them it was spread 
both east and west — the textures becoming meantime impressed 
with the patterns and colours peculiar to that people. They 
established the trade in the thriving towns of Asia Minor, and 
they planted it as far west as Sicily, as Sicilian silks of the 12 th 
century with Saracenic patterns still testify. Ordericus Vitalis, 
who died in the first half of the 12th century, mentions that the 
bishop of St Evroul, in Normandy, brought with him from Apulia 
in southern Italy several large pieces of silk, out of the finest of 
which four copes were made for his cathedral chanters. The 
cultivation and manufacture spread northwards to Florence, 
Milan, Genoa and Venice — all towns which became famous for 
silken textures in medieval times. In 1480 silk weaving was 
begun under Louis XL at Tours, and in 1520 Francis I. brought 
from Milan silkworm eggs, which were reared in the Rhone 
valley. About the beginning of the 17 th century Olivier de 
Serres and Laffemas, somewhat against the will of Sully, obtained 
royal edicts favouring the growth of mulberry plantations and 
the cultivation of silk; but it cannot be said that these industries 
were firmly established till Colbert encouraged the planting of 
the mulberry by premiums, and otherwise stimulated local 
efforts. 

Into England silk manufacture was introduced during the 
reign of Henry VI. ; but the first serious impulse to manufactures 
of that class was due to the immigration in 1585 of a large body 
of skilled Flemish weavers who fled from the Low Countries in 
consequence of the struggle with Spain then devastating their 
land. Precisely one hundred years later religious troubles gave 
the most effective impetus to the silk-trade of England, when 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes sent simultaneously to 
Switzerland, Germany and England a vast body of the most 
skilled artisans of France, who planted in these countries silk- 
weaving colonies which are to this day the principal rivals of the 
French manufacturers. The bulk of the French Protestant 
weavers settled at Spitalfields, London — an incorporation of 
silk workers having been there formed in 1629. James I. used 
many efforts to encourage the planting of the mulberry and the 
rearing of silkworms both at home and in the colonies. Up to 
the year 1718 England depended on the thrown silks of Europe 
for manufacturing purposes. But in that year Lombe of Derby, 
disguised as a common workman, and obtaining entrance as such 
into one of the Italian throwing mills, made drawings of the 
machinery used for this process. On his return, subsidized by 
the government, he built and worked, on the banks of the 
Derwent, the first English throwing mill. In 1825 a public 
company was formed and incorporated under the name of the 
British, Irish and Colonial Silk Company, with a capital of 
£1,000,000, principally with the view of introducing sericulture 
into Ireland, but it was a complete failure, and the rearing of the 
silkworm cannot be said ever to have become a branch of British 
industry. 

In 1522 Cortes appointed officials to introduce sericulture into 
New Spain (Mexico), and mulberry trees were then planted and 
eggs were brought from Spain. The Mexican adventure is 



98 



SILK 



mentioned by Acosta, but all trace of the culture had 
died out before the end of the century. In 1609 James I. 
attempted to reinstate the silkworm on the American continent, 
but his first effort failed through shipwreck. An effort made in 
1619 obtained greater success, and, the materials being present, 
the Virginian settlers were strongly urged to devote attention 
to the profitable industry of silk cultivation. Sericulture was 
enjoined under penalties by statute; it was encouraged by 
bounties and rewards; and its prosecution was stimulated by 
learned essays and rhapsodical rhymes, of which this is a 
sample: — 

" Where Wormes and Food doe naturally abound 
A gallant Silken Trade must there be found. 
Virginia excels the World in both — 
Envie nor malice can gaine say this troth!" 

In the prospectus of Law's great Compagnie des Indes Occidenlales 
the cultivation of silk occupies a place among the glowing attrac- 
tions which allured so many to disaster. Onward till the period 
of the War of Independence bounties and other rewards for the 
rearing of worms and silk filature continued to be offered; and 
just when the war broke out Benjamin Franklin and others were 
engaged in nursing a filature into healthy life at Philadelphia. 
With the resumption of peaceful enterprise, the stimulus of 
bounties was again applied — first by Connecticut in 1783; and 
such efforts have been continued sporadically down almost to the 
present day. Bounties were last offered by the state of California 
in 1865-1866, but the state law was soon repealed, and an attempt 
to obtain state encouragement again in 1872 was defeated. 
About 1838 a speculative mania for the cultivation of silk 
developed itself with remarkable severity in the United States. 
It was caused principally through the representations of Samuel 
Whitmarsh as to the capabilities of the South Sea Islands 
mulberry (Morus multicaulis) for feeding silkworms; and so 
intense was the excitement that plants and crops of all kinds 
were displaced to make room for plantations of M . multicaulis. 
In Pennsylvania as much as $300,000 changed hands for plants in 
one week, and frequently the young trees were sold two and 
three times over within a few days at ever-advancing prices. 
Plants of a single year's growth reached the ridiculous price of $1 
each at the height of the fever, which, however, did not last long, 
for in 1839 the speculation collapsed; the famous M. multicaulis 
was found to be no golden tree, and the costly plantations were 
uprooted. 

The most singular feature in connexion with the history of 
silk is the persistent efforts which have been made by monarchs 
and other potentates to stimulate sericulture within their 
dominions, efforts which continue to this day in British colonies, 
India and America. These endeavours to stimulate by artificial 
means have in scarcely any instance resulted in permanent 
success. In truth, raw silk can only be profitably brought to the 
market where there is abundant and very cheap labour — the 
fact that China, Japan, Bengal, Piedmont and the Levant are 
the principal producing localities making that plain. 

The Silkworm. 

The mulberry-feeding moth, Bombyx mori, which is the 
principal source of silk, belongs to the Bombycidae, a family of 

Lepidoplera in which are em- 
braced some of the largest and 
most handsome moths. B.mori 
is itself an inconspicuous moth 
(figs. 1 and 2), of an ashy 
white colour, with a body in 
the case of the male not | in. 
in length, the female being a 
little longer and stouter. Its 
wings are short and weak; the 
fore pair are falcate, and the 
hind pair do not reach to the end of the body. The larva 
(fig- 3) is hairless, of an ashy grey or cream colour, attains to a 
length of from 3 to 3^ in., and is slender in comparison with many 
of its allies. The second thoracic ring is humped, and there 




Fig. 1. — Bombyx mori (male). 




Fig. 2. — Bombyx mori (female). 



is a spine-like horn or protuberance at the tail. The common 
silkworm produces as a rule only one generation during the year; 
but there are races in cultivation which are bivoltine, or two- 
generationed, and some 
are multivoltine. Its 
natural food is the leaves 
of mulberry trees. The silk 
glands or vessels consist of 
two long thick-walled sacs 
running along the sides of 
the body, which open by a 
common orifice — the spin- 
neret or seripositor — on 
the under lip of the larva. 
Fig. 4 represents the head 
(a) and feet (&, b) of 
the common silkworm, while c is a diagrammatic view ol 
the silk glands. As the larva approaches maturity these 
vessels become gorged with a clear viscous fluid, which, upon 
being exposed to the air immediately hardens to a solid mass. 
Advantage is taken of this peculiarity to prepare from fully 
developed larvae silkworm gut used for casting lines in rod- 
fishing, and for numerous other purposes where 
lightness, tenacity, flexibility and strength are 
essential. The larvae are killed and hardened 
by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; 
the silk glands are then separated from the 
bodies, and the vis- 
cous fluid drawn out 
to the condition of a 
fine uniform line, which 
is stretched between 

pins at the extremity ^ T e „ 

of a board. The board FlG " 3--Larva of Bombyx mart. 

is then exposed to the sunlight till the lines dry and harden into 
the condition of gut. The preparation of gut is, however, 
merely an unimportant collateral manufacture. When the larva 
is fully mature, and ready to change into the pupa condition, it 
proceeds to spin its cocoon, in which operation it ejects from both 
glands simultaneously a continuous and reelable thread of 800 
I 





Fig. 4. 

to 1200 yds. in length, moving its head round in regular order 
continuously for three days or thereabouts. The thread so 
ejected forms the silk of commerce, which as wound in the cocoon 
consists of filaments seriposited from two separate glands 
(discovered by an Italian naturalist named Filippi) containing 
a glutinous or resinous secretion which serves a double purpose, 
viz. that of helping the thin viscous threads through their final 
outlets, and the adhesion of the two filaments when brought into 
contact with the atmosphere. 

Under the microscope cocoon silk presents the appearance (fig. 5) 
of a somewhat flattened combination of two filaments placed side 
by side, being on an average -j-jVo P art °f an i nc h ' n thickness (see 
also Fibres, Plate I.). The cocoons are white or yellow in colour, 
oviform in shape, with often a constriction in the middle (fig. 6). 
According to race, &c, they vary considerably in size and weight, 
but on an average they measure from an inch to an inch and a half 
in length, and from half an inch to an inch in diameter. They form 



SILK 



99 



hard, firm and compact shells with some straggling flossy filaments 
on the exterior, and the interior layers are so closely and densely 
agglutinated as to constitute a parchment-like mass which resists all 
attempts at unwinding. The whole cocoon with its enclosed pupa 
weighs from 15 grains for the smaller races to about 50 grains for 





Fig. 5. — Microscopic appearance 
of Silk of Bombyx mori. 



Fig. 6. — Cocoon 
of Bombyx mori. 



the breeds which spin large cocoons. From two to three weeks after 
the completion of the cocoon the enclosed insect is ready to escape ; 
it moistens one end of its self-made prison, thereby enabling itself 
to push aside the fibres and make an opening by which the perfect 
moth comes forth. The sexes almost immediately couple; the 
female in from four to six days lays her eggs, numbering 500 and 
upwards; and, with that the life cycle of the moth being complete, 
both sexes soon die. 

Sericulture. 

The art of sericulture concerns itself with the rearing of silk- 
worms under artificial or domesticated conditions, their feeding, 
the formation of cocoons, the securing of these before they are 
injured and pierced by the moths, and the maturing of a sufficient 
number of moths to supply eggs for the cultivation of the follow- 
ing year. The first essential is a stock of mulberry trees adequate 
to feed the worms in their larval stage. The leaves preferred 
in Europe are those of the white-fruited mulberry, Morus alba, 
but there are numerous other species which appear to be equally 
suitable. The soil in which the mulberry grows, and the age 
and condition of the trees, are important factors in the success 
of silkworm cultivation; and it has been too often proved that 
the mulberry will grow in situations where, from the nature of the 
leaf the trees put forth and from other circumstances, silkworms 
cannot be profitably reared. An elevated position with dry, 
friable, well-drained soil produces the best quality of leaves. 
Throughout the East the species of mulberry cultivated are 
numerous, but, as these trees have been grown for special 
purposes at least for three thousand years, they show the com- 
plex variations peculiar to most cultivated plants. 

The eggs of the silkworm, called graine, are hatched out by 
artificial heat at the period when the mulberry leaves are ready 
for the feeding of the larvae. These eggs are very minute — 
about one hundred weighing a grain; and a vast number of 
hatched worms may at first be kept in a small space; but the 
rapid growth and voracious appetite of the caterpillars demand 
quickly increasing and ample space. Pieces of paper punctured 
with small holes are placed over the trays in which the hatching 
goes on; and the worms, immediately they burst their shell, 
creep through these openings to the light, and thereby scrape off 
any fragments of shell which, adhering to the skin, would kill 
them by constriction. The rearing-house in which the worms are 
fed (Fr. magnanerie) must be a spacious, well-lighted and well- 
ventilated apartment, in which scrupulous cleanliness and 
sweetness of air are essential, and in which the temperature may 
to a certain extent be under control. The worms are more hafdy 
than is commonly supposed, and endure variations of temperature 
from 62° to 78 F. without any injury; but higher temperature 
is very detrimental. The lower the temperature at which the 
worms are maintained the slower is their growth and develop- 
ment; but their health and vigour are increased, and the cocoon 
they spin is proportionately bigger. The worms increase in size 
with astonishing rapidity, and no less remarkable is their growing 



voracity. Certain races moult or cast their skin three times during 
their larval existence, but for the most part the silkworm moults 
four times — about the sixth, tenth, fifteenth and twenty-third 
days after hatching. As these moulting periods approach, the 
worms lose their appetite and cease eating, and at each period of 
change they are left undisturbed and free from noise. 

Laurent de l'Arbousset showed in 1905 that 1 oz. cf seed of 30 
grammes producing 30,000 to 35,000 silkworms (30,000 may be 
depended upon to reach the cocoon stage) will give a harvest of 
130 to 140 lb fresh cocoons and an ultimate yield of about 12 lb 
raw silk properly reeled. The amount of nourishment required 
for this rearing is as follows: — hatching to first moult, about 
9 lb of leaves of tender growth, equal to 40 to 45 lb ripe leaves; 
first to second moult, 24 lb, representing 100 lb ripe leaves; 
second to third moult, 80 lb, representing 240 lb ripe leaves; 
third to fourth moult, 236 lb, representing 472 lb ripe leaves; 
fourth moult to mounting, 1430 ft, representing 1 540 lb ripe leaves, 
totalling to about one ton of ripe leaves for a complete rearing. 
The growth of the worms during their larval stage is thus stated 
by Count Dandolo: — 





Weight per 100. 


Size in Lines. 


Worms newly hatched 
After 1st moult . . 

,, 2nd ,, .... 

„ 3rd „ .... 

,, 4th ,, . . . . 
Greatest weight and size 


1 gr. 

15 .. 

94 .. 

400 ,, 

1628 „ 

9500 „ 


1 

4 

6 

12 

20 

40 



When the caterpillars are mature and ready to undergo their 
transformation into the pupa condition, they cease eating for 
some time and then begin to ascend the brushwood branches or 
echelletes provided for them, in which they set about the spinning 
of their cocoons. Crowding of positions must now be guarded 
against, to prevent the spinning of double cocoons (doupions) 
by two worms spinning together and so interlacing their threads 
that they can only be reeled for a coarser and inferior thread. 
The insects complete their cocoons m. from three to four days, 
and in two or three days thereafter the cocoons are collected, and 
the pupa killed to prevent its further progress and the bursting 
of the shell by the fully developed moth. Such cocoons as are 
selected for the production of graine, on the other hand, are 
collected, freed from the external floss, and preserved at a 
temperature of from 66° to 72 F., and after a lapse of from eleven 
to fifteen days the moths begin to make their appearance. The 
coupling which immediately takes place demands careful atten- 
tion; the males are afterwards thrown away, and the impreg- 
nated females placed in a darkened apartment till they deposit 
their eggs. 

Diseases. — That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases 
is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years 
has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these 
most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the 
healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made 
to yield, was the object of the cultivator. Among the most fatal 
and disastrous of these diseases with which the cultivator had long 
to grapple was " muscardine," a malady due to the development of 
a fungus, Botrytis bassiana, in the body of the caterpillar. The 
disease is peculiarly contagious and infectious, owing to the develop- 
ment of the fungus through the skin, whence spores are freed, 
which, coming in contact with healthy caterpillars, fasten on them 
and germinate inwards, giving off corpuscles within the body of the 
insect. Muscardine, however, has not been epidemic for many 
years. But about the year 1853 anxious attention began to be 
given in France to the ravages of a disease among silkworms, which 
from its alarming progress threatened to issue in national disaster. 
This disease, which at a later period became known as " pebrine " 
— a name given to it by de Quatrefages, one of its many investi- 
gators — had first been noticed in France at Cavaillon in the valley 
of the Durance near Avignon. Pebrine manifests itself by dark 
spots in the skin of the larvae; the eggs do not hatch out, or hatch 
imperfectly; the worms are weak, stunted and unequal in growth, 
languid in movement, fastidious in feeding; many perish before 
coming to maturity; if they spin a cocoon it is soft and loose, and 
moths when developed are feeble and inactive. When sufficient 
vitality remains to produce a second generation it shows in increased 
intensity the feebleness of the preceding. The disease is thus 
hereditary, but in addition it is virulently infectious and contagious. 



IOO 



SILK 



From 1850 onwards French cultivators were compelled, in order to 
keep up their silk supply, to import graine from uninfected districts. 
The area of infection increased rapidly, and with that the demand 
for healthy graine correspondingly expanded, while the supply had 
to be drawn from increasingly remote and contracted regions. Partly 
supported by imported eggs, the production of silk in France was 
maintained, and in 1853 reached its maximum of 26,000,000 kilos of 
cocoons, valued at 117,000,000 francs. From that period, notwith- 
standing the importation at great cost of foreign graine, reaching in 
some years to 60,000 kilos, the production of silk fell off with startling 
rapidity: in 1856 it was not more than 7,500,000 kilos of cocoons; 
in 1861 and 1862 it fell as low as 5,800,000 kilos; and in 1865 it 
touched its lowest weight of about 4,000,000 kilos. In 1867 de 
Quatrefages estimated the loss suffered by France in the 13 years 
following 1853, from decreased production of silk and price paid to 
foreign cultivators for graine, to be not less than one milliard of 
francs. In the case of Italy, where the disease showed itself later 
but even more disastrously, affecting a much more extended industry, 
the loss in 10 years de Quatrefages stated at two milliards. A loss 
of £120,000,000 sterling within 13 years, falling on a limited area, 
and on one class within these two countries, constituted indeed a 
calamity on a national scale, calling for national effort to contend 
with its devastating action. The malady, moreover, spread east- 
ward with alarming rapidity, and, although it was found to be less 
disastrous and fatal in Oriental countries than in Europe, the 
sources of healthy graine became fewer and fewer, till only Japan 
was left as an uninfected source of European graine supply. 

A scourge which so seriously menaced the very existence of the 
silkworm in the world necessarily attracted a great amount of 
attention. So early as 1849 Guerin Meneville observed in the blood 
of diseased silkworms certain vibratory corpuscles, but neither did 
he nor the Italian Filippi, who studied them later, connect them 
distinctly with the disease. The corpuscles were first accurately 
described by Cornalia, whence they are spoken of as the corpuscles 
of Cornalia. The French Academy charged de Quatrefages, Decaisne 
and Peligot with the study of the disease, and they issued two 
elaborate reports — Htudes sur les maladies actuettes des vers a sole 
(1859) and Nouvelles Recherches sur les maladies actuelles des vers & 
soie (i860) ; but the suggestions they were able to offer had not the 
effect of stopping the march of the disease. In 1865 Pasteur under- 
took a Government commission for the investigation of the malady. 
Attention had been previously directed to the corpuscles of Cornalia, 
and k had been found, not only that they occurred in the blood, but 
that they gorged the whole tissues of the insect, and their presence 
in the eggs themselves could be microscopically demonstrated. 
Pasteur established (1) that the corpuscles are the special character- 
istic of the disease, and that these invariably manifest themselves, 
if not in earlier stages, then in the mature moths; (2) that the cor- 
puscles are parasites, and not only the sign but the cause of the 
disease; and (3) that the disease manifests itself by heredity, by 
contagion with diseased worms, and by the eating of leaves on which 
corpuscles are spread. In this connexion he established the very 
important practical conclusion that worms which contract the disease 
during their own life-cycle retain sufficient vitality to feed, develop 
and spin their cocoon, although the next generation is invariably 
infected and shows the disease in its most virulent and fatal form. 
But this fact enabled the cultivator to know with assurance whether 
the worms on which he bestowed his labour would yield him a harvest 
of silk. He had only to examine the bodies of the moths yielding his 
graine : if they were free from disease then a crop was sure ; if they 
were infected the education would assuredly fail. Pasteur brought 
out the fact that the malady had existed from remote periods and 
in many unsuspected localities. He found corpuscles in Japanese 
cocoons and in many specimens which had been preserved for 
lengthened periods in public collections. Thus he came to the con- 
clusion that the malady had been inherent^ in many successive 
generations of the silkworm, and that the epidemic condition was 
only an exaggeration of a normal state brought about by the method 
of cultivation and production of graine pursued. The cure proposed 
by Pasteur was simply to take care that the stock whence graine was 
obtained should be healthy, and the offspring would then be healthy 
also. Small educations reared apart from the ordinary magnanerie, 
for the production of graine alone, were recommended. At intervals of 
five days after spinning their cocoons specimens were to be opened and 
the chrysalides examined microscopically for corpuscles. Should none 
have appeared till towards the period of transformation and escape of 
the moths, the eggs subsequently hatched out might be depended on 
to yield a fair crop of silk; should the moths prove perfectly free 
from corpuscles after depositing their eggs the next generation would 
certainly live well through the larval stage. For special treatment 
towards the regeneration of an infected race, the most robust worms 
were to be selected , and the moths issuing from the cocoons were to be 
coupled in numbered cells, where the female was to be confined till 
she deposited her eggs. The bodies of both male and female were to 
be examined for corpuscles, and the eggs of those found absolutely 
free from taint were preserved for similar " cellular " treatment in 
the following year. By this laborious and painstaking method it 
has been found possible to re-establish a healthy stock of valuable 
races from previously highly-infected breeds. The rearing of worms 
in small educations under special supervision has been found to be 



a most effective means of combating pebrine. In the same way the 
rearing of worms for graine in the open air, and under as far as 
possible natural conditions, has proved equally valuable towards 
the development of a hardy, vigorous and untainted stock. The 
open-air education was originally proposed by Chavannes of Laus- 
anne, and largely carried out in the canton of Vaud by Roland, who 
reared his worms on mulberry trees enclosed within " manchons " 
or cages of wire gauze and canvas. The insects appeared quickly to 
revert to natural conditions ; the moths brought out in open air were 
strongly marked, lively and active, and eggs left on the trees stood 
the severity of the winter well, and hatched out successfully in the 
following season. Roland's experience demonstrated that not cold 
but heat is the agent which saps the constitution of the silkworm and 
makes it a ready prey to disease. 

Grasserie is another form of disease incidental to the silkworm. 
It often appears before or alter the first moult, but it is only after the 
fourth that it appears in a more developed form. The worm attacked 
presents the following symptoms: the skin is distended as if swollen, 
is rather thin and shiny, and the body of the worm seems to have 
increased, that is, it suffers from fatness, or is engraisse, hence its 
name. The disease is characterized by the decomposition of the 
blood ; in fact it is really a form of dropsy. The blood loses its 
transparency and becomes milky, its volume increases so that the 
skin cannot hold it, and it escapes through the pores. This disease 
is more accidental than contagious and rarely takes very dangerous 
proportions. If the attack comes on a short time before maturity, 
the worms are able to spin a cocoon of a feeble character, but worms 
with this disease never change into chrysalides, but always die in the 
cocoon before transformation can take place. The causes which 
produce it are not well known, but it is generally attributable to 
currents of cold and damp air, to the use of wet leaves in feeding, 
and to sudden changes of temperature. 

Another cause of serious loss to the rearers is occasioned by 
Flacherie, a disease well known from the earliest times. Pasteur 
showed that the origin of the disease proceeded from microscopic 
organisms called ferments and vitrios. One has only to ferment a 
certain quantity of mulberry leaves, chop them up and squeeze 
them, and so obtain a liquid, to find in it millions of ferments and 
vitrios. It invariably happens during the most active period of 
feeding, three or four days after the fourth moult up to the rising, 
and generally appears after a meal of coarse leaves, obtained from 
mulberries pruned the same year and growing in damp soil. Flacherie 
is an intestinal disease of the cholera species and therefore contagious. 
The definite course is not occasioned so much from the ferments 
which exist in the leaves themselves, but from an arrest of the 
digestive process which allows the rapid multiplication of the former 
in the intestines. Good ventilation is indispensable to allow the 
worm to give out by transpiration the great quantity of water that 
it absorbs with the leaf. If this exhalation is stopped or lessened the 
digestion in its turn is also stopped, the leaf remains longer than 
usual in the intestines, the microbes multiply, invading the whole- 
body, and this brings about the sudden death which surprises the 
rearers. The true remedies consist in the avoidance of the fermenta- 
tion of the leaves by careless gathering, transport or packing, in 
proper hygienic care in ventilation and in maintaining a proper 
degree of dryness in the atmosphere in rainy weather, and in the usa 
of quicklime placed in different parts of the nursery to facilitate the 
transpiration of the silk-worms. 

Wild Silks. — The ravages of pebrine and other diseases had 
the effect of attracting prominent attention to the numerous othei 
insects, allies of the mulberry silkworm, which spin serviceable 
cocoons. It had 
been previously 
pointed out by 
Captain Hutton, 
who devoted 
great attention 
to the silk ques- 
tion as it affects 
the East Indies, 
that at least six 
species of Bombyx, differing from 
B. mori, but also mulberry-feed- 
ing, are more or less domesticated 
in India. These include B. textor, 
the boropooloo of Bengal, a large 
species having one generation Fig. 7. — Chinese Tussur Moth , 
yearly and producing a soft flossy Antheraea pernyi (male).- 
cocoon; the Chinese monthly 

worm, B. sinensis, having several generations, aid making 
a small cocoon; and the Madrasi worm of Bengal (B. croesi), 
the Dassee or Desi worm of Bengal (B. fortunatus) and B. 
arracanensis, the Burmese worm — all of which yield several 




SILK 



generations in the year and form reelable cocoons. Besides 
these there are many other mulberry-feeding Bombycidae in 
the East, principally belonging to the genera Theophila 
and Ocinara, the cocoons of which have not attracted cul- 
tivators. The moths yielding wild silks which have obtained 
most attention belong to the extensive and handsome 

family Saturnidae. The 
most important of the 
species at the present time 
is the Chinese tussur or 
tasar worm, Antheraea 
pcrnyi (figs. 7, 8), an oak- 
feeding species, native of 
Mongolia, from which is 
derived the greater part of 
the so-called tussur silk 
nowimportedintoEurope. 
Closely allied to this is 
the Indian tussur moth 
(fig._ 9) Antheraea mylitla, found througliout the whole of 
India feeding on the bher tree, Zizyphus jujuba, and on many 
other plants. It yields a large compact cocoon (fig. 10) of a 
silvery grey colour, 
which Sir Thomas 
Wardle ol Leek, who 
devoted a great 
amount of attention 
to the wild-silk 




Fig. 8. — Cocoon of Antheraea pernyi 




Fig. 9. — Antheraea mylitla (female). 



question, succeeded 
in reeling. Next in 
promising qualities 
the muga or 
moonga worm of 
Assam, Antheraea 
assama, a species to 
some extent domes- 
ticated in its native 
country. The 
yama-mai worm of 
Japan, Antheraea 
{Samia) yama-mai, an oak-feeder, is a race of considerable 
importance in Japan, where it was said to be jealously guarded 
against foreigners. Its eggs were first sent to Europe by 
Duchene du Bellecourt, French consul- 
general in Japan in 1861; but early in 
March following they hatched out, when 
no leaves, on which the larvae would feed 
were to be found. In April a single worm 
got oak-buds, on which it throve, and 
ultimately spun a cocoon whence a female 
moth issued, from which Guerin Meneville 
named and described the species. A further 
supply of eggs was secretly obtained by a 
Dutch physician Pompe van Meedervoort 
in 1863, and, as it was now known that the 
worm was an oak-feeder, and would thrive 
on the leaves of European oaks, great 
results were anticipated from the cultiva- 
tion of the yama-mai. These expectations, 
however, for various reasons, have been 
disappointed. The moths hatch out at a 

Fl „ G ',, I0 '~ Coc ?° n of period when oak leaves are not ready 
Antheraea myhtta. for ^ feedJng) and the ^ . g ^ 

no means of a quality to compare with that of the common 
mulberry worm. The mezankoorie moth of the Assamese, 
Antheraea mezankooria, yields a valuable cocoon, as does also 




IOI 

the Atlas moth, Attacus atlas, which has an omnivorous larva 
found throughout India, Ceylon, Burmah, China and Java. 
The Cynthia moth, Attacus cynthia, is domesticated as a source 
of silk in certain provinces of China, where it feeds on the Ailan- 
thus glandulosa. The eria or arrindi moth of Bengal and Assam, 
Attacus ricini, which feeds on the castor-oil plant, yields seven 
generations yearly, forming loose flossy orange-red and some- 
times white cocoons. The ailanthus silkworm of Europe is a 
hybrid between A. cynthia and A. ricini, first obtained by 
Guerin Meneville, and now spread through many silk-growing 
regions. These are only a few of the moths from which silks of 
various usefulness can be produced; but none of these presents 
qualities, saving perhaps cheapness alone, which can put them in 
competition with common silk. 

Physical and Chemical Relations of Silk. 
Common cocoons enclosing chrysalides weigh each from 16 
to 50 grains, or say from 300 to 600 of small breeds and from 
270 to 300 of large breeds to the lb. About one-sixth of this 
weight is pure cocoon, and of that one-half is obtainable as reeled 
silk, the remainder consisting of surface floss or blaze and of 
hard gummy husk. As the outer flossy threads and the inner 
vests are not reelable, it is difficult to estimate the total length 
of thread produced by the silkworm, but the portion reeled 
varies in length and thickness, 
according to the condition 
and robustness of the cocoon, 
in some breeds giving a result 
as low as 500 metres, and in 
others 900 to 1200 metres. 
Under favourable conditions 
it is estimated that n kilo- 
grammes of fresh cocoons give 
1 kilogramme of raw silk for 
commerce, and about the 
same quantity "' for waste 
spinning purposes. Sir 
Thomas Wardle of Leek, in 
his handbook on silk published Fig. ii. — Microscopic appearance 
in 1887, showed by a series of Silk of chinese Tussur. 

of measurements that the diameter of a single cocoon thread 
or bave varied from xrVirth to -frVtrth part of an inch in 
diameter in the various species of Bombycides, whilst those of the 
Saturnides or wild species varied from ^-^th to t ^ th part of 
an inch. As this estimation presents some difficulties and diver- 
gences, the size of the thread is generally defined commercially 
by deniers or decigrammes, those of the Anthereas (wild 
silks) being said to range from 5 to 8 deniers or decigrammes, 
results confirmed by actual experience with the reeled thread. 
The silk of the various species of Antheraea and Attacus is also 
thicker and stronger at the centre of the reeled portion than 
towards its extremities; but the diameter is much greater 
than that of common silk, and the filaments under the microscope 
(fig. n) present the appearance of flat bands, the exudation 
from the two spinnerets being joined at their flat edges. On 
this account the fibres of tussur or tussore silk tend to split up 
into fine fibrillae under the various preparatory processes in 
manufacturing, and its riband structure is the cause of the glassy 
lustre peculiar to the woven and finished fibres. 

Silk fibre (see Fibres) consists essentially of a centre or core of 
fibroin, with a covering of sericin or silk albumen, and a little waxy 
and colouring matter. Fibroin, which is analogous to horn, hair 
and like dermal products, constitutes about 75 to 82 % of the entire 
mass, and has a composition represented by the formula Cut^NsOe. 
It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk — a brilliant soft 
white body with a pearly lustre — insoluble in water, alcohol and 
ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, 
mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of 
oxide of copper. Sericin, which constitutes the gummy covering 
(Fr. gres) of the fibre, is a gelatinous body which dissolves readily in 
warm soapy solutions, and in hot water, in which on cooling it forms 
a jelly with even as little as 1 % of the substance. It is precipitated 
from hot solutions by alcohol, falling as a white powder. Its formula 
is CisHzsNsOs. According to P. Bolley, the glands of the silkworm 
contain semi-liquid fibroin alone, and it is on exposure to the air that 




IG2 



SILK 



the surface is acted on by oxygen, transforming the external pellicle 
into the more soluble form of sericin. Silk is highly hygroscopic. 
If desiccated at 250 ° F. it will be found to lose from 10 to 15 % of 
moisture according to the condition of the silk. It is a most perfect 
non-conductor of electricity, and in its dry state the fibres frequently 
get so electrically excited as to seriously interfere with their working, 
so that it becomes necessary to moisten them with glycerin or soapy 
solutions. Silk is readily distinguished from wool and other animal 
fibres by the action of an alkaline solution of oxide of lead, which 
darkens wool, &c, owing to the sulphur they contain, but does not 
affect silk, which is free from that body. Again, silk dissolves freely 
in common nitric acid, which is not the case with wool. From 
vegetable fibres silk is readily distinguished by the bright yellow 
colour it takes from a solution of picric acid, which does not adhere to 
vegetable substances. The rod-like appearance of silk and its absence 
of markings under the microscope are also easily recognizable features 
of the fibre. 

Silk Manufacture. 
Here we must distinguish between the reeled silk and the spun 
or waste silk manufactures. The former embraces a range of 
operations peculiar to silk, dealing as they do with continuous 
fibres of great length, whereas in the spun silk industry the raw 
materials are treated by methods analogous to those followed 
in the treatment of other fibres (see Weaving). It is only floss, 
injured and unreelable cocoons, the husks of reeled cocoons, 
and other waste from reeling, with certain wild silks, which are 
treated by the spun silk process, and the silk thereby produced 
loses much of the beauty, strength and brilliance which are 
characteristic of the manufactures from reeled silk. 

Filature or Reeling. — When the cocoons have been gathered the 
chrysalides they contain are killed either by dry heat or by exposure 
to steam. All cocoons stained by the premature death of the 
chrysalides (chiques), pierced cocoons, and any from other causes 
rendered unreelable, are put aside for the spun-silk manufacture. 
Then the uninjured cocoons are by themselves sorted into classes 
hiving similar shades of colour, size and quality of fibre. This 
assortment is of great consequence for the success of the reeling 
operations, as uniformity of quality and evenness and regularity of 
fibre are the most valuable features in raw silk. The object of 
reeling is to bring together the filaments {have) from two or more 
(generally four or five, but sometimes up to twenty) cocoons, and 
to form them into one continuous, uniform, and regular strand, 
which constitutes the " raw silk " of commerce. To do this, the 
natural gum of the cocoons which holds the filaments together must 
be softened, the ends of the filaments of the required number of 
cocoona must be caught, and means must be taken to unwind and 
lay these filaments together, so as to form a single uniform rounded 
strand of raw silk. As the reeling proceeds the reeler has to give 
the most careful attention to the thickness of the strand being pro- 
duced, and to introduce new cocoons in place of any from which the 
reelable silk has become exhausted. In this way a continuous uniform 
fibre or strand of raw silk of indefinite length is produced. The 
apparatus used for these purposes in some localities is of a very 
primitive kind, and the reeling being uneven and lumpy the silk is 
of inferior quality and low value. With comparatively simple 
appliances, on the other hand, a skilled reeler, with trained eye and 
delicate touch, can produce raw silk of remarkably smooth and even 
quality. According to the method commonly adopted in North 
Italy and France the cocoons are for a few minutes immersed in 
water a little under the boiling point, to which a small quantity of 
alkali has been added. A girl with a small hand brush of twigs 
keeps stirring them in the water till the silk softens, and the outer 
loose fibres (floss) get entangled with the twigs and come off till the 
end of the main filament (maitre brin) is found. These ends being 
secured, the cocoons are transferred to a basin or tray containing 
water heated to from 140 to 150 F., in which they float while the 
silk is being reeled off. If the water is too cold the gum does not 
soften enough and the cocoons rise out of the basin in reeling; if 
it is too hot the cocoons collapse and fall to the bottom. The ends 
of the requisite number of filaments being brought together, they are 
passed through an eyelet or guide, and similarly another equal set 
are passed through a corresponding guide. The two sets of filaments 
are then crossed or twisted around each other several turns as if to 
make one thread, after which they are separated and passed through 
separate guides to the reel round which they are separately wound. 
When a large number of cocoons are to be combined into one strand 
they may be reeled from the tray in four sets, which are first crossed 
in pairs, then combined into two, and those two then crossed and 
afterwards combined into a single strand. The object of crossing 
{croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments 
of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is 
gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated 
into a compact single fibre of raw silk. In the most approved 
modern filatures there is a separate cocoon boiler (cuiseuse), an 
oblong tank containing water boiled by steam heat. In these the 
cocoons are immersed in rectangular perforated boxes for about 



three minutes, when they are transferred to the beating machine 
(batteuse), an earthenware trough having a perforated false bottom 
through which steam keeps the water at a temperature of from 
140 to 160°. In this water the cocoons are kept stirring by small 
brushes rotated by mechanical means, and as the silk softens the 
brushes gradually rise out of the water, bringing entangled with 
them the loose floss, and thereby revealing the main filament of 
each cocoon. The cocoons are next, in sufficient number, transferred 
to the reeler's tray (bacinella), where the water is heated to about 
140 to 150°. From the tray the filaments are carried through a 
series of porcelain and glass eyelets, so arranged that the strand 
returns on itself, two portions of the same strand being crossed or 
intertwisted for rounding and consolidation, instead of the croissage 
of two separate strands as in the old method. The reel to which 
the raw silk is led consists of a light six-armed frame, enclosed 
within a wooden casing having a glass frame in front, the enclosure 
being heated with steam-pipes. To keep the strands from directly 
overlaying each other and so adhering, the last guide through which 
the silk passes has a reciprocating motion whereby the fibre is 
distributed within certain limits over the reel. Fig. 12 presents a 
sectional view of a reeling apparatus as used in Italy, and shows the 
passage of the thread from the basin to the reel, the threads being 
twisted around by the tavelette to give roundness to the thread, 
but though the principle remains much the same, great improvements 
have been made on this model. 

Throwing. — Raw silk, being still too fine and delicate for ordinary 
use, next undergoes a series of operations called throwing, the 
object of which is to twist and double it into more substantial yarn. 
The first operation of the silk throwster is winding. He receives the 
raw silk in hanks as it is taken from the reel of the filature, and 
putting it on a light reel of a similar construction, called the swifts, 




Fig. 12. 

he winds it on bobbins with a rapid reciprocating motion, so as to 
lay the fibre in diagonal lines. These bobbins are then in general 
taken to the first spinning frame, and there the single strands receive 
their first twist, which rounds them, and prevents the compound 
fibre from splitting up and separating when, by the subsequent 
scouring operations, the gum is removed which presently binds them 
into one. Next follows the operation of cleaning, in which the silk 
is simply reeled from one bobbin to another, but on its way it passes 
through a slit which is sufficiently wide to pass the filament but stops 
the motion when a thick lump or nib is presented. In the doubling, 
which is the next process, two or more filaments are wound together 
side by side on the same reel, preparatory to their being twisted or 
thrown into one yarn. Bobbins to the number of strands which are 
to be twisted into one are mounted in a creel on the doubling frame, 
and the strands are passed over smooth rods of glass or metal through 
a reciprocating guide to the bobbin on which they are wound. Each 
separate strand passes through the eye of a faller, which, should the 
fibre break, falls down and instantly stops the machine, thus effectu- 
ally calling attention to the fact that a thread has failed. The 
spinning or throwing which follows is done on a frame with upright 
spindles and flyers, the yarn as it is twisted being drawn forward 
through guides and wound on revolving bobbins with a reciprocating 
motion. From these bobbins the silk is reeled into hanks of definite 
length for the market. Numerous attempts have been made to 
simplify the silk-throwing by combining two or more operations on 
one machine, but not as yet with much success. 

According to the qualities of raw silk used and the throwing 
operations undergone the principal classes of thrown silk are — (1) 
" singles," which consist of a single strand of twisted raw silk made 
up of the filaments of eight to ten cocoons; (2) tram or weft thread, 
consisting of two or three strands of raw silk not twisted before 
doubling and only lightly spun (this is soft, flossy and comparatively 



SILK 



103 



weak) ; (3) organzine, the thread used for warps, made from two and 
rarely three twisted strands spun in the direction contrary to that 
in which they are separately twisted. Silks for sewing and em- 
broidery belong to a different class from those intended for weaving, 
and thread-makers throw their raw silks in a manner peculiar to 
themselves. 

Numbering of Silk. — The metric system of weights and measures 
has been adopted so widely that it forms the most suitable basis for 
the titrage or counts of yarns. The permanent committee of the 
Paris International Congress of 1900, which was held for the purpose 
of unification of the numerotage of counts, unanimously decided — 
(a) With reference to cotton, silk and other textiles spun from fibres, 
that they should be based on a fixed weight and variable length, the 
unit being one metre to one gramme. Thus number 100 would be 
100 metres per gramme calculated on the single strand. (6) With 
reference to raw and thrown silk, in order to enable the count to 
show the degrees of variation incidental to this class of material, 
it was decided for a basis of a fixed length and variable count weight. 
The length of skein adopted was 450 metres and the unit of length 
the half decigramme. Thus the count of silk is expressed by the 
number of half decigrammes which the length of 450 metres weighs. 
This obtains whether in the single, double or more threads joined 
together in the doubling. 

This latter differs very little in actual practice from the previous 
method of determination by the number of deniers per 476 metres, 
the denier being calculated on the equivalent of 0-0531 gramme, the 
English equivalent showing 33J deniers per one dram avoirdupois. 

As the old systems of counts have some technical conveniences 
they will no doubt be retained for some time. In some districts, 
especially in Yorkshire, the count is based on the number of yards 
per ounce, and in others the older method of drams avoirdupois per 
1000 yard skein. The English cotton yarn and spun silk counts are 
reckoned upon the number of hanks of 840 yds. in lib of silk, cotton 
being reckoned upon the single thread and spun silk on the doubled 
or finished thread. Thus 2/40 8 cotton indicates single 40 s doubled 
to 20 hanks by 840 yds. to the lb., while 40/2 fold spun silk means a 
single 80 3 doubled to give 40 hanks of 840 yds. to the lb. All 
continental conditioning establishments now formulate their tests 
for counts on the agreement arrived at by the International Congress 
of 1900. 

Conditioning. — Silk in the raw and thrown state absorbs a large 
amount of moisture, and may contain a percentage of water without 
being manifestly damp. As it is largely sold by weight it becomes 
necessary to ascertain its condition in respect of absorbed water, and 
for that purpose official conditioning houses are established in all the 
considerable centres of silk trade. In these the silk is tested or con- 
ditioned, and a certificate of weight issued in accordance with the 
results. The silk is for four hours exposed to a dry heat of 230° F., 
and immediately thereafter weighed. To the weight 11 % is added 
as the normal proportion of water held by the fibre. 

Scouring. — Up to this point the silk fibre continues to be com- 
paratively lustreless, stiff and harsh, from the coating of albumin- 
ous matter (gum or gr'es) on its surface. As a preliminary to most 
subsequent processes the removal of the whole or some portion of 
this gum is necessary by boiling-off, scouring or decreusage. To 
boil off say 300 lb of thrown silk, about 60 lb of fine white soap is 
shred, and dissolved in about 200 gallons of pure water. This 
solution is maintained at a heat of 195 , and in it the hanks of raw 
silk are immersed, hung on a wooden rod, the hanks»being continually 
turned round so as to expose all portions equally to the solvent 
influence of the hot solution. After being dried, the hanks are packed 
in linen bags and boiled for three hours in a weaker soapy solution, 
then washed out in pure warm water and dried in a centrifugal hydro- 
extractor. According to the amount of gum to be boiled off the soap 
solutions are made strong or weak; but care has to be exercised not 
to overdo the scouring, whereby loss of strength, substance and 
lustre would result. For some, purposes — making of gauzes, crapes, 
flour-bolting cloth and for what is termed " souples " — the silk is 
not scoured, and for silks to be dyed certain dark colours half -scouring 
is practised. The perfect scouring of silks removes from 20 to 27 % 
of their weight, according to the character of the silk and the amount 
of soap or oil used in the working. Scouring renders all common silks, 
whether white or yellow in the raw, a brilliant pearly white, with a 
delicate soft flossy texture, from the fact that the fibres which were 
agglutinated in reeling, being now degummed, are separated from 
each other and show their individual tenuity in the yarn. Silks to 
be finished white are at this point bleached by exposure in a closed 
chamber to the fumes of sulphurous acid, and at the close of the pro- 
cess the hanks are washed in pure cold water to remove all traces of 
the acid. 

Silk Weighting. — Into the dyeing of silk it is not here necessary 
to enter, except in so far as concerns a nefarious practice, carried 
on in dye-houses, which has exercised a most detrimental influence 
on the silk trade. Silk, we have seen, loses about one-fourth of its 
weight in scouring. To obviate that loss it has long been the practice 
to dye some dark silks " in the gum," the dye combining in these 
cases with the gum or gelatinous coating, and such silks are known 
as " souples." Both in the gum and in the boiled-off state silk has 
the peculiar property of imbibing certain metallic salts largely and 
combining very firmly with them, the fibre remaining to external 



appearance undiminished in strength and lustre, but much added to 
in size and weight. Silk in the gum, it is found, absorbs these sails 
more freely than boiled-off; so to use it for weighting there are these 
great inducements — a saving of the costly and tedious boiling-off, 
a saving of the 25 % weight which would have disappeared in boiling 
and a surface on which much greater sophistication can be practised 
than on scoured silk. In dyeing a silk black a certain amount of 
weight must be added; and the common practice in former times 
was to make up on the silk what was lost in the scouring. Up to 
1857 the utmost the dyer could add was " Weight for weight," but an 
accidental discovery that year put dyers into the way of using tin 
salts in weighting with the result that they were enabled to add 40 oz. 
to scoured silk, 120 oz. to souples and as much as 150 oz. to spun silks. 
This excessive adulteration quickly worked its own cure by a de- 
creased consumption, and th£ weighting in practice in 1910 is con- 
fined to moderate and safer limits. The use of tin salts, especially 
stannic chloride, SnCU, enables dyers to weight all colours the same 
as black. In his " Report on English Silk Industry " to the Royal 
Commission on Technical Instruction (1885) Sir Thomas Wardle of 
Leek says: — 

" Colours and white of all possible shades can very easily be im- 
parted to this compound of silk and tin, and this method is becoming 
extensively used in Lyons. Thus weighting, which was until recently 
thought to apply only to black silks, and from which coloured silks 
were comparatively free, is now cheapening and deteriorating the 
latter in pretty much the same ratio as the former. Thus the proto- 
and per-salts of iron, as well as the proto- and per-salts of tin, in- 
cluding also a large variety of tannin, sumac, divi-divi, chestnut, 
valonia, the acacias {Areca Catechu and Acacia Catechu from India), 
from which are obtained cutch and gambier, &c, are no longer used 
solely as mordants or tinctorial matters, but mainly to serve the 
object of converting the silk into a greatly-expanded fibre, consisting 
of a conglomeration of more or less of these substances." 

Sugar also is employed to weight silk. On this adulterant Sir 
Thomas Wardle remarks : — 

" With a solution of sugar, silk can have its weight augmented 
from I oz. to 3 oz. per lb. I am not quite sure that this method of 
weighting was not first used by the throwsters, as sugar is known to 
have been used for adulterating and loading gum silk for a very long 
time, and then the idea was afterwards applied to silk after the 
dyeing operations. It is much resorted to for weighting coloured 
silks by dyers on the continent, and, though a very clumsy method, 
no substitute has been found so cheap and easy of application. 
Bichloride of tin, having chemical affinity for silk fibre, bids fair to 
extinguish the use of sugar, which, from its hygrometric qualities, 
has a tendency to ruin the silk to which it is applied, if great care be 
not taken to regulate the quantity. There is not the slightest use or 
excuse for the application of sugar, except to cheapen the silk by 
about 15 to 20%." 

Wild Silk Dyeing. — Among the disadvantages under which the 
silks of the wild moths long laboured one of the most serious was 
the natural colour of the silks, and the extreme difficulty with 
which they took on dyes, specially the light and brilliant colours. 
For success in coping with this difficulty, as well as in dealing with 
the whole question of the cultivation and employment of wild silks, 
the unwearying patience and great skill of Sir Thomas Wardle of 
Leek deserve special mention here. The natural colour of tussur silk 
is a greyish fawn, and that shade it was found impossible to discharge 
by any of the ordinary bleaching agents, so as to obtain a basis for 
light and delicate dyes. Moreover, the chemical character of the 
tussur silk differs from that of the mulberry silk, and the fibre has 
much less affinity for tinctorial substances, which it takes up un- 
evenly, requiring a large amount of dye-stuffs. After protracted 
experimenting Sir Thomas Wardle was able in 1873 to show a series 
of tussurs well dyed in all the darker shades of colour, but the lighter 
and bright blues, pinks, scarlets, &c, he could not produce. Subse- 
quently Tessie du Motay found that the fawn colour of natural tussur 
could be discharged by solution of permanganate of potash, but the 
oxidizing action was so rapid and violent that it destroyed the fibre 
itself. Gentler means of oxidation have since been found for bleach- 
ing tussur to a fairly pale ground. The silk of the eria or castor-oil 
worm {Attacus ricini) presents the same difficulties in dyeing as the 
common tussur. A portion of the eria cocoons are white, while the 
others are of a lively brown colour, and for the dyeing of light colours 
the latter require to undergo a bleaching process. The silk takes up 
colour with difficulty from a strong vat, and is consequently costly to 
dye. Moonga silk from ^4 ntheraea assama has generally a rather dark- 
brown colour, but that appears to be much influenced by the leaves 
on which the worm feeds, the cocoons obtained on the champaca 
tree (Michelia champaca) giving a fine white fibre much valued in 
Assam. The dark colours are very difficult to bleach, but the silk 
itself takes dye-colours much more freely and evenly than either 
tussur or eria silk. (F. W.*) 

Trade and Commerce. 
About the beginning of the 19th century the chief silk-produc- 
ing regions of the world were the Levant (including Broussa, 
Syria and Persia), India, Italy and France, the two first named 
sending the low-priced silk, the other two the fine qualities. 



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